A very high infection intensity of Schistosoma mansoni in a Ugandan Lake Victoria Fishing Community is required for association with highly prevalent organ related morbidity.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:In schistosomiasis control programmes using mass chemotherapy, epidemiological and morbidity aspects of the disease need to be studied so as to monitor the impact of treatment, and make recommendations accordingly. These aspects were examined in the community of Musoli village along Lake Victoria in Mayuge district, highly endemic for Schistosoma mansoni infection. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:A cross sectional descriptive study was undertaken in a randomly selected sample of 217 females and 229 males, with a mean age of 26 years (SD ± 16, range 7-76 years). The prevalence of S. mansoni was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.6-91.5). The geometric mean intensity (GMI) of S. mansoni was 236.2 (95% CI: 198.5-460.9) eggs per gram (epg) faeces. Males had significantly higher GMI (370.2 epg) than females (132.6 epg) and age was also significantly associated with intensity of infection. Levels of water contact activities significantly influenced intensity of infection and the highest intensity of infection was found among people involved in fishing. However, organomegaly was not significantly associated with S. mansoni except for very heavy infection (>2000 epg). Liver image patterns C and D indicative of fibrosis were found in only 2.2% and 0.2%, respectively. S. mansoni intensity of infection was associated with portal vein dilation and abnormal spleen length. Anaemia was observed in 36.4% of the participants but it was not associated with S. mansoni infection intensity. Considering growth in children as one of the morbidity indicators of schistosomiasis, intensity of S. mansoni was significantly associated with stunting. CONCLUSION:Although organ-related morbidity, with the exception of periportal fibrosis, and S. mansoni infections were highly prevalent, the two were only associated for individuals with very high infection intensities. These results contrast starkly with reports from Ugandan Lake Albert fishing communities in which periportal fibrosis is more prevalent.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Intestinal schistosomiasis, caused by digenetic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma, is the most prevalent water related disease that causes considerable morbidity and mortality. Although prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection has been reported for the present study area, earlier studies have not estimated intensity of infections in relation to periportal fibrosis, which would have been crucial for epidemiological and clinical evaluations. Hence, a community based cross sectional study was conducted from December 2011 to March 2012 to assess prevalence of infection and schistosomal periportal fibrosis in Waja-Timuga, northern Ethiopia. METHODS: In a cross sectional study involving 371 randomly selected individuals, fresh stool samples were collected and processed by the Kato-Katz method and examined microscopically. Ultrasonography was used to determine status of schistosomal periportal fibrosis and to detect hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly. Serum was collected for assay of hepatic activity. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA 11 statistical soft ware. P-value <0.05 was reported as statistically significant. RESULTS: The prevalence of S.mansoni infection was 73.9%, while the prevalence of schistosomal periportal fibrosis was 12.3% and mean intensity of infection was 234 eggs per gram of stool. Peak prevalence and intensity of S.mansoni infection was documented in the age range of 10-20 years. Among the study individuals, hepatomegaly was recorded in 3.7% and splenomegaly was recorded in 7.4% of the study individuals. Similarly, among the study individuals who had definite periportal fibrosis, 5.9% had elevated liver enzyme levels. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection and schistosomal periportal fibrosis observed in the study area calls for a periodic deworming program to reduce disease, morbidity and transmission. Preventive chemotherapy complemented with other control measures is highly required for sustainable control of schistosomiasis in the study area.
