Mutations in a 23S rRNA gene of Chlamydia trachomatis associated with resistance to macrolides.
ABSTRACT: For six clinical isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis, in vitro susceptibility to erythromycin, azithromycin, and josamycin has been determined. Four isolates were resistant to all the antibiotics and had the mutations A2058C and T2611C (Escherichia coli numbering) in the 23S rRNA gene. All the isolates had mixed populations of bacteria that did and did not carry 23S rRNA gene mutations.
Project description:Azithromycin is a major drug used in the treatment and prophylaxis of chlamydial infections. Spontaneous azithromycin-resistant mutants of Chlamydia psittaci 6BC were isolated in vitro in the plaque assay at a frequency of about 10(-8). Isogenic clonal variants with A(2058)C, A(2059)G, or A(2059)C mutations in the unique 23S rRNA gene (Escherichia coli numbering system) displayed MICs for multiple macrolides (i.e., azithromycin, erythromycin, josamycin, and spiramycin) at least 100 times higher than those of the parent strain and were also more resistant to the lincosamide clindamycin. Chlamydia trachomatis L2 variants with a Gln-to-Lys substitution in ribosomal protein L4 at position 66 (E. coli numbering system), conferring an eightfold decrease in azithromycin and erythromycin sensitivities and a fourfold decrease in josamycin and spiramycin sensitivities, were isolated following serial passage in subinhibitory concentrations of azithromycin. Each mutation was stably maintained in the absence of selection but severely affected chlamydial infectivity, as determined by monitoring the development of each isolate over 46 h in the absence of selection, in pure culture or in 1:1 competition with the isogenic parent. Data in this study support the hypothesis that the mechanisms which confer high-level macrolide resistance in chlamydiae carry a prohibitive physiological cost and may thus limit the emergence of highly resistant clones of these important pathogens in vivo.
Project description:The emergence of antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important concern in the treatment of long-term airway infections in cystic fibrosis patients. In this study, we report the occurrence of azithromycin resistance among clinical P. aeruginosa DK2 isolates. We demonstrate that resistance is associated with specific mutations (A2058G, A2059G, and C2611T in Escherichia coli numbering) in domain V of 23S rRNA and that introduction of A2058G and C2611T into strain PAO1 results in azithromycin resistance.
Project description:Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolate BM4455 was resistant to 16-membered macrolides and to streptogramins. This unusual resistance phenotype was due to an A(2062)C (Escherichia coli numbering) mutation in domain V of the four copies of 23S rRNA.
Project description:Fifty-six azithromycin-resistant (MICs, 2.0 to 4.0 micro g/ml) Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with cross-resistance to erythromycin (MICs, 2.0 to 64.0 micro g/ml), isolated in Canada between 1997 and 1999, were characterized, and their mechanisms of azithromycin resistance were determined. Most (58.9%) of them belonged to auxotype-serotype class NR/IB-03, with a 2.6-mDa plasmid. Based on resistance to crystal violet (MICs >or= 1 micro g/ml), 96.4% of these macrolide-resistant strains appeared to have increased efflux. Nine of the eleven strains selected for further characterization were found to have a promoter region mtrR mutation, a single-base-pair (A) deletion in the 13-bp inverted repeat, which is believed to cause overexpression of the mtrCDE-encoded efflux pump. The two remaining macrolide-resistant strains (erythromycin MIC, 64.0 micro g/ml; azithromycin MIC, 4.0 micro g/ml), which did not have the mutation in the mtrR promoter region, were found to have a C2611T mutation (Escherichia coli numbering) in the peptidyltransferase loop in domain V of the 23S rRNA alleles. Although mutations in domain V of 23S rRNA alleles had been reported in other bacteria, including E. coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Helicobacter pylori, this is the first observation of these mutations associated with macrolide resistance in N. gonorrhoeae.
Project description:The whole-genome sequences of 24 isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to azithromycin (?2.0?µg/mL) were analyzed against a modified sequence derived from the whole-genome sequence of N. gonorrhoeae FA1090 to determine, by signal ratio, the number of mutant copies of the 23S rRNA gene and the copy number effect on 50S ribosome-mediated azithromycin resistance. Isolates that were predicted to contain four mutated copies were accurately identified compared with the results of direct sequencing. Fewer than four mutated copies gave less accurate results but were consistent with elevated MICs.
Project description:The mechanisms of intrinsic resistance of Mycoplasma hominis to 14- and 15-membered macrolides were investigated in comparison with those of M. pneumoniae, which is naturally susceptible to macrolides. Radiolabeled erythromycin was not accumulated by M. hominis PG21, but addition of an ABC transporter inhibitor increased the level of erythromycin uptake more than two times, suggesting the existence of an active efflux process. The affinity of [(14)C]erythromycin to ribosomes isolated from M. hominis was dramatically reduced relative to that to ribosomes isolated from M. pneumoniae. The nucleotide sequences of 23S rRNA of both ribosomal operons rrnA and rrnB and ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 of M. hominis were obtained. Compared to the sequence of M. pneumoniae, M. hominis harbored a G2057A transition in its 23S rRNA sequence, as did M. fermentans, another mycoplasma that is erythromycin resistant. An additional C2610U change was also found in the sequence of M. hominis. Moreover, two M. hominis clinical isolates with acquired resistance to 16-membered macrolides were examined for mutations in domain II and domain V of 23S rRNA and in ribosomal proteins L4 and L22. Compared to the sequence of reference strain PG21, one isolate harbored a A2059G transition and a C2611U transition in one of the two rrn operons, while the other one was mutated only at position 2059, also on the same operon. No mutation was found in the two ribosomal protein sequences. Overall, the present study is an exhaustive characterization of the intrinsic resistance of M. hominis to 14- and 15-membered macrolides and the first description of mycoplasma clinical isolates resistant to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin antibiotics harboring a mutation at position 2611 in the 23S rRNA.
Project description:The emergence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins and azithromycin (AZM) resistance (AZM(r)) represents a public health threat of untreatable gonorrhea infections. Genomic epidemiology through whole-genome sequencing was used to describe the emergence, dissemination, and spread of AZM(r) strains. The genomes of 213 AZM(r) and 23 AZM-susceptible N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected in Canada from 1989 to 2014 were sequenced. Core single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) phylogenomic analysis resolved 246 isolates into 13 lineages. High-level AZM(r) (MICs ? 256 ?g/ml) was found in 5 phylogenetically diverse isolates, all of which possessed the A2059G mutation (Escherichia coli numbering) in all four 23S rRNA alleles. One isolate with high-level AZM(r) collected in 2009 concurrently had decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC = 0.125 ?g/ml). An increase in the number of 23S rRNA alleles with the C2611T mutations (E. coli numbering) conferred low to moderate levels of AZM(r) (MICs = 2 to 4 and 8 to 32 ?g/ml, respectively). Low-level AZM(r) was also associated with mtrR promoter mutations, including the -35A deletion and the presence of Neisseria meningitidis-like sequences. Geographic and temporal phylogenetic clustering indicates that emergent AZM(r) strains arise independently and can then rapidly expand clonally in a region through local sexual networks.
Project description:The highly conserved central loop of domain V of 23S RNA (nucleotides 2042 to 2628; Escherichia coli numbering) is implicated in peptidyltransferase activity and represents one of the target sites for macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B antibiotics. DNA encoding domain V (590 bp) of several species of Enterococcus was amplified by PCR. Twenty enterococcal isolates were tested, including Enterococcus faecium (six isolates), Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus casseliflavus (two isolates of each), and Enterococcus raffinosus, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus malodoratus, and Enterococcus hirae (one isolate of each). For all isolates, species identification by biochemical testing was corroborated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The sequence of domain V of the 23S rRNA gene from E. faecium and E. faecalis differed from those of all other enterococci. The domain V sequences of E. durans and E. hirae were identical. This was also true for E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus. E. avium differed from E. casseliflavus by 23 bases, from E. durans by 16 bases, and from E. malodoratus by 2 bases. E. avium differed from E. raffinosus by one base. Despite the fact that domain V is considered to be highly conserved, substantial differences were identified between several enterococcal species.
Project description:The nucleotide sequence of a 23S rRNA gene of Campylobacter coli VC167 was determined. The primary sequence of the C. coli 23S rRNA was deduced, and a secondary-structure model was constructed. Comparison with Escherichia coli 23S rRNA showed a major difference in the C. coli rRNA at approximately position 1170 (E. coli numbering) in the form of an extra sequence block approximately 147 bp long. PCR analysis of 31 other strains of C. coli and C. jejuni showed that 69% carried a transcribed spacer of either ca. 147 or ca. 37 bp. Comparison of all sequenced Campylobacter transcribed spacers showed that the Campylobacter inserts were related in sequence and percent G+C content. All Campylobacter strains carrying transcribed spacers in their 23S rRNA genes produced fragmented 23S rRNAs. Other strains which produced unfragmented 23S rRNAs did not appear to carry transcribed spacers at this position in their 23S rRNA genes. At the 1850 region (E. coli numbering), Campylobacter 23S rRNA displayed a base pairing signature most like that of the beta and gamma subdivisions of the class Proteobacteria, but in the 270 region, Campylobacter 23S rRNA displayed a helix signature which distinguished it from the alpha, beta, and gamma subdivisions. Phylogenetic analysis comparing C. coli VC167 23S rRNA and a C. jejuni TGH9011 (ATCC 43431) 23S rRNA with 53 other completely sequenced (eu)bacterial 23S rRNAs showed that the two campylobacters form a sister group to the alpha, beta, and gamma proteobacterial 23S rRNAs, a positioning consistent with the idea that the genus Campylobacter belongs to the epsilon subdivision of the class Proteobacteria.
Project description:Members of the Mycobacterium abscessus group (MAG) cause lung, soft tissue, and disseminated infections. The oral macrolides clarithromycin and azithromycin are commonly used for treatment. MAG can display clarithromycin resistance through the inducible erm(41) gene or via acquired mutations in the rrl (23S rRNA) gene. Strains harboring a truncation or a T28C substitution in erm(41) lose the inducible resistance trait. Phenotypic detection of clarithromycin resistance requires extended incubation (14 days), highlighting the need for faster methods to detect resistance. Two real-time PCR-based assays were developed to assess inducible and acquired clarithromycin resistance and tested on a total of 90 clinical and reference strains. A SYBR green assay was designed to distinguish between a full-length and truncated erm(41) gene by temperature shift in melting curve analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele discrimination assays were developed to distinguish T or C at position 28 of erm(41) and 23S rRNA rrl gene mutations at position 2058 and/or 2059. Truncated and full-size erm(41) genes were detected in 21/90 and 69/90 strains, respectively, with 64/69 displaying T at nucleotide position 28 and 5/69 containing C at that position. Fifteen isolates showed rrl mutations conferring clarithromycin resistance, including A2058G (11 isolates), A2058C (3 isolates), and A2059G (1 isolate). Targeted sequencing and phenotypic assessment of resistance concurred with molecular assay results. Interestingly, we also noted cooccurring strains harboring an active erm(41), inactive erm(41), and/or acquired mutational resistance, as well as slowly growing MAG strains and also strains displaying an inducible resistance phenotype within 5 days, long before the recommended 14-day extended incubation.