Alphacoronavirus protein 7 modulates host innate immune response.
ABSTRACT: Innate immune response is the first line of antiviral defense resulting, in most cases, in pathogen clearance with minimal clinical consequences. Viruses have developed diverse strategies to subvert host defense mechanisms and increase their survival. In the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) as a model, we previously reported that accessory gene 7 counteracts the host antiviral response by associating with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1c). In the present work, the effect of the absence of gene 7 on the host cell, during infection, was further analyzed by transcriptomic analysis. The pattern of gene expression of cells infected with a recombinant mutant TGEV, lacking gene 7 expression (rTGEV-?7), was compared to that of cells infected with the parental virus (rTGEV-wt). Genes involved in the immune response, the interferon response, and inflammation were upregulated during TGEV infection in the absence of gene 7. An exacerbated innate immune response during infection with rTGEV-?7 virus was observed both in vitro and in vivo. An increase in macrophage recruitment and activation in lung tissues infected with rTGEV-?7 virus was observed compared to cells infected with the parental virus. In summary, the absence of protein 7 both in vitro and in vivo led to increased proinflammatory responses and acute tissue damage after infection. In a porcine animal model, which is immunologically similar to humans, we present a novel example of how viral proteins counteract host antiviral pathways to determine the infection outcome and pathogenesis.
Project description:Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) genome contains three accessory genes: 3a, 3b and 7. Gene 7 is only present in members of coronavirus genus a1, and encodes a hydrophobic protein of 78 aa. To study gene 7 function, a recombinant TGEV virus lacking gene 7 was engineered (rTGEV-?7). Both the mutant and the parental (rTGEV-wt) viruses showed the same growth and viral RNA accumulation kinetics in tissue cultures. Nevertheless, cells infected with rTGEV-?7 virus showed an increased cytopathic effect caused by an enhanced apoptosis mediated by caspase activation. Macromolecular synthesis analysis showed that rTGEV-?7 virus infection led to host translational shut-off and increased cellular RNA degradation compared with rTGEV-wt infection. An increase of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2?) phosphorylation and an enhanced nuclease, most likely RNase L, activity were observed in rTGEV-?7 virus infected cells. These results suggested that the removal of gene 7 promoted an intensified dsRNA-activated host antiviral response. In protein 7 a conserved sequence motif that potentially mediates binding to protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit (PP1c), a key regulator of the cell antiviral defenses, was identified. We postulated that TGEV protein 7 may counteract host antiviral response by its association with PP1c. In fact, pull-down assays demonstrated the interaction between TGEV protein 7, but not a protein 7 mutant lacking PP1c binding motif, with PP1. Moreover, the interaction between protein 7 and PP1 was required, during the infection, for eIF2? dephosphorylation and inhibition of cell RNA degradation. Inoculation of newborn piglets with rTGEV-?7 and rTGEV-wt viruses showed that rTGEV-?7 virus presented accelerated growth kinetics and pathology compared with the parental virus. Overall, the results indicated that gene 7 counteracted host cell defenses, and modified TGEV persistence increasing TGEV survival. Therefore, the acquisition of gene 7 by the TGEV genome most likely has provided a selective advantage to the virus.
Project description:Innate immune response is the first line of antiviral defense resulting, in most cases, in pathogen clearance with minimal clinical consequences. Viruses have developed diverse strategies to evade innate immune response and to ensure their survival. Using transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) as a model, we previously reported that accessory gene 7 counteracts host antiviral response by its association with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1c). A transcriptomic analysis was performed to further investigate the effect of gene 7 absence on the host cell. A recombinant TGEV virus lacking gene 7 expression (rTGEV-delta7) was previously generated in our laboratory. Porcine ST cells were mock infected or infected with wild type (rTGEV-wt) or mutant (rTGEV-delta7) virus. Gene expression was analyzed at 6 and 12 hours post infection (hpi) by using porcine Affymetrix microarray. Three biological replicates were made for each sample type.