Project description:Diagnosis of liver involvement due to schistosomiasis in asymptomatic patients from endemic areas previously diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV) and periportal fibrosis is challenging. H-1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics strategy is a powerful tool for providing a profile of endogenous metabolites of low molecular weight in biofluids in a non-invasive way. The aim of this study was to diagnose periportal fibrosis due to schistosomiasis mansoni in patients with chronic HBV or HCV infection through NMR-based metabonomics models.The study included 40 patients divided into two groups: (i) 18 coinfected patients with schistosomiasis mansoni and HBV or HCV; and (ii) 22 HBV or HCV monoinfected patients. The serum samples were analyzed through H-1 NMR spectroscopy and the models were based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). Ultrasonography examination was used to ascertain the diagnosis of periportal fibrosis. Exploratory analysis showed a clear separation between coinfected and monoinfected samples. The supervised model built from PLS-DA showed accuracy, R2 and Q2 values equal to 100%, 98.1% and 97.5%, respectively. According to the variable importance in the projection plot, lactate serum levels were higher in the coinfected group, while the signals attributed to HDL serum cholesterol were more intense in the monoinfected group.The metabonomics models constructed in this study are promising as an alternative tool for diagnosis of periportal fibrosis by schistosomiasis in patients with chronic HBV or HCV infection from endemic areas for Schistosoma mansoni.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) has launched several large-scale trials to determine the best strategies for gaining and sustaining control of schistosomiasis and transitioning toward elimination. In Côte d'Ivoire, a 5-year cluster-randomized trial is being implemented in 75 schools to sustain the control of schistosomiasis mansoni. We report Schistosoma mansoni infection levels in children one year after the initial school-based treatment (SBT) with praziquantel and compare with baseline results to determine the effect of the intervention. METHODOLOGY:The baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted in late 2011/early 2012 and the first follow-up in May 2013. Three consecutive stool samples were collected from 9- to 12-year-old children in 75 schools at baseline and 50 schools at follow-up. Stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears. Directly observed treatment (DOT) coverage of the SBT was assessed and the prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection compared between baseline and follow-up. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:The S. mansoni prevalence in the 75 schools surveyed at baseline was 22.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 19.5-24.4%). The DOT coverage was 84.2%. In the 50 schools surveyed at baseline and one year after treatment, the overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection decreased significantly from 19.7% (95% CI: 18.5-20.8%) to 12.8% (95% CI: 11.9-13.8%), while the arithmetic mean S. mansoni eggs per gram of stool (EPG) among infected children slightly increased from 92.2 EPG (95% CI: 79.2-105.3 EPG) to 109.3 EPG (95% CI: 82.7-135.9 EPG). In two of the 50 schools, the prevalence increased significantly, despite a DOT coverage of >75%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:One year after the initial SBT, the S. mansoni prevalence had decreased. Despite this positive trend, an increase was observed in some schools. Moreover, the infection intensity among S. mansoni-infected children was slightly higher at the 1-year follow-up compared to the baseline situation. Our results emphasize the heterogeneity of transmission dynamics and provide a benchmark for the future yearly follow-up surveys of this multi-year SCORE intervention study.
Project description:Praziquantel treatment of schistosomiasis during pregnancy was only recommended in 2002; hence the effects of treatment during pregnancy are not fully known. We have therefore evaluated the effects on infection intensity and the immunological effects of praziquantel treatment against Schistosoma mansoni during pregnancy, compared with treatment after delivery.A nested cohort of 387 Schistosoma mansoni infected women was recruited within a larger trial of de-worming during pregnancy. Women were randomised to receive praziquantel or placebo during pregnancy. All women were treated after delivery. Infection intensity after treatment was assessed by a single Kato-Katz examination of stool samples with duplicate slides and categorised as undetected, light (1-99 eggs per gram (epg)), moderate (100-399 epg) or heavy (>or=400 epg). Antibodies against S. mansoni worm and egg antigens were measured by ELISA. Results were compared between women first treated during pregnancy and women first treated after delivery.At enrollment, 252 (65.1%) of the women had light infection (median (IQR) epg: 35 (11, 59)), 75 (19.3%) moderate (median (IQR) epg: 179(131, 227)) and 60 (15.5%) had heavy infection (median (IQR) epg: 749 (521, 1169)) with S. mansoni. At six weeks after praziquantel treatment during pregnancy S. mansoni infection was not detectable in 81.9% of the women and prevalence and intensity had decreased to 11.8% light, 4.7% moderate and 1.6% heavy a similar reduction when compared with those first treated after delivery (undetected (88.5%), light (10.6%), moderate (0.9%) and heavy (0%), p = 0.16). Parasite specific antibody levels were lower during pregnancy than after delivery. Praziquantel treatment during pregnancy boosted anti-worm IgG isotypes and to a lesser extent IgE, but these boosts were less pronounced than in women whose treatment was delayed until after delivery. Praziquantel had limited effects on antibodies against egg antigens.S mansoni antigen-specific antibody levels and praziquantel-induced boosts in antibody levels were broadly suppressed during pregnancy, but this was not associated with major reduction in the efficacy of praziquantel. Long-term implications of these findings in relation to resistance to re-infection remain to be explored.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Since 1984, WHO has endorsed drug treatment to reduce Schistosoma infection and its consequent morbidity. Cross-sectional studies suggest pre-treatment correlation between infection intensity and risk for Schistosoma-related pathology. However, evidence also suggests that post-treatment reduction in intensity may not reverse morbidity because some morbidities occur at all levels of infection, and some reflect permanent tissue damage. The aim of this project was to systematically review evidence on drug-based control of schistosomiasis and to develop a quantitative estimate of the impact of post-treatment reductions in infection intensity on prevalence of infection-associated morbidity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:This review was registered at inception with PROSPERO (CRD42015026080). Studies that evaluated morbidity before and after treatment were identified by online searches and searches of private archives. Post-treatment odds ratios or standardized mean differences were calculated for each outcome, and these were correlated to treatment-related egg count reduction ratios (ERRs) by meta-regression. A greater ERR correlated with greater reduction in odds of most morbidities. Random effects meta-analysis was used to derive summary estimates: after treatment of S. mansoni and S. japonicum, left-sided hepatomegaly was reduced by 54%, right-sided hepatomegaly by 47%, splenomegaly by 37%, periportal fibrosis by 52%, diarrhea by 53%, and blood in stools by 75%. For S. haematobium, hematuria was reduced by 92%, proteinuria by 90%, bladder lesions by 86%, and upper urinary tract lesions by 72%. There were no consistent changes in portal dilation or hemoglobin levels. In sub-group analysis, age, infection status, region, parasite species, and interval to follow-up were associated with meaningful differences in outcome. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE:While there are challenges to implementing therapy for schistosomiasis, and praziquantel therapy is not fully curative, reductions in egg output are significantly correlated with decreased morbidity and can be used to project diminution in disease burden when contemplating more aggressive strategies to minimize infection intensity.
