NLRP4 negatively regulates type I interferon signaling by targeting the kinase TBK1 for degradation via the ubiquitin ligase DTX4.
ABSTRACT: Stringent control of the type I interferon signaling pathway is important for maintaining host immune responses and homeostasis, yet the molecular mechanisms responsible for its tight regulation are still poorly understood. Here we report that the pattern-recognition receptor NLRP4 regulated the activation of type I interferon mediated by double-stranded RNA or DNA by targeting the kinase TBK1 for degradation. NLRP4 recruited the E3 ubiquitin ligase DTX4 to TBK1 for Lys48 (K48)-linked polyubiquitination at Lys670, which led to degradation of TBK1. Knockdown of either DTX4 or NLRP4 abrogated K48-linked ubiquitination and degradation of TBK1 and enhanced the phosphorylation of TBK1 and the transcription factor IRF3. Our results identify a previously unrecognized role for NLRP4 in the regulation of type I interferon signaling and provide molecular insight into the mechanisms by which NLRP4-DTX4 targets TBK1 for degradation.
Project description:Viral infection activates the transcription factors NF-?B and IRF3, which contribute to the induction of type I interferons (IFNs) and cellular antiviral responses. Protein kinases play a critical role in various signaling pathways by phosphorylating their substrates. Here, we identified dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 2 (DYRK2) as a negative regulator of virus-triggered type I IFN induction. DYRK2 inhibited the virus-triggered induction of type I IFNs and promoted the K48-linked ubiquitination and degradation of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) in a kinase-activity-dependent manner. We further found that DYRK2 phosphorylated Ser527 of TBK1, which is essential for the recruitment of NLRP4 and for the E3 ubiquitin ligase DTX4 to degrade TBK1. These findings suggest that DYRK2 negatively regulates virus-triggered signaling by targeting TBK1 for phosphorylation and priming it for degradation, and these data provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms that dictate the cellular antiviral response.
Project description:RNA virus invasion induces a cytosolic RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) signaling pathway by promoting assembly of the Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) signalosome and triggers the rapid production of type I interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. During this process, the pivotal kinase TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) is recruited to the MAVS signalosome to transduce a robust innate antiviral immune response by phosphorylating transcription factors interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB and promoting their nuclear translocation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the negative regulation of TBK1 are largely unknown. In the present study, we found that THO complex subunit 7 homolog (THOC7) negatively regulated the cellular antiviral response by promoting the proteasomal degradation of TBK1. THOC7 overexpression potently inhibited Sendai virus- or polyI:C-induced IRF3 dimerization and phosphorylation and IFN-β production. In contrast, THOC7 knockdown had the opposite effects. Moreover, we simulated a node-activated pathway to show that THOC7 regulated the RIG-I-like receptors (RLR)-/MAVS-dependent signaling cascade at the TBK1 level. Furthermore, THOC7 was involved in the MAVS signalosome and promoted TBK1 degradation by increasing its K48 ubiquitin-associated polyubiquitination. Together, these findings suggest that THOC7 negatively regulates type I IFN production by promoting TBK1 proteasomal degradation, thus improving our understanding of innate antiviral immune responses.
Project description:Innate immunity to nucleic acids forms the backbone for anti-viral immunity and several inflammatory diseases. Upon sensing cytosolic viral RNA, retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs) interact with the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and activate TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) to induce type I interferon (IFN-I). TRAF3-interacting protein 3 (TRAF3IP3, T3JAM) is essential for T and B cell development. It is also well-expressed by myeloid cells, where its role is unknown. Here we report that TRAF3IP3 suppresses cytosolic poly(I:C), 5'ppp-dsRNA, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) triggers IFN-I expression in overexpression systems and Traf3ip3-/- primary myeloid cells. The mechanism of action is through the interaction of TRAF3IP3 with endogenous TRAF3 and TBK1. This leads to the degradative K48 ubiquitination of TBK1 via its K372 residue in a DTX4-dependent fashion. Mice with myeloid-specific gene deletion of Traf3ip3 have increased RNA virus-triggered IFN-I production and reduced susceptibility to virus. These results identify a function of TRAF3IP3 in the regulation of the host response to cytosolic viral RNA in myeloid cells.
Project description:Optimal activation of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) is crucial for initiation of innate antiviral immunity and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Although several E3 ubiquitin ligases have been reported to regulate TBK1 activation by mediating its polyubiquitination, the functions of deubiquitinase on TBK1 activity remain largely unclear. Here, we identified a deubiquitinase complex, which is formed by ubiquitin specific peptidase 1 (USP1) and USP1-associated factor 1 (UAF1), as a viral infection-induced physiological enhancer of TBK1 expression. USP1-UAF1 complex enhanced TLR3/4 and RIG-I-induced IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation and subsequent IFN-β secretion. Mechanistically, USP1 and UAF1 bound to TBK1, removed its K48-linked polyubiquitination, and then reversed the degradation process of TBK1. Furthermore, we found that ML323, a specific USP1-UAF1 inhibitor, attenuated IFN-β expression and enhanced viral replication both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, our results outline a novel mechanism for the control of TBK1 activity and suggest USP1-UAF1 complex as a potential target for the prevention of viral diseases.
Project description:TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), an IKK-related serine/threonine kinase, is pivotal for the induction of antiviral type I interferon (IFN) by TLR and RLR signaling pathways. In a previous study, we demonstrated that TBK1 spliced isoforms (TBK1_tv1 and TBK1_tv2) from zebrafish were dominant negative regulators in the RLR antiviral pathway by targeting the functional TBK1-IRF3 complex formation. In this study, we show that the third TBK1 isoform (namely TBK1_tv3) inhibits zebrafish type I IFN production by promoting TBK1 and IRF3 degradation. First, ectopic expression of TBK1_tv3 suppresses poly(I:C)- and Spring viremia of carp virus-induced type I IFN response, and also inhibits the up-regulation of IFN promoter activities stimulated by RIG-I, MDA5, MAVS, TBK1, and IRF3. Second, TBK1_tv3 targets TBK1 and IRF3 to impair the formation of TBK1 dimer, TBK1-IRF3 complex, and IRF3 dimer. Notably, TBK1_tv3 promotes the degradation of TBK1 through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the degradation of IRF3 through the lysosomal pathway. Further analysis demonstrates that TBK1_tv3 promotes the degradation of TBK1 for K48-linked ubiquitination by targeting the K251, K256, and K271 sites of TBK1. Collectively, our results suggest a novel TBK1 isoform-mediated negative regulation mechanism, which serves to balance the production of type I IFN and ISGs.
Project description:Type I interferon (IFN) production plays pivotal roles in host antiviral innate immune responses, but an excessive production of type I IFN leads to the development of immunopathological conditions. Investigations on the regulatory mechanisms underlying host type I IFN production are currently of great interest. Here, we found that the expression of lectin family member Siglec1 was upregulated by viral infection in macrophages, which was dependent on the IFN/JAK/STAT1 signaling pathway. Siglec1 was found to negatively regulate viral infection-triggered type I IFN production. Mechanistically, Siglec1 associates with DAP12 to recruit and activate the scaffolding function of SHP2; SHP2 then recruits E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM27, which induces TBK1 degradation via K48-linked ubiquitination at Lys251 and Lys372. Therefore, viral infection-induced upregulation of Siglec1 feedback loop inhibits type I IFN production and suppresses antiviral innate immune responses. Our study outlines a novel mechanism of negative regulation of type I IFN production, which may help virus to escape immune elimination.
Project description:After viral infection and the stimulation of some pattern-recognition receptors, TANK-binding kinase I (TBK1) is activated by K63-linked polyubiquitination followed by trans-autophosphorylation. While the activated TBK1 induces type I interferon production by phosphorylating the transcription factor IRF3, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying TBK1 activation remain unclear.We report here the localization of the ubiquitinated and phosphorylated active form of TBK1 to the Golgi apparatus after the stimulation of RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) or Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3), due to TBK1 K63-linked ubiquitination on lysine residues 30 and 401. The ubiquitin-binding protein optineurin (OPTN) recruits ubiquitinated TBK1 to the Golgi apparatus, leading to the formation of complexes in which TBK1 is activated by trans-autophosphorylation. Indeed, OPTN deficiency in various cell lines and primary cells impairs TBK1 targeting to the Golgi apparatus and its activation following RLR or TLR3 stimulation. Interestingly, the Bluetongue virus NS3 protein binds OPTN at the Golgi apparatus, neutralizing its activity and thereby decreasing TBK1 activation and downstream signaling.Our results highlight an unexpected role of the Golgi apparatus in innate immunity as a key subcellular gateway for TBK1 activation after RNA virus infection.
Project description:TANK-binding kinase-1 (TBK1) is an integral component of Type I interferon induction by microbial infection. The importance of TBK1 and Type I interferon in antiviral immunity is well established, but the function of TBK1 in bacterial infection is unclear. Upon infection of murine embryonic fibroblasts with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella), more extensive bacterial proliferation was observed in tbk1(-/-) than tbk1(+/+) cells. TBK1 kinase activity was required for restriction of bacterial infection, but interferon regulatory factor-3 or Type I interferon did not contribute to this TBK1-dependent function. In tbk1(-/-)cells, Salmonella, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pyogenes escaped from vacuoles into the cytosol where increased replication occurred, which suggests that TBK1 regulates the integrity of pathogen-containing vacuoles. Knockdown of tbk1 in macrophages and epithelial cells also resulted in increased bacterial localization in the cytosol, indicating that the role of TBK1 in maintaining vacuolar integrity is relevant in different cell types. Taken together, these data demonstrate a requirement for TBK1 in control of bacterial infection distinct from its established role in antiviral immunity.
Project description:DDX41 is a sensor of intracellular double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) that triggers a type I interferon response via the signaling adaptor STING. We identified the E3 ligase TRIM21 as a DDX41-interacting protein and found that knockdown of or deficiency in TRIM21 resulted in enhanced type I interferon responses to intracellular dsDNA and DNA viruses. Overexpression of TRIM21 resulted in more degradation of DDX41 and less production of interferon-? (IFN-?) in response to intracellular dsDNA. The SPRY-PRY domain of TRIM21 interacted with the DEADc domain of DDX41. Lys9 and Lys115 of DDX41 were the targets of TRIM21-mediated ubiquitination. TRIM21 is therefore an interferon-inducible E3 ligase that induces the Lys48 (K48)-linked ubiquitination and degradation of DDX41 and negatively regulates the innate immune response to intracellular dsDNA.
Project description:Type I interferon (IFN) is an important component of antiviral innate immune signaling mediated by viral DNA and RNA recognition by the DNA sensor cGAS and RNA sensors RIG-I and MDA5. Activation of these DNA and RNA sensors leads to the recruitment of STING and MAVS, respectively, and converges on TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) signaling for subsequent phosphorylation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). However, the mechanisms that control TBK1 activation are still poorly defined. Here, we identify tripartite motif 9 short isoform (TRIM9s) as a positive regulator in type I IFN signaling. Upon viral infection, TRIM9s undergoes Lys-63-linked auto-polyubiquitination and serves as a platform to bridge GSK3? to TBK1, leading to the activation of IRF3 signaling. Interestingly, we found that TRIM9s selectively inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but enhances the expression of type I IFNs as well as IFN-stimulated genes, in response to viral infection. Our findings reveal novel dual functions of TRIM9s in antiviral immunity, which serve to balance pro-inflammatory response and production of type I IFNs.