Project description:Coronavirus (CoV) nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14) is a 60-kDa protein encoded by the replicase gene that is part of the replication-transcription complex. It is a bifunctional enzyme bearing 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease (ExoN) and guanine-N7-methyltransferase (N7-MTase) activities. ExoN hydrolyzes single-stranded RNAs and double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) and is part of a proofreading system responsible for the high fidelity of CoV replication. nsp14 N7-MTase activity is required for viral mRNA cap synthesis and prevents the recognition of viral mRNAs as "non-self" by the host cell. In this work, a set of point mutants affecting different motifs within the ExoN domain of nsp14 was generated, using transmissible gastroenteritis virus as a model of Alphacoronavirus Mutants lacking ExoN activity were nonviable despite being competent in both viral RNA and protein synthesis. A specific mutation within zinc finger 1 (ZF-C) led to production of a viable virus with growth and viral RNA synthesis kinetics similar to that of the parental virus. Mutant recombinant transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) ZF-C (rTGEV-ZF-C) caused decreased cytopathic effect and apoptosis compared with the wild-type virus and reduced levels of dsRNA accumulation at late times postinfection. Consequently, the mutant triggered a reduced antiviral response, which was confirmed by evaluating different stages of the dsRNA-induced antiviral pathway. The expression of beta interferon (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interferon-stimulated genes in cells infected with mutant rTGEV-ZF-C was reduced compared to the levels seen with the parental virus. Overall, our data revealed a potential role for CoV nsp14 in modulation of the innate immune response.The innate immune response is the first line of antiviral defense that culminates in the synthesis of interferon and proinflammatory cytokines to control viral replication. CoVs have evolved several mechanisms to counteract the innate immune response at different levels, but the role of CoV-encoded ribonucleases in preventing activation of the dsRNA-induced antiviral response has not been described to date. The introduction of a mutation in zinc finger 1 of the ExoN domain of nsp14 led to production of a virus that induced a weak antiviral response, most likely due to the accumulation of lower levels of dsRNA in the late phases of infection. These observations allowed us to propose a novel role for CoV nsp14 ExoN activity in counteracting the antiviral response, which could serve as a novel target for the design of antiviral strategies.
Project description:Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an enteric coronavirus causing high morbidity and mortality in porcine herds worldwide. Although both inactivated and live attenuated vaccines have been extensively used, the emergence of highly virulent strains and the recurrent outbreaks even in vaccinated farms highlight the need of effective vaccines. Engineering of genetically defined live attenuated vaccines is a rational approach for novel vaccine development. In this line, we engineered an attenuated virus based on the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) genome, expressing a chimeric spike protein from a virulent United States (US) PEDV strain. This virus (rTGEV-RS-SPEDV) was attenuated in highly-sensitive five-day-old piglets, as infected animals did not lose weight and none of them died. In addition, the virus caused very minor tissue damage compared with a virulent virus. The rTGEV-RS-SPEDV vaccine candidate was also attenuated in three-week-old animals that were used to evaluate the protection conferred by this virus, compared with the protection induced by infection with a virulent PEDV US strain (PEDV-NVSL). The rTGEV-RS-SPEDV virus protected against challenge with a virulent PEDV strain, reducing challenge virus titers in jejunum and leading to undetectable challenge virus RNA levels in feces. The rTGEV-RS-SPEDV virus induced a humoral immune response specific for PEDV, including neutralizing antibodies. Altogether, the data indicated that rTGEV-RS-SPEDV is a promising vaccine candidate against virulent PEDV infection.
Project description:Replication-competent propagation-deficient virus vectors based on the transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) genome that are deficient in the essential E gene have been developed by complementation within E(+) packaging cell lines. Cell lines expressing the TGEV E protein were established using the noncytopathic Sindbis virus replicon pSINrep21. In addition, cell lines stably expressing the E gene under the CMV promoter have been developed. The Sindbis replicon vector and the ectopic TGEV E protein did not interfere with the rescue of infectious TGEV from full-length cDNA. Recombinant TGEV deficient in the nonessential 3a and 3b genes and the essential E gene (rTGEV-Delta3abDeltaE) was successfully rescued in these cell lines. rTGEV-Delta3abDeltaE reached high titers (10(7) PFU/ml) in baby hamster kidney cells expressing porcine aminopeptidase N (BHK-pAPN), the cellular receptor for TGEV, using Sindbis replicon and reached titers up to 5 x 10(5) PFU/ml in cells stably expressing E protein under the control of the CMV promoter. The virus titers were proportional to the E protein expression level. The rTGEV-Delta3abDeltaE virions produced in the packaging cell line showed the same morphology and stability under different pHs and temperatures as virus derived from the full-length rTGEV genome, although a delay in virus assembly was observed by electron microscopy and virus titration in the complementation system in relation to the wild-type virus. These viruses were stably grown for >10 passages in the E(+) packaging cell lines. The availability of packaging cell lines will significantly facilitate the production of safe TGEV-derived vectors for vaccination and possibly gene therapy.
Project description:Autophagy is an evolutionarily ancient pathway that has been shown to be important in the innate immune defense against several viruses. However, little is known about the regulatory role of autophagy in transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) replication. In this study, we found that TGEV infection increased the number of autophagosome-like double- and single-membrane vesicles in the cytoplasm of host cells, a phenomenon that is known to be related to autophagy. In addition, virus replication was required for the increased amount of the autophagosome marker protein LC3-II. Autophagic flux occurred in TGEV-infected cells, suggesting that TGEV infection triggered a complete autophagic response. When autophagy was pharmacologically inhibited by wortmannin or LY294002, TGEV replication increased. The increase in virus yield via autophagy inhibition was further confirmed by the use of siRNA duplexes, through which three proteins required for autophagy were depleted. Furthermore, TGEV replication was inhibited when autophagy was activated by rapamycin. The antiviral response of autophagy was confirmed by using siRNA to reduce the expression of gene p300, which otherwise inhibits autophagy. Together, the results indicate that TGEV infection activates autophagy and that autophagy then inhibits further TGEV replication.
Project description:In host innate immunity, type I interferons (IFN-I) are major antiviral molecules, and coronaviruses have evolved diverse strategies to counter the IFN-I response during infection. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a member of the Alphacoronavirus family, induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and significant IFN-I production after infection. However, how TGEV evades the IFN-I antiviral response despite the marked induction of endogenous IFN-I has remained unclear. Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 ? (IRE1?), a highly conserved ER stress sensor with both kinase and RNase activities, is involved in the IFN response. In this study, IRE1? facilitated TGEV replication via downmodulating the host microRNA (miR) miR-30a-5p abundance. miR-30a-5p normally enhances IFN-I antiviral activity by directly targeting the negative regulators of Janus family kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), the suppressor of cytokine signaling protein 1 (SOCS1), and SOCS3. Furthermore, TGEV infection increased SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression, which dampened the IFN-I antiviral response and facilitated TGEV replication. Importantly, compared with mock infection, TGEV infection in vivo resulted in decreased miR-30a-5p levels and significantly elevated SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression in the piglet ileum. Taken together, our data reveal a new strategy used by TGEV to escape the IFN-I response by engaging the IRE1?-miR-30a-5p/SOCS1/3 axis, thus improving our understanding of how TGEV escapes host innate immune defenses.IMPORTANCE Type I interferons (IFN-I) play essential roles in restricting viral infections. Coronavirus infection induces ER stress and the interferon response, which reflects different adaptive cellular processes. An understanding of how coronavirus-elicited ER stress is actively involved in viral replication and manipulates the host IFN-I response has remained elusive. Here, TGEV inhibited host miR-30a-5p via the ER stress sensor IRE1?, which led to the increased expression of negative regulators of JAK-STAT signaling cascades, namely, SOCS1 and SOCS3. Increased SOCS1 or SOCS3 expression impaired the IFN-I antiviral response, promoting TGEV replication. These findings enhance our understanding of the strategies used by coronaviruses to antagonize IFN-I innate immunity via IRE1?-mediated manipulation of the miR-30a-5p/SOCS axis, highlighting the crucial role of IRE1? in innate antiviral resistance and the potential of IRE1? as a novel target against coronavirus infection.
Project description:Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV; Coronaviridae family) causes huge economic losses to the swine industry. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a regulatory role in viral infection and may be involved in the mammalian immune response. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of host miRNA expression in TGEV-infected swine testis (ST) cells. Deep sequencing generated 3,704,353 and 2,763,665 reads from uninfected ST cells and infected ST cells, respectively. The reads were aligned to known Sus scrofa pre-miRNAs in miRBase 19, identifying 284 annotated miRNAs. Certain miRNAs were differentially regulated during TGEV infection, which confirmed the hypothesis that specific miRNAs play a regulatory role in virus-host interactions. 59 unique miRNAs displayed significant differentially expression between the normal and TGEV-infected ST cell samples: 15 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated and 44 were significantly down-regulated. Stem-loop RT-PCR was carried out to determine the expression levels of specific miRNAs in the two samples, and the results were consistent with those of sequencing. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of host target genes demonstrated that the differentially expressed miRNAs are involved in regulatory networks, including cellular process, metabolic process, immune system process. This is the first report of the identification of ST cell miRNAs and the comprehensive analysis of the miRNA regulatory mechanism during TGEV infection, which revealed the miRNA molecular regulatory mechanisms for the viral infection, expression of viral genes and the expression of immune-related genes. The results presented here will aid research on the prevention and treatment of viral diseases. 2 ST(Porcine testicular cells) cell samples, ST: normal ST cell sample (contro sample), TGEV: TGEV (Transmissible gastroenteritis virus) infected ST cell samples
Project description:Interferon gamma (IFN-?) is best known for its ability to regulate host immune responses; however, its direct antiviral activity is less well studied. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is an economically important swine enteric coronavirus and causes acute diarrhea in piglets. At present, little is known about the function of IFN-? in the control of TGEV infection. In this study, we demonstrated that IFN-? inhibited TGEV infection directly in ST cells and intestine epithelial IPEC-J2 cells and that the anti-TGEV activity of IFN-? was independent of IFN-?/?. Moreover, IFN-? suppressed TGEV infection in ST cells more efficiently than did IFN-?, and the combination of IFN-? and IFN-? displayed a synergistic effect against TGEV. Mechanistically, using overexpression and functional knockdown experiments, we demonstrated that porcine interferon regulatory factor 1 (poIRF1) elicited by IFN-? primarily mediated IFN-? signaling cascades and the inhibition of TGEV infection by IFN-?. Importantly, we found that TGEV elevated the expression of poIRF1 and IFN-? in infected small intestines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Thus, IFN-? plays a crucial role in curtailing enteric coronavirus infection and may serve as an effective prophylactic and/or therapeutic agent against TGEV infection.
Project description:Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV; Coronaviridae family) causes huge economic losses to the swine industry. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a regulatory role in viral infection and may be involved in the mammalian immune response. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of host miRNA expression in TGEV-infected swine testis (ST) cells. Deep sequencing generated 3,704,353 and 2,763,665 reads from uninfected ST cells and infected ST cells, respectively. The reads were aligned to known Sus scrofa pre-miRNAs in miRBase 19, identifying 284 annotated miRNAs. Certain miRNAs were differentially regulated during TGEV infection. 59 unique miRNAs displayed significant differentially expression between the normal and TGEV-infected ST cell samples: 15 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated and 44 were significantly down-regulated. Stem-loop RT-PCR was carried out to determine the expression levels of specific miRNAs in the two samples, and the results were consistent with those of sequencing. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of host target genes demonstrated that the differentially expressed miRNAs are involved in regulatory networks, including cellular process, metabolic process, immune system process. This is the first report of the identification of ST cell miRNAs and the comprehensive analysis of the miRNA regulatory mechanism during TGEV infection, which revealed the miRNA molecular regulatory mechanisms for the viral infection, expression of viral genes and the expression of immune-related genes. The results presented here will aid research on the prevention and treatment of viral diseases.