Project description:Historic data and baseline surveys showed schistosomiasis as highly/moderately endemic in 7 of 14 districts in Sierra Leone, justifying annual/biennial mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel. MDA commenced in 2009 and reported treatment coverage had been above the World Health Organization recommended 75% of target population. Assessment in 2012 showed significant reduction in infection. In 2016, another national school-based survey was conducted to evaluate the progress. Two schools from each category (high, moderate or low) of endemic communities in each MDA district and five schools in non-MDA districts were selected. Fifty children (25 boys and 25 girls) aged 9-14 years were randomly selected per school. Parasitological examination of 1,980 stool and 1,382 urine samples were conducted. Overall Schistosoma mansoni prevalence in the seven MDA districts decreased to 20.4% (95% CI: 18.7-22.3%) in 2016 from 42.2% (95% CI: 39.8-44.5%) at baseline (p < 0.0001). Mean overall S. mansoni intensity of infection reduced to 52.8 epg (95% CI: 43.2-62.4 epg) in 2016 from 100.5 epg (95% CI: 88.7-112.3 epg) at baseline (p < 0.001). The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium in the five MDA districts that had baseline prevalence data decreased to 2.2% (95% CI: 1.5-3.1%) in 2016 from 18.3% (95% CI: 16.3-20.5%) at baseline (p < 0.0001). Mean overall intensity of infection increased to 1.12 e/10 ml (95% CI: 0.55-0.1.70 e/10 ml) in 2016 compared to 0.47 e/10 ml (95% CI: 0.16-0.78 e/10 ml) in 2012 (p < 0.05) (no baseline data). No district was highly endemic in 2016 compared to three at baseline and there was no significant difference in prevalence or intensity of infection by sex for both species. This survey illustrated the significant progress made in controlling schistosomiasis in Sierra Leone. The fact that prevalence and intensity of infection showed an increase from the 2010 level suggested a detrimental effect of missing MDA due to the Ebola toward schistosomiasis control. The national program needs to continue the treatment and adopt a comprehensive approach including water, hygiene, and sanitation measures to achieve control and elimination of schistosomiasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Schistosomiasis is one of the most neglected tropical parasitic disease which is common in Ethiopia. It is disease of rural areas for decades but now days there are reports of schistosomiasis from urban settings. Therefore, this study aimed to determine epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) infection and associated determinant factors among school children attending primary schools nearby rivers in Jimma town, an urban setting, southwest Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY:A cross sectional study was conducted among 328 school children aged between 7-17 years in selected primary schools nearby rivers in Jimma town from March to April 2017. For the diagnosis of S. mansoni, a single stool sample was obtained from each child and processed using double Kato Katz thick smear for quantification of S. mansoni ova examined using light microscope. A questionnaire was used to collect socio demographic data and associated determinant factors for S. mansoni infection. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Variables with P-value < 0.05 were significantly associated with S. mansoni infection. RESULTS:The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was found to be 28.7%. Majority of infection intensities were categorized as light with maximum egg per gram of stool (epg) was 1728. The geometric mean of infection intensity was 102.3epg. Schools distance from river (p = 0.001), swimming habit in rivers (p = 0.001) and crossing river on bare foot (p = 0.001) were independent risk factors for S. mansoni infection. CONCLUSIONS:The study revealed S. mansoni infection is prevalent in Jimma town. The school children were at moderate risk of morbidity caused by S. mansoni (prevalence ? 10% and < 50% according to WHO threshold), hence a biannual mass drug administration with praziquantel is required once every two years in the study area and promote health information on prevention, control, transmission and risk factors for S. mansoni infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Studies in murine models and human populations have indicated that the collagen-rich granulomatous response against parasite eggs trapped in the liver is associated with the development of severe hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, characterized by periportal fibrosis and portal hypertension. The role of the humoral response in parasite susceptibility has been well established, but its participation in disease severity remains poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between parasite-reactive IgE and IgG levels and schistosomiasis morbidity in infected patients with similar parasite burdens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ninety-seven Schistosoma mansoni-infected individuals were subjected to clinical examination and abdominal ultrasound analysis. IgG reactivity and IgE concentration against Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigens (SEA) and adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) were evaluated by ELISA assay. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between parasite-reactive antibodies and the co-variables investigated. The study population showed low parasite burden (median 30 eggs/g feces), constant re-infection, and signs of fibrosis was detected in more than 30% of individuals. Most infected individuals showed IgG reactivity, and the median concentrations of IgE anti-SEA and anti-SWAP antibodies were 1,870 and 1,375 ng/mL, respectively. There was no association between parasite burden and antibody response or any parameter of disease severity. However, IgG anti-SWAP level was positively associated with morbidity parameters, such as spleen size and thickness of portal vein at the entrance and secondary branch. In contrast, the data also revealed independent inverse correlations between concentration of parasite-reactive IgE and gallbladder wall thickness, a marker of fibrosis in schistosomiasis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data indicate that IgG anti-SWAP is positively associated with severe schistosomiasis, independently of parasite burden, while high production of parasite-specific IgE is associated with mild disease in the human population. Antibody profiles are good correlates for schistosomiasis severity and could be tested as biomarkers of disease severity.
Project description:The Kato-Katz technique is the most widely used diagnostic method in epidemiologic surveys and drug efficacy trials pertaining to intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. However, the sensitivity of the technique is low, particularly for the detection of light-intensity helminth infections. Examination of multiple stool samples reduces the diagnostic error; yet, most studies rely on a single Kato-Katz thick smear, thus underestimating infection prevalence. We present a model which estimates the sensitivity of the Kato-Katz technique in Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm, as a function of infection intensity for repeated stool sampling and provide estimates of the age-dependent 'true' prevalence. We find that the sensitivity for S. mansoni diagnosis is dominated by missed light infections, which have a low probability to be diagnosed correctly even through repeated sampling. The overall sensitivity strongly depends on the mean infection intensity. In particular at an intensity of 100 eggs per gram of stool (EPG), we estimate a sensitivity of 50% and 80% for one and two samples, respectively. At an infection intensity of 300 EPG, we estimate a sensitivity of 62% for one sample and 90% for two samples. The sensitivity for hookworm diagnosis is dominated by day-to-day variation with typical values for one, two, three, and four samples equal to 50%, 75%, 85%, and 95%, respectively, while it is only weakly dependent on the mean infection intensity in the population. We recommend taking at least two samples and estimate the 'true' prevalence of S. mansoni considering the dependence of the sensitivity on the mean infection intensity and the 'true' hookworm prevalence by taking into account the sensitivity given in the current study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In areas where HIV and intestinal schistosomiasis are highly endemic, co-infections of the two diseases in a single human host are frequent. Evidence in adult populations indicates that HIV and intestinal schistosomiasis are associated with negative health impacts. However, the topic of HIV and schistosomiasis in paediatric populations has received little attention. The present study determined the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection in a paediatric population on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in north-western Tanzania. DESIGN, SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS:A cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV-infected children aged 1-16 years on ART attending a Care and Treatment Clinic at Ukerewe Designated District Hospital, north-western Tanzania. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Single stool and urine samples were collected and screened for S. mansoni eggs and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA), using the Kato-Katz (KK) technique and point-of-care CCA (POC-CCA) rapid urine test, respectively. RESULTS:A total of 134 children with a median age of 10 years (IQR 7-12 years) participated in the study. Of these, 44.8% (60/134) and 55.2% (74/134) were female and male, respectively. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni based on the KK technique and POC-CCA rapid test were 10.7% (95% CI 5.9% to 18.4%) and 33.8% (95% CI 26.2% to 42.4%), respectively. The overall geometrical mean eggs per gram of faeces was 293.9 GM-epg (95% CI 123.3 to 700.9). A small proportion of the children had moderate (4.9%, 5/103) and heavy (3.8%, 4/103) intensity of infection. CONCLUSION:Paediatric populations on ART are co-infected with S. mansoni infection. Screening and treatment of intestinal schistosomiasis at initiation of ART is recommended to reduce the risk of developing hepatosplenic disease, schistosomiasis-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and the possible adverse effect of schistosomiasis on outcome of ART.