Interferon-inducible protein 16: insight into the interaction with tumor suppressor p53.
ABSTRACT: IFI16 is a member of the interferon-inducible HIN-200 family of nuclear proteins. It has been implicated in transcriptional regulation by modulating protein-protein interactions with p53 tumor suppressor protein and other transcription factors. However, the mechanisms of interaction remain unknown. Here, we report the crystal structures of both HIN-A and HIN-B domains of IFI16 determined at 2.0 and 2.35 Å resolution, respectively. Each HIN domain comprises a pair of tightly packed OB-fold subdomains that appear to act as a single unit. We show that both HIN domains of IFI16 are capable of enhancing p53-DNA complex formation and transcriptional activation via distinctive means. HIN-A domain binds to the basic C terminus of p53, whereas the HIN-B domain binds to the core DNA-binding region of p53. Both interactions are compatible with the DNA-bound state of p53 and together contribute to the effect of full-length IFI16 on p53-DNA complex formation and transcriptional activation.
Project description:Interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) is a member of the HIN-200 protein family, containing two HIN domains and one PYRIN domain. IFI16 acts as a sensor of viral and bacterial DNA and is important for innate immune responses. IFI16 binds DNA and binding has been described to be DNA length-dependent, but a preference for supercoiled DNA has also been demonstrated. Here we report a specific preference of IFI16 for binding to quadruplex DNA compared to other DNA structures. IFI16 binds to quadruplex DNA with significantly higher affinity than to the same sequence in double stranded DNA. By circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy we also demonstrated the ability of IFI16 to stabilize quadruplex structures with quadruplex-forming oligonucleotides derived from human telomere (HTEL) sequences and the MYC promotor. A novel H/D exchange mass spectrometry approach was developed to assess protein interactions with quadruplex DNA. Quadruplex DNA changed the IFI16 deuteration profile in parts of the PYRIN domain (aa 0-80) and in structurally identical parts of both HIN domains (aa 271-302 and aa 586-617) compared to single stranded or double stranded DNAs, supporting the preferential affinity of IFI16 for structured DNA. Our results reveal the importance of quadruplex DNA structure in IFI16 binding and improve our understanding of how IFI16 senses DNA. IFI16 selectivity for quadruplex structure provides a mechanistic framework for IFI16 in immunity and cellular processes including DNA damage responses and cell proliferation.
Project description:The HIN-200 family of proteins play significant roles in inflammation-related processes. Among them, AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2) and IFI16 (?-interferon-inducible protein 16) recognize double-stranded DNA to initiate inflammatory responses. In contrast, p202, a mouse interferon-inducible protein containing two HIN domains (HINa and HINb), has been reported to inhibit Aim2-mediated inflammatory signalling in mouse. To understand the inhibitory mechanism, the crystal structure of the p202 HINa domain in complex with a 20?bp DNA was determined, in which p202 HINa nonspecifically recognizes both strands of DNA through electrostatic attraction. The p202 HINa domain binds DNA more tightly than does AIM2 HIN, and the DNA-binding mode of p202 HINa is different from that of the AIM2 HIN and IFI16 HINb domains. These results, together with the reported data on p202 HINb, lead to an interaction model for full-length p202 and dsDNA which provides a conceivable mechanism for the negative regulation of Aim2 inflammasome activation by p202.
Project description:BACKGROUND:ALRs (AIM2-like Receptors) are germline encoded PRRs that belong to PYHIN gene family of cytokines, which are having signature N-terminal PYD (Pyrin, PAAD or DAPIN) domain and C-terminal HIN-200 (hematopoietic, interferon-inducible nuclear protein with 200 amino acid repeat) domain joined by a linker region. The positively charged HIN-200 domain senses and binds with negatively charged phosphate groups of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) purely through electrostatic attractions. On the other hand, PYD domain interacts homotypically with a PYD domain of other mediators to pass the signals to effector molecules downwards the pathways for inflammatory responses. There is remarkable inter-specific diversity in the numbers of functional PYHIN genes e.g. one in cow, five in human, thirteen in mice etc., while there is a unique loss of PYHIN genes in the bat genomes which was revealed by Ahn et al. (2016) by studying genomes of ten different bat species belonging to sub-orders yinpterochiroptera and yangochiroptera. The conflicts between host and pathogen interfaces are compared with "Red queen's arms race" which is also described as binding seeking dynamics and binding avoidance dynamics. As a result of this never-ending rivalry, eukaryotes developed PRRs as antiviral mechanism while viruses developed counter mechanisms to evade host immune defense. The PYHIN receptors are directly engaged with pathogenic molecules, so these should have evolved under the influence of selection pressures. In the current study, we investigated the nature of selection pressure on different domain types of IFI16-like (IFI16-L) PYHIN genes in ruminants. RESULTS:Three transcript variants of the IFI16-like gene were found in PBMCs of ruminant animals-water buffalo, zebu cattle, goat, and sheep. The IFI16-like gene has one N-terminal PYD domain and one C-terminal HIN-200 domain, separated by an inter-domain linker region. HIN domain and inter-domain region are positively selected while the PYD domain is under the influence of purifying selection. CONCLUSION:Herein, we conclude that the nature of selection pressure varies on different parts (PYD domain, HIN domain, and inter-domain linker region) of IFI16-like PYHIN genes in the ruminants. This data can be useful to predict the molecular determinants of pathogen interactions.
Project description:Mouse p202 containing two hemopoietic expression, interferon inducibility, nuclear localization (HIN) domains antagonizes AIM2 inflammasome signaling and potentially modifies lupus susceptibility. We found that only HIN1 of p202 binds double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), while HIN2 forms a homotetramer. Crystal structures of HIN1 revealed that dsDNA is bound on face opposite the site used in AIM2 and IFI16. The structure of HIN2 revealed a dimer of dimers, the face analogous to the HIN1 dsDNA binding site being a dimerization interface. Electron microscopy imaging showed that HIN1 is flexibly linked to HIN2 in p202, and tetramerization provided enhanced avidity for dsDNA. Surprisingly, HIN2 of p202 interacts with the AIM HIN domain. We propose that this results in a spatial separation of the AIM2 pyrin domains, and indeed p202 prevented the dsDNA-dependent clustering of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and AIM2 inflammasome activation. We hypothesize that while p202 was evolutionarily selected to limit AIM2-mediated inflammation in some mouse strains, the same mechanism contributes to increased interferon production and lupus susceptibility.
Project description:Recognition of DNA by the innate immune system is central to antiviral and antibacterial defenses, as well as an important contributor to autoimmune diseases involving self DNA. AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2) and IFI16 (interferon-inducible protein 16) have been identified as DNA receptors that induce inflammasome formation and interferon production, respectively. Here we present the crystal structures of their HIN domains in complex with double-stranded (ds) DNA. Non-sequence-specific DNA recognition is accomplished through electrostatic attraction between the positively charged HIN domain residues and the dsDNA sugar-phosphate backbone. An intramolecular complex of the AIM2 Pyrin and HIN domains in an autoinhibited state is liberated by DNA binding, which may facilitate the assembly of inflammasomes along the DNA staircase. These findings provide mechanistic insights into dsDNA as the activation trigger and oligomerization platform for the assembly of large innate signaling complexes such as the inflammasomes.
Project description:Members of the family of pyrin and HIN domain containing (PYHIN) proteins play an emerging role in innate immunity. While absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) acts a cytosolic sensor of non-self DNA and plays a key role in inflammasome assembly, the ?-interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) restricts retroviral gene expression by sequestering the transcription factor Sp1. Here, we show that the remaining two human PYHIN proteins, i.e. myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) and pyrin and HIN domain family member 1 (PYHIN1 or IFIX) share this antiretroviral function of IFI16. On average, knock-down of each of these three nuclear PYHIN proteins increased infectious HIV-1 yield from human macrophages by more than an order of magnitude. Similarly, knock-down of IFI16 strongly increased virus transcription and production in primary CD4+ T cells. The N-terminal pyrin domain (PYD) plus linker region containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) were generally required and sufficient for Sp1 sequestration and anti-HIV-1 activity of IFI16, MNDA and PYHIN1. Replacement of the linker region of AIM2 by the NLS-containing linker of IFI16 resulted in a predominantly nuclear localization and conferred direct antiviral activity to AIM2 while attenuating its ability to form inflammasomes. The reverse change caused nuclear-to-cytoplasmic relocalization of IFI16 and impaired its antiretroviral activity but did not result in inflammasome assembly. We further show that the Zn-finger domain of Sp1 is critical for the interaction with IFI16 supporting that pyrin domains compete with DNA for Sp1 binding. Finally, we found that human PYHIN proteins also inhibit Hepatitis B virus and simian vacuolating virus 40 as well as the LINE-1 retrotransposon. Altogether, our data show that IFI16, PYHIN1 and MNDA restrict HIV-1 and other viral pathogens by interfering with Sp1-dependent gene expression and support an important role of nuclear PYHIN proteins in innate antiviral immunity.
Project description:The interferon ?-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) is known as immune sensor of retroviral DNA intermediates. We show that IFI16 restricts HIV-1 independently of immune sensing by binding and inhibiting the host transcription factor Sp1 that drives viral gene expression. This antiretroviral activity and ability to bind Sp1 require the N-terminal pyrin domain and nuclear localization of IFI16, but not the HIN domains involved in DNA binding. Highly prevalent clade C HIV-1 strains are more resistant to IFI16 and less dependent on Sp1 than other HIV-1 subtypes. Furthermore, inhibition of Sp1 by IFI16 or pharmacologically by Mithramycin A suppresses reactivation of latent HIV-1 in CD4+ T cells. Finally, IFI16 also inhibits retrotransposition of LINE-1, known to engage Sp1, and murine IFI16 homologs restrict Friend retrovirus replication in mice. Thus, IFI16 restricts retroviruses and retrotransposons by interfering with Sp1-dependent gene expression, and evasion from this restriction may facilitate spread of HIV-1 subtype C.
Project description:Mouse p202 is a disease locus for lupus and a dominant-negative inhibitor of AIM2 inflammasome activation. A human homolog of p202 has not been identified so far. Here, we report a novel transcript isoform of human IFI16-designated IFI16-?, which has a domain architecture similar to that of mouse p202. Like p202, IFI16-? contains two HIN domains, but lacks the pyrin domain. IFI16-? is ubiquitously expressed in various human tissues and cells. Its mRNA levels are also elevated in leukocytes of patients with lupus, virus-infected cells, and cells treated with interferon-? or phorbol ester. IFI16-? co-localizes with AIM2 in the cytoplasm, whereas IFI16-? is predominantly found in the nucleus. IFI16-? interacts with AIM2 to impede the formation of a functional AIM2-ASC complex. In addition, IFI16-? sequesters cytoplasmic dsDNA and renders it unavailable for AIM2 sensing. Enforced expression of IFI16-? inhibits the activation of AIM2 inflammasome, whereas knockdown of IFI16-? augments interleukin-1? secretion triggered by dsDNA but not dsRNA Thus, cytoplasm-localized IFI16-? is functionally equivalent to mouse p202 that exerts an inhibitory effect on AIM2 inflammasome.
Project description:The interferon (IFN)-inducible p200-protein family includes structurally related murine (for example, p202a, p202b, p204, and Aim2) and human (for example, AIM2 and IFI16) proteins. All proteins in the family share a partially conserved repeat of 200-amino acid residues (also called HIN-200 domain) in the C-terminus. Additionally, most proteins (except the p202a and p202b proteins) also share a protein-protein interaction pyrin domain (PYD) in the N-terminus. The HIN-200 domain contains two consecutive oligosaccharide/oligonucleotide binding folds (OB-folds) to bind double stranded DNA (dsDNA). The PYD domain in proteins allows interactions with the family members and an adaptor protein ASC. Upon sensing cytosolic dsDNA, Aim2, p204, and AIM2 proteins recruit ASC protein to form an inflammasome, resulting in increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. However, IFI16 protein can sense cytosolic as well as nuclear dsDNA. Interestingly, the IFI16 protein contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Accordingly, the initial studies had indicated that the endogenous IFI16 protein is detected in the nucleus and within the nucleus in the nucleolus. However, several recent reports suggest that subcellular localization of IFI16 protein in nuclear versus cytoplasmic (or both) compartment depends on cell type. Given that the IFI16 protein can sense cytosolic as well as nuclear dsDNA and can initiate different innate immune responses (production of IFN-? versus proinflammatory cytokines), here we evaluate the experimental evidence for the regulation of subcellular localization of IFI16 protein in various cell types. We conclude that further studies are needed to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate the subcellular localization of IFI16 protein.
Project description:Molecular interactions between the tumor suppressor p53 and the transcriptional coactivators CBP/p300 are critical for the regulation of p53 transactivation and stability. The transactivation domain (TAD) of p53 binds directly to several CBP/p300 domains (TAZ1, TAZ2, NCBD, and KIX). Here we map the interaction between the p53 TAD and the CBP KIX domain using isothermal titration calorimetry and NMR spectroscopy. KIX is a structural domain in CBP/p300 that can simultaneously bind two polypeptide ligands, such as the activation domain of MLL and the kinase-inducible activation domain (pKID) of CREB, using distinct interaction surfaces. The p53 TAD consists of two subdomains (AD1 and AD2); peptides corresponding to the isolated AD1 and AD2 subdomains interact with KIX with relatively low affinity, but a longer peptide containing both subdomains binds KIX tightly. In the context of the full-length p53 TAD, AD1 and AD2 bind synergistically to KIX. Mapping of the chemical shift perturbations onto the structure of KIX shows that isolated AD1 and AD2 peptides bind to both the MLL and pKID sites. Spin-labeling experiments show that the complex of the full-length p53 TAD with KIX is disordered, with the AD1 and AD2 subdomains each interacting with both the MLL and pKID binding surfaces. Phosphorylation of the p53 TAD at Thr18 or Ser20 increases the KIX binding affinity. The affinity is further enhanced by simultaneous phosphorylation of Thr18 and Ser20, and the specificity of the interaction is increased. The p53 TAD simultaneously occupies the two distinct sites that have been identified on the CBP KIX domain and efficiently competes for these sites with other known KIX-binding transcription factors.