Lipid changes in Kenyan HIV-1-infected infants initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy by 1 year of age.
ABSTRACT: Early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is recommended for HIV-1-infected infants. There are limited data on lipid changes during infant HAART.Nonfasting total (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) were measured at 0, 6 and 12 months. Correlates of lipid levels and changes post-HAART were assessed using linear regression.Among 115 infants, pre-HAART median age was 3.8 months, CD4% was 19% and weight-for-age Z score was -2.42. Pre-HAART median lipid levels were: TC, 108.7 mg/dL; LDL, 42.5 mg/dL; HDL, 29.4 mg/dL and TG, 186.9 mg/dL. Few infants had abnormally high TC (6.2%) or LDL (5.6%), but many had low HDL (76.5%) or high TG (69.6%). Higher pre-HAART weight-for-age and height-for-age Z scores were each associated with higher pre-HAART TC (P = 0.04 and P = 0.01) and LDL (P = 0.02 and P = 0.008). From 0 to 6 months post-HAART, TC (P < 0.0001), LDL (P < 0.0001) and HDL (P < 0.0001) increased significantly, and 23.1% (P = 0.002), 14.0% (P = 0.2), 31.3% (P < 0.0001) and 50.8% (P = 0.2) of infants had abnormally high TC, high LDL, low HDL and high TG, respectively. Changes in TC and HDL were each associated with higher gain in weight-for-age Z score (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01) and height-for-age Z score (P = 0.01 and P = 0.007). Increased change in LDL was associated with higher gain in height-for-age Z score (P = 0.03). Infants on protease inhibitor-HAART had smaller HDL increase (P = 0.004).Infants had substantive increases in lipids, which correlated with growth. Increases in HDL were attenuated by protease inhibitor-HAART. It is important to determine clinical implications of these changes.
Project description:Dyslipidemia is a global health problem and a high risk factor for atherosclerosis, which can lead to serious cardiovascular disease (CVD). Existing studies have shown inconsistent effects of turmeric and curcuminoids on blood lipids in adults. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of turmeric and curcuminoids on blood triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. We searched the English databases of the Web of Science, PubMed, Ovid (including EMBASE and MEDLINE), Scopus, and the Cochrane Library and 2 Chinese databases, Wanfang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that studied the effects of turmeric and curcuminoids on blood TG, TC, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol in subjects with metabolic diseases. With random-effects models, separate meta-analyses were conducted by using inverse-variance. The results are presented as the mean difference with 95% CIs. Evidence from 12 RCTs for TG, 14 RCTs for TC, 13 RCTs for LDL cholesterol, and 16 RCTs for HDL cholesterol showed that turmeric and curcuminoids could lower blood TG by -19.1 mg/dL (95% CI: -31.7, -6.46 mg/dL; P = 0.003), TC by -11.4 mg/dL (95% CI: -17.1, -5.74 mg/dL; P < 0.0001), and LDL cholesterol by -9.83 mg/dL (95% CI: -15.9, -3.74 mg/dL; P = 0.002), and increase HDL cholesterol by 1.9 mg/dL (95% CI: 0.31, 3.49 mg/dL; P = 0.02). In conclusion, turmeric and curcuminoids can significantly modulate blood lipids in adults with metabolic diseases. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously because of the significant heterogeneity between included studies (I2 > 50%). There is a need for further RCTs in future.
Project description:Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults.Studies were located by searching nine electronic databases, cross-referencing, and expert review. Two independent reviewers selected studies that met the following criteria: (1) randomized controlled trials, (2) aerobic exercise combined with diet recommendations (saturated/trans fat intake less than 10% of total calories and cholesterol less than 300 mg/day and/or fiber intake ? 25 g/day in women and ? 35 grams per day in men), (3) intervention ? 4 weeks, (4) humans ? 18 years of age, (5) published studies, including dissertations and Master's theses, (6) studies published in any language, (7) studies published between January 1, 1955 and May 1, 2009, (8) assessment of one or more of the following lipid and lipoprotein concentrations: total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ratio of TC to HDL-C, non-HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG). Two reviewers independently extracted all data. Random-effects models that account for heterogeneity and 95% confidence intervals were used to pool findings.Of the 1,401 citations reviewed, six studies representing 16 groups (8 intervention, 8 control) and up to 559 men and women (282 intervention, 277 control) met the criteria for analysis. Statistically significant intervention minus control reductions were found for TC (-15.5 mg/dl, 95% CI, -20.3 to -10.7), TC:HDL-C (-0.4 mg/dl, 95% CI, -0.7 to -0.2), LDL-C (-9.2 mg/dl, 95% CI, -12.7 to -5.8) and TG (-10.6 mg/dl, 95% CI, -17.2 to -4.0) but not HDL-C (-0.5 mg/dl, 95% CI, -4.0 to 3.1). Changes were equivalent to reductions of 7.5%, 6.6%, 7.2% and 18.2% respectively, for TC, TC:HDL-C, LDL-C and TG. Because of missing variance statistics, non-HDL-C was excluded.Aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet is highly efficacious for improving TC, TC:HDL-C, LDL-C and TG, but not HDL-C concentrations, in adults. However, additional studies are needed, including effectiveness studies using intention-to-treat analysis.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:To investigate age-specific and sex-specific distributions of blood cholesterol in the general Korean population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:We analyzed data for 8284 men and 9246 women aged ?10 years who participated in the fifth (2010-2012) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Age-specific means, medians, and selected percentiles were calculated for men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women. RESULTS:Median total cholesterol (TC) level increased with age across all age groups, from 147 to 196 mg/dL in males and from 159 to 210 mg/dL in females. Triglyceride (TG) levels increased with age in females; however, in males, TG levels rapidly increased during young adulthood, peaked at 50-54 years, and then decreased. High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were higher in females than in males and decreased with increasing age in both males and females. Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels increased with age across all age groups, from 89 to 127 mg/dL in males and from 82 to 113 mg/dL in females. Lipoprotein-cholesterol fraction (TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, non-HDL-C) levels increased with age in females, but increased more rapidly in males during young adulthood and decreased after middle age. CONCLUSION:Blood cholesterol levels and lipoprotein-cholesterol fractions present different distributions by age, sex, and menopausal status.
Project description:The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during childhood obesity treatment.876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6-21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3-5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0.4-7.4). Height and weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG)) were available in 469 individuals (264 girls). Linear regressions were performed to investigate the associations between BMI SDS, body composition indices, and lipid concentrations.At baseline, BMI SDS was negatively associated with concentrations of HDL (p = 6.7*10-4) and positively with TG (p = 9.7*10-6). Reductions in BMI SDS were associated with reductions in total body fat percentage (p<2*10-16) and percent truncal body fat (p<2*10-16). Furthermore, reductions in BMI SDS were associated with improvements in concentrations of TC, LDL, HDL, non-HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio, and TG (all p <0.0001). Changes in body fat percentage seemed to mediate the changes in plasma concentrations of TC, LDL, and non-HDL, but could not alone explain the changes in HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio or TG. Among 81 individuals with available lipid concentrations, who increased their BMI SDS, 61% improved their body composition, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations.Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition and lipid concentrations may improve.
Project description:Dyslipidaemia is a common complication among HIV-infected children after antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, HIV itself can cause abnormal lipid metabolism. There is limited information of lipid profiles among Asian HIV-infected children naive to ART.A total of 274 HIV-infected ART-naive Thai and Cambodian children aged 1-12 years with CD4% between 15% and 24% were included. Patients were fasted for ?4 h before blood was drawn. Abnormal lipid levels were defined as triglyceride (TG)>130 mg/dl, total cholesterol (TC)>200 mg/dl, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)>130 mg/dl and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)?40 mg/dl.The mean (±SD) was 76.6 (33.8) months for age and -1.3 (1.0) for weight Z-score. Mean (±SD) CD4% was 19.9 (4.8) % and HIV RNA was 4.6 (0.6) log(10) copies/ml. The median (±SD) fasting time was 13.0 (2.7) h. Mean (±SD) for lipids were 116 (62) mg/dl for TG, 139 (29) mg/dl for TC, 73 (29) mg/dl for LDL and 45 (19) mg/dl for HDL. Overall 63.9% had dyslipidaemia with hypertriglyceridaemia and hypo-HDL being the most common (28% and 45%, respectively), while 2% had hypercholesterolaemia or hyper-LDL. After adjusting for age, having HIV RNA>5 log(10) copies/ml was associated with hypo-HDL with ORs of 8.1 (95% CI 2.7-24.3).Up to two-thirds of ART-naive, HIV-infected Asian children with mild-to-moderate immune suppression had dyslipidaemia. Low HDL was the most common and was associated with high HIV viraemia. The long-term consequence of low HDL deserves further investigation in children.
Project description:Use of anti-hyperlipidemic medications compromises genetic analysis because of altered lipid profiles. We propose an empirical method to adjust lipid levels for medication effects so that the adjusted lipid values substitute the unmedicated lipid values in the genetic analysis.Published clinical trials were reviewed for HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and fibric acid derivatives as mono-drug therapy. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors showed similar effects in African Americans (AA) and non-African Americans (non-AA) for lowering total cholesterol (TC, -50.7 mg/dl), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C, -48.1 mg/dl), and triglycerides (TG, -19.7 mg/dl). Their effect on increasing HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) in AA (+0.4 mg/dl) was lower than in Non-AA (+2.3 mg/dl). The effects of fibric acid derivatives were estimated as -46.1 mg/dl for TC, -40.1 mg/dl for LDL-C, and +5.9 mg/dl for HDL-C in non-AA. The corresponding effects in AA were less extreme (-20.1 mg/dl, -11.4 mg/dl, and +3.1 mg/dl). Similar effect for TG (59.0 mg/dl) was shown in AA and non-AA. The above estimated effects were applied to a multipoint variance components linkage analysis on the lipid levels in 2,403 Whites and 2,214 AA in the HyperGEN study. The familial effects did vary depending on whether the lipids were adjusted for medication use. For example, the heritabilities increased after medication adjustment for TC and LDL-C, but did not change significantly for HDL-C and TG.Ethnicity-specific medication adjustments using our empirical method can be employed in epidemiological and genetic analysis of lipids.
Project description:We assess long-term changes in lipid levels in human immunodeficiency disease- (HIV-) infected patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) and their association with diabetes mellitus (DM) and thyroid dysfunction. We observed changes in the levels of total cholesterol (TC) and total triglyceride (TG) of 63 HIV-infected patients in the 6 years from starting HAART and analyzed correlations between relevant parameters. TC levels of patients with normal baseline TC levels as well as those diagnosed with DM or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) increased significantly (P??< 0.05) as did the TG levels of patients with normal baseline TG levels (P??< 0.05). TC levels of patients with hypercholesterolemia in the year HAART was initiated were significantly higher than those of patients with normal baseline TC levels (P??< 0.05) for all 6 years. TC levels of patients diagnosed with DM were significantly higher than those with euglycemia (P??< 0.05) 2 and 4 years after HAART commencement. Levels of TC, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were correlated negatively with viral load, whereas levels of TC and very-low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) were correlated positively with CD4+ cell counts before HAART commencement. Linear mixed-effect model demonstrated disturbance of glucose metabolism and HAART containing nevirapine and CD4+ cell count were positively correlated with TC levels after HAART commencement. These findings suggest that there are changes in the lipid levels of patients undergoing HAART, with the potential risk of dyslipidemia.
Project description:We aimed to study time trends and levels of mean total cholesterol and lipid fractions, and dyslipidaemias prevalence in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Systematic-review and meta-analysis of population-based studies in which lipid (total cholesterol [TC; 86 studies; 168,553 people], HDL-Cholesterol [HDL-C; 84 studies; 121,282 people], LDL-Cholesterol [LDL-C; 61 studies; 86,854 people], and triglycerides [TG; 84 studies; 121,009 people]) levels and prevalences were laboratory-based. We used Scopus, LILACS, Embase, Medline and Global Health; studies were from 1964 to 2016. Pooled means and prevalences were estimated for lipid biomarkers from ?2005. The pooled means (mg/dl) were 193 for TC, 120 for LDL-C, 47 for HDL-C, and 139 for TG; no strong trends. The pooled prevalence estimates were 21% for high TC, 20% for high LDL-C, 48% for low HDL-C, and 21% for high TG; no strong trends. These results may help strengthen programs for dyslipidaemias prevention/management in LAC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Probiotics incorporated into dairy products have been shown to reduce total (TC) and LDL cholesterolemia (LDL-C) in subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia. More specifically, probiotics with high biliary salt hydrolase activity, e.g. Bifidobacterium longum BB536, may decrease TC and LDL-C by lowering intestinal cholesterol reabsorption and, combined with other nutraceuticals, may be useful to manage hypercholesterolemia in subjects with low cardiovascular (CV) risk. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a nutraceutical combination containing Bifidobacterium longum BB536, red yeast rice (RYR) extract (10 mg/day monacolin K), niacin, coenzyme Q10 (Lactoflorene Colesterolo®). The end-points were changes of lipid CV risk markers (LDL-C, TC, non-HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), HDL-C, apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI), lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9)), and of markers of cholesterol synthesis/absorption. METHODS:A 12-week randomized, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Thirty-three subjects (18-70 years) in primary CV prevention and low CV risk (SCORE: 0-1% in 24 and 2-4% in 9 subjects; LDL-C: 130-200 mg/dL) were randomly allocated to either nutraceutical (N = 16) or placebo (N = 17). RESULTS:Twelve-week treatment with the nutraceutical combination, compared to placebo, significantly reduced TC (- 16.7%), LDL-C (- 25.7%), non-HDL-C (- 24%) (all p < 0.0001), apoB (- 17%, p = 0.003). TG, HDL-C, apoAI, Lp(a), PCSK9 were unchanged. Lathosterol:TC ratio was significantly reduced by the nutraceutical combination, while campesterol:TC ratio and sitosterol:TC ratio did not change, suggesting reduction of synthesis without increased absorption of cholesterol. No adverse effects and a 97% compliance were observed. CONCLUSIONS:A 12-week treatment with a nutraceutical combination containing the probiotic Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and RYR extract significantly improved the atherogenic lipid profile and was well tolerated by low CV risk subjects. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT02689934 .
Project description:The effect of peginterferon alpha/ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance on lipid and insulin resistance (IR) profiles in HCV/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection is unknown.We measured fasting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), glucose, and insulin at defined intervals in the A5178 study (N = 329), a prospective treatment trial in HCV/HIV coinfection. Changes from baseline and the relation between baseline values of these variables to sustained virologic response (SVR) were determined.Of 182 subjects with metabolic data, 98 achieved early virologic response (EVR) and continued PEG-IFN/RBV. Among those, median pretreatment HCV RNA was 6.6 log(10 )IU/mL; 73% had HCV genotype 1. Median pretreatment TC was 176 mg/dL (interquartile range [IQR],150-205]; median LDL-C was 99 mg/dL (IQR, 79-123); median HDL-C was 40 mg/dL (IQR, 31-47); and median TG was 147 mg/dL (IQR, 101-221). Median homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) was 3.3 (IQR, 1.7-5.3). The EVRs demonstrated a decline in TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C, whereas TG increased on treatment but returned to near baseline 24 weeks after end of treatment (EOT). The HOMA-IR decline from entry to 24 weeks after EOT was significant among non-sustained virologic responders and nonsignificant among sustained virologic responders; this difference was offset after adjusting for higher HOMA-IR at baseline among the former. Among all 182 subjects, entry LDL-C was associated with SVR in a joint logistic model adjusted for HCV genotype, race, and prior IFN (odds ratio, 1.17 per 10 mg/dL increase; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.32), but TC, HDL, TG, and IR were not.Peginterferon alpha and RBV can significantly affect lipid profile and IR in HCV/HIV-coinfected persons. Although the lipid profile returns to near pretreatment levels after completion of treatment, our data suggest persistent modest improvement in IR with treatment. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00078403.