Loss of miR-29b following acute ischemic stroke contributes to neural cell death and infarct size.
ABSTRACT: Glutathione depletion and 12-lipoxygenase-dependent metabolism of arachidonic acid are known to be implicated in neurodegeneration associated with acute ischemic stroke. The objective of this study was to investigate the significance of miR-29 in neurodegeneration associated with acute ischemic stroke. Neural cell death caused by arachidonic acid insult of glutathione-deficient cells was preceded by a 12-lipoxygenase-dependent loss of miR-29b. Delivery of miR-29b mimic to blunt such loss was neuroprotective. miR-29b inhibition potentiated such neural cell death. 12-Lipoxygenase knockdown and inhibitors attenuated the loss of miR-29b in challenged cells. In vivo, stroke caused by middle-cerebral artery occlusion was followed by higher 12-lipoxygenase activity and loss of miR-29b as detected in laser-captured infarct site tissue. 12-Lipoxygenase knockout mice demonstrated protection against such miR loss. miR-29b gene delivery markedly attenuated stroke-induced brain lesion. Oral supplementation of ?-tocotrienol, a vitamin E 12-lipoxygenase inhibitor, rescued stroke-induced loss of miR-29b and minimized lesion size. This work provides the first evidence demonstrating that loss of miR-29b at the infarct site is a key contributor to stroke lesion. Such loss is contributed by activity of the 12-lipoxygenase pathway providing maiden evidence linking arachidonic acid metabolism to miR-dependent mechanisms in stroke.
Project description:MicroRNA-29b (miR-29b) is involved in regulating ischemia process, but the molecular mechanism is unclear. In this work, we explored the function of miR-29b in cerebral ischemia. The level of miR-29b in white blood cells was evaluated in patients and mice after ischemic stroke. Brain infarct volume and National Institute of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) scores were analyzed to determine the relationship between miR-29b expression and the severity of stroke. The relationship of miR-29b and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) was further studied in mice. We found that miR-29b was significantly downregulated in stroke patients (P<0.05). MiR-29b level negatively associated with NIHSS scores (r=-0.349, P<0.01) and brain infarct volume (r=-0.321, P<0.05). In ischemic mice, miR-29b in the brain and blood were both downregulated (r=0.723, P<0.05). MiR-29b overexpression reduced infarct volume (49.50±6.55 versus 35.48±2.28?mm(3), P<0.05), edema (164±4% versus 108±4%, P<0.05), and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption compared with controls (15±9% versus 7±3%, P<0.05). Aquaporin-4 expression greatly decreased after miR-29b overexpression (28±7% versus 11±3%, P<0.05). Dual-luciferase reporter system showed that AQP-4 was the direct target of miR-29b (P<0.05). We concluded that miR-29b could potentially predict stroke outcomes as a novel circulating biomarker, and miR-29b overexpression reduced BBB disruption after ischemic stroke via downregulating AQP-4.
Project description:Stroke, the loss of neurons after ischemic insult to the brain, is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Despite its prevalence and severity, current therapy is extremely limited, highlighting the importance of further understanding the molecular events underlying ischemia-induced neuronal cell death. An ischemic area can be subdivided into two separate pathophysiological regions: the rapidly dying necrotic core, and the potentially salvageable apoptotic penumbra. Understanding molecular events occurring in the apoptotic ischemic penumbra may give greater insight into mechanisms controlling this salvageable tissue. miRNAs are known to have key roles in the regulation of gene expression in numerous pathological conditions, including the modulation of distinct pathways in stroke. However, previous studies have profiled miRNAs in the whole ischemic infarct, and do not differentiate between miRNA regulation in the necrotic core versus the apoptotic penumbra. We asked if there were unique miRNAs that are differentially regulated following ischemic insults in the salvageable apoptotic penumbra. miRNA expression profiles were compared in the whole infarct from in vivo stroke models, using the three vessel occlusion approach, to an in vitro model of the ischemic penumbra, prior to apoptotic induction. Multiple miRNAs were found to be differentially regulated following ischemic insults in each system. However, miR-19b, miR-29b-2* and miR-339-5p were significantly up-regulated in both model systems. Further, we confirmed these results in a neuroblastoma cell line subjected to a penumbra-like ischemic insult that induced the apoptotic cell death pathway. The data show that miR-19b, miR-29b-2* and miR-339-5p are up-regulated following ischemic insults and may be regulating gene expression to control important cellular pathways in the salvageable ischemic penumbra. Further investigation of their role and mRNA target identification may lead to new insights into the molecular mechanisms taking place in the salvageable apoptotic penumbra.
Project description:Targeting newly identified damage pathways in the ischemic brain can help to circumvent the currently severe limitations of acute stroke therapy. Here we show that the activity of 12/15-lipoxygenase was increased in the ischemic mouse brain, and 12/15-lipoxygenase colocalized with a marker for oxidized lipids, MDA2. This colocalization was also detected in the brain of 2 human stroke patients, where it also coincided with increased apoptosis-inducing factor. A novel inhibitor of 12/15-lipoxygenase, LOXBlock-1, protected neuronal HT22 cells against oxidative stress. In a mouse model of transient focal ischemia, the inhibitor reduced infarct sizes both 24 hours and 14 days poststroke, with improved behavioral parameters. Even when treatment was delayed until at least 4 hours after onset of ischemia, LOXBlock-1 was protective. Furthermore, it reduced tissue plasminogen activator-associated hemorrhage in a clot model of ischemia/reperfusion. This study establishes inhibition of 12/15-lipoxygenase as a viable strategy for first-line stroke treatment.
Project description:This study sought to clarify the effects of 15-lipoxygenase/15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in angiogenesis and neurological functional recovery after cerebral ischaemic stroke in mice. In vivo, we performed behavioural tests to determine functional recovery after stroke. Double immunofluorescence staining of CD31 and Ki67/PCNA was performed to evaluate the effects of 15-lipoxygenase/15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid on angiogenesis in an MCAO mouse model. In vitro, we investigated the effects of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid on BMVEC proliferation and migration. Our results show that MCAO upregulates 15-lipoxygenase expression in a time-dependent manner, especially in later stages of post-stroke. We confirmed that cerebral infarct area was reduced and neurological dysfunction was gradually attenuated after stroke, while 12/15-lipoxygenase knockout mice exhibited the opposite effects. Furthermore, immunofluorescence studies revealed 15-lipoxygenase increased the proliferation of mouse brain vascular endothelial cells in a time-dependent manner, while 12/15-lipoxygenase knockout blocked these effects. Moreover, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid promoted proliferation and tube formation in BMVECs. These results demonstrate positive influence of 15-lipoxygenase/15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in angiogenesis and neuronal recovery after ischaemic stroke in mice. We also confirmed the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway was necessary for the effects of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in regulation of BMVEC proliferation and migration, which may potentially be a novel target for the recovery from ischaemic stroke.
Project description:Secondary damage processes, such as inflammation and oxidative stress, can exacerbate an ischemic lesion and spread to adjacent brain regions. Yet, few studies investigate how regions remote from the infarct could also suffer from degeneration and inflammation in the aftermath of a stroke. To find out to what extent far-remote brain regions are affected after stroke, we used a bilateral endothelin-1-induced prefrontal infarct rat model. Brain regions posterior to the prefrontal cortical infarct were analyzed for ongoing neurodegeneration using FluoroJadeB (FJB) and for neuroinflammation using Iba1 and OX-6 immunohistochemistry 28 days post-stroke. The FJB-positive dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus (DMN) and retrosplenial area (RSA) of the cortex displayed substantial neuroinflammation. Significant neuronal loss was only observed within the cortex. Significant microglia recruitment and activation in the FJB-positive internal capsule indicates remote white matter pathology. These findings demonstrate that even regions far remote from an infarct are affected predictably based on anatomical connectivity, and that white matter inflammation is an integral part of remote pathology. The delayed nature of this pathology makes it a valid target for preventative treatment, potentially with an extended time window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention using anti-inflammatory agents.
Project description:Myocardial infarction (MI) results in debilitating remodeling of the myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM). In this proof-of-principle study it was sought to modulate this aggressive remodeling by injecting a hyaluronic acid-based reservoir delivering exogenous microRNA-29B (miR-29B). This proof-of-principal study was executed whereby myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was performed on C57BL/6 mice for 45 min after which five 10 μL boluses of a hydrogel composed of thiolated hyaluronic acid cross-linked with poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate, containing exogenous miR-29B as an active therapy, were injected into the border zone of the infarcted myocardium. Following surgery, the myocardial function of the animals was monitored up to 5 weeks. Delivering miR-29B locally using an injectable hyaluronan-based hydrogel resulted in the maintenance of myocardial function at 2 and 5 weeks following MI in this proof-of-principle study. In addition, while animals treated with the control of a nontargeting miR delivered using the hyaluronan-based hydrogel had a significant deterioration of myocardial function, those treated with miR-29B did not. Histological analysis revealed a significantly decreased presence of elastin and significantly less immature/newly deposited collagen fibers at the border zone of the infarct. Increased vascularity of the myocardial scar was also detected and Raman microspectroscopy discovered significantly altered ECM-specific biochemical signals at the border zone of the infarct. This preclinical proof-of-principle study demonstrates that an injectable hyaluronic acid hydrogel system could be capable of delivering miR-29B toward maintaining cardiac function following MI. In addition, Raman microspectroscopy revealed subtle, yet significant changes in ECM organization and maturity. These findings have great potential with regard to using injectable biomaterials as a local treatment for ischemic tissue and exogenous miRs to modulate tissue remodeling.
Project description:A quantitative stereochemical analysis of the products generated by recombinant mouse (12S)-lipoxygenase isoenzymes was performed with arachidonic acid and linoleic acid as substrates. The leucocyte-type (12S)-lipoxygenase generated, in addition to 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) as the main product, 15- and 8-HETE from arachidonic acid and 13- and 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13- and 9-HODE) from linoleic acid. The platelet-type enzyme oxygenated arachidonic acid to 12- and 8-HETE and linoleic acid to 13- and 9-HODE, whereas the epidermis-type (12S)-lipoxygenase reaction was essentially mono-specific with arachidonic acid but oxygenated linoleic acid to both 13- and 9-HODE. 12-HETE and 13-HODE were almost exclusively the S enantiomers. 8-HETE was the R enantiomer as a side-product of the platelet-type (12S)-lipoxygenase reaction but the S enantiomer as a side-product of the leucocyte-type reaction. 9-HODE was generated as the R enantiomer by the platelet-type and the epidermis-type isoenzymes and as the S enantiomer by the leucocyte-type (12S)-lipoxygenase. On the basis of published models of lipoxygenase-substrate interaction, the stereochemistry of the products generated by the platelet- and epidermis-type (12S)-lipoxygenases is in agreement with a fixed 'tail-to-head' orientation of the substrate fatty acid in the binding pocket of these enzymes, whereas that of the reaction products of the leucocyte-type (12S)-lipoxygenase can be explained only when the inverse orientation of the substrate or a rotational isomerism along the longitudinal axis of the substrate is allowed. Both the product spectra generated and the sensitivity towards the 12-lipoxygenase selective inhibitors N-benzyl-N-hydroxy-4-phenylpentanamide and cinnamyl-3,4-dihydroxy-alpha-cyanocinnamate indicated the platelet-type and the epidermis-type isoenzymes to be biochemically more related to each other than to the leucocyte-type (12S)-lipoxygenase.
Project description:Addition of arachidonic acid to suspensions of human blood leukocytes induces the synthesis of small amounts only of the C-5 lipoxygenase products as demonstrated by HPLC. However, the coincubation of blood platelets with the leukocytes always resulted in an activation of the C-5 lipoxygenase and formation of (5S)-5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-icosatetraenoic acid, (5S,12S)-5,12-dihydroxy-6,8,10,14-icosatetraenoic acid, and leukotriene B4 from exogenous arachidonic acid. It was found that the activation of arachidonic acid metabolism in leukocytes was caused by a labile compound because the synthesis of the C-5 lipoxygenase products did not occur when platelets were preincubated for 1 min or more with the substrate prior to the addition of the leukocytes. The use of cyclooxygenase inhibitors did not suppress the activation of the leukocytes by the platelets. However, the addition of 5,8,11,14-icosatetraynoic acid, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and C-12 and C-15 lipoxygenases, completely suppressed the formation of leukotrienes, although this substance is not an inhibitor of the C-5 lipoxygenase in human leukocytes. This indicated that a product of the C-12 lipoxygenase was likely the mediator of the stimulatory effect of platelets on leukocyte arachidonic acid metabolism. The finding that the direct addition of (12S)-12-hydroperoxy-5,8,10,14-icosatetraenoic acid, but not of the corresponding hydroxy derivative, could activate the leukocyte's C-5 lipoxygenase confirmed this hypothesis. These data demonstrate that an interaction between C-12 and C-5 lipoxygenases can promote the formation of leukotrienes and support the possibility of a cooperation between platelets and leukocytes in inflammation and hypersensitivity reactions. Furthermore, the finding provides a new interest for the platelet C-12 lipoxygenase.
Project description:Recently, the role of miR-29b in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) development appears to be controversial. Until now, the expression and function of miR-29b in CRC have not been clarified clearly. We showed that decreased expression of miR-29b usually occurred in CRC cell lines and tissue samples. Loss- and gain-of-function assays in vitro revealed suppressive effects of miR-29b on cell proliferation and migration. Endogenous overexpression of miR-29b was sufficient to suppress aggressive behavioral phenotypes in mice. Proteomic analysis showed that miR-29b involved in integrate several key biological processes. In addition, miR-29b mediated the inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/AKT signal transduction pathway. Further studies found that T lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) was identified as a direct target of miR-29b. In contrast to the phenotypes induced by miR-29b restoration, Tiam1-induced cell proliferation and migration partly rescued miR-29b-mediated biological behaviors. Our results illustrated that miR-29b as a suppressor has a critical role in CRC progression, which suggests its potential role in the molecular therapy of patients with advanced CRC.
Project description:The major pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism in human platelets proceeds via a 12-lipoxygenase enzyme; however, the biological role of the product of this reaction, 12-hydro(pero)xyeicosatetraenoic acid [12-H(P)ETE], is unknown. Using a combination of the polymerase chain reaction and conventional screening procedures, we have isolated cDNA clones encoding the human platelet/human erythroleukemia (HEL) cell 12-lipoxygenase. From the deduced primary structure, human platelet/HEL 12-lipoxygenase would encode a Mr 75,000 protein consisting of 663 amino acids. The cDNA encoding the full-length protein (pCDNA-121x) under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter was expressed in simian COS-M6 cells. Intact cells and lysed-cell supernatants were able to synthesize 12-H(P)ETE from arachidonic acid, whereas no 12-H(P)ETE synthesis was detected in mock-transfected cells. A single 2.4-kilobase mRNA was detected in erythroleukemia cells but not in several other tissues and cell lines evaluated by Northern blot analysis. Comparison of the human platelet/HEL 12-lipoxygenase sequence with that of porcine leukocyte 12-lipoxygenase and human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase revealed 65% amino acid identity to both enzymes. By contrast, the leukocyte 12-lipoxygenase is 86% identical to human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase. Sequence data and previously demonstrated immunochemical and biochemical evidence support the existence of distinct 12-lipoxygenase isoforms. The availability of cDNA probes for human platelet/HEL cell 12-lipoxygenase should facilitate elucidation of the biological role of this pathway.