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Phylogenetic analysis on the soil bacteria distributed in karst forest.
ABSTRACT: Phylogenetic composition of bacterial community in soil of a karst forest was analyzed by culture-independent molecular approach. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified directly from soil DNA and cloned to generate a library. After screening the clone library by RFLP, 16S rRNA genes of representative clones were sequenced and the bacterial community was analyzed phylogenetically. The 16S rRNA gene inserts of 190 clones randomly selected were analyzed by RFLP and generated 126 different RFLP types. After sequencing, 126 non-chimeric sequences were obtained, generating 113 phylotypes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bacteria distributed in soil of the karst forest included the members assigning into Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi (Green nonsulfur bacteria), Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Nitrospirae, Actinobacteria (High G+C Gram-positive bacteria), Firmicutes (Low G+C Gram-positive bacteria) and candidate divisions (including the SPAM and GN08).
Project description:The diversity and composition of soil bacterial communities were compared among six Austrian natural forests, including oak-hornbeam, spruce-fir-beech, and Austrian pine forests, using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP, or TRF) analysis and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes. The forests studied differ greatly in soil chemical characteristics, microbial biomass, and nutrient turnover rates. The aim of this study was to relate these differences to the composition of the bacterial communities inhabiting the individual forest soils. Both TRF profiling and clone sequence analysis revealed that the bacterial communities in soils under Austrian pine forests, representing azonal forest types, were distinct from those in soils under zonal oak-hornbeam and spruce-fir-beech forests, which were more similar in community composition. Clones derived from an Austrian pine forest soil were mostly affiliated with high-G+C gram-positive bacteria (49%), followed by members of the alpha-Proteobacteria (20%) and the Holophaga/Acidobacterium group (12%). Clones in libraries from oak-hornbeam and spruce-fir-beech forest soils were mainly related to the Holophaga/Acidobacterium group (28 and 35%), followed by members of the Verrucomicrobia (24%) and the alpha-Proteobacteria (27%), respectively. The soil bacterial communities in forests with distinct vegetational and soil chemical properties appeared to be well differentiated based on 16S rRNA gene phylogeny. In particular, the outstanding position of the Austrian pine forests, which are determined by specific soil conditions, was reflected in the bacterial community composition.
Project description:Spatial patterns and drivers of soil microbial communities have not yet been well documented. Here, we used geostatistical modeling and Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to explore how the main microbial taxa at the phyla level are spatially distributed in a 25-ha karst broadleaf forest in southwest China. Proteobacteria, dominated by Alpha- and Deltaproteobacteria, was the most abundant phylum (34.51%) in the karst forest soils. Other dominating phyla were Actinobacteria (30.73%), and Acidobacteria (12.24%). Soil microbial taxa showed spatial dependence with an autocorrelation range of 44.4-883.0 m, most of them within the scope of the study plots (500 m). An increasing trend was observed for Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, and Chloroflexi from north to south in the study area, but an opposite trend for Actinobacteria, Acidobacteira, and Firmicutes was observed. Thaumarchaeota, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, and Verrucomicrobia had patchy patterns, Nitrospirae had a unimodal pattern, and Latescibacteria had an intermittent pattern with low and high value strips. Location, soil total phosphorus, elevation, and plant density were significantly correlated with main soil bacterial taxa in the karst forest. Moreover, the total variation in soil microbial communities better explained by spatial factors than environmental variables. Furthermore, a large part of variation (76.8%) was unexplained in the study. Therefore, our results suggested that dispersal limitation was the primary driver of spatial pattern of soil microbial taxa in broadleaved forest in karst areas, and other environmental variables (i.e., soil porosity and temperature) should be taken into consideration.
Project description:Soil microbial communities play an important role in forest ecosystem functioning, but how climate change will affect the community composition and consequently bacterial functions is poorly understood. We assessed the effects of reduced precipitation with the aim of simulating realistic future drought conditions for one growing season on the bacterial community and its relation to soil properties and forest management. We manipulated precipitation in beech and conifer forest plots managed at different levels of intensity in three different regions across Germany. The precipitation reduction decreased soil water content across the growing season by between 2 to 8% depending on plot and region. T-RFLP analysis and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used to study the total soil bacterial community and its active members after six months of precipitation reduction. The effect of reduced precipitation on the total bacterial community structure was negligible while significant effects could be observed for the active bacteria. However, the effect was secondary to the stronger influence of specific soil characteristics across the three regions and management selection of overstorey tree species and their respective understorey vegetation. The impact of reduced precipitation differed between the studied plots; however, we could not determine the particular parameters being able to modify the response of the active bacterial community among plots. We conclude that the moderate drought induced by the precipitation manipulation treatment started to affect the active but not the total bacterial community, which points to an adequate resistance of the soil microbial system over one growing season.
Project description:Soil bacteria provide a large range of ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling. Despite their important role in soil systems, compositional and functional responses of bacterial communities to different land use and management regimes are not fully understood. Here, we assessed soil bacterial communities in 150 forest and 150 grassland soils derived from three German regions by pyrotag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Land use type (forest and grassland) and soil edaphic properties strongly affected bacterial community structure and function, whereas management regime had a minor effect. In addition, a separation of soil bacterial communities by sampling region was encountered. Soil pH was the best predictor for bacterial community structure, diversity and function. The application of multinomial log-linear models revealed distinct responses of abundant bacterial groups towards pH. Predicted functional profiles revealed that differences in land use not only select for distinct bacterial populations but also for specific functional traits. The combination of 16S rRNA data and corresponding functional profiles provided comprehensive insights into compositional and functional adaptations to changing environmental conditions associated with differences in land use and management.
Project description:In soil, Acidobacteria constitute on average 20% of all bacteria, are highly diverse, and are physiologically active in situ. However, their individual functions and interactions with higher taxa in soil are still unknown. Here, potential effects of land use, soil properties, plant diversity, and soil nanofauna on acidobacterial community composition were studied by cultivation-independent methods in grassland and forest soils from three different regions in Germany. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries representing all studied soils revealed that grassland soils were dominated by subgroup Gp6 and forest soils by subgroup Gp1 Acidobacteria. The analysis of a large number of sites (n = 57) by 16S rRNA gene fingerprinting methods (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism [T-RFLP] and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE]) showed that Acidobacteria diversities differed between grassland and forest soils but also among the three different regions. Edaphic properties, such as pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, phosphorus, nitrate, ammonium, soil moisture, soil temperature, and soil respiration, had an impact on community composition as assessed by fingerprinting. However, interrelations with environmental parameters among subgroup terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) differed significantly, e.g., different Gp1 T-RFs correlated positively or negatively with nitrogen content. Novel significant correlations of Acidobacteria subpopulations (i.e., individual populations within subgroups) with soil nanofauna and vascular plant diversity were revealed only by analysis of clone sequences. Thus, for detecting novel interrelations of environmental parameters with Acidobacteria, individual populations within subgroups have to be considered.
Project description:Vegetation restoration has been widely used in karst rocky desertification (KRD) areas of southwestern China, but the response of microbial community to revegetation has not been well characterized. We investigated the diversity, structure, and co-occurrence patterns of bacterial communities in soils of five vegetation types (grassland, shrubbery, secondary forest, pure plantation and mixed plantation) in KRD area using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity analysis revealed that 15 bacterial community samples were clustered into five groups that corresponded very well to the five vegetation types. Shannon diversity was positively correlated with pH and Ca2+ content but negatively correlated with organic carbon, total nitrogen, and soil moisture. Redundancy analysis indicated that soil pH, Ca2+ content, organic carbon, total nitrogen, and soil moisture jointly influenced bacterial community structure. Co-occurrence network analysis revealed non-random assembly patterns of bacterial composition in the soils. Bryobacter, GR-WP33-30, and Rhizomicrobium were identified as keystone genera in co-occurrence network. These results indicate that diverse soil physicochemical properties and potential interactions among taxa during vegetation restoration may jointly affect the bacterial community structure in KRD regions.
Project description:Tropical forests are being rapidly altered by logging and cleared for agriculture. Understanding the effects of these land use changes on soil bacteria, which constitute a large proportion of total biodiversity and perform important ecosystem functions, is a major conservation frontier. Here we studied the effects of logging history and forest conversion to oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo, on the soil bacterial community. We used paired-end Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, V3 region, to compare the bacterial communities in primary, once-logged, and twice-logged forest and land converted to oil palm plantations. Bacteria were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% similarity level, and OTU richness and local-scale ?-diversity showed no difference between the various forest types and oil palm plantations. Focusing on the turnover of bacteria across space, true ?-diversity was higher in oil palm plantation soil than in forest soil, whereas community dissimilarity-based metrics of ?-diversity were only marginally different between habitats, suggesting that at large scales, oil palm plantation soil could have higher overall ?-diversity than forest soil, driven by a slightly more heterogeneous community across space. Clearance of primary and logged forest for oil palm plantations did, however, significantly impact the composition of soil bacterial communities, reflecting in part the loss of some forest bacteria, whereas primary and logged forests did not differ in composition. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacteria of tropical forest are to some extent resilient or resistant to logging but that the impacts of forest conversion to oil palm plantations are more severe.
Project description:Estimates of the number of species of bacteria per gram of soil vary between 2000 and 8.3 million (Gans et al., 2005; Schloss and Handelsman, 2006). The highest estimate suggests that the number may be so large as to be impractical to test by amplification and sequencing of the highly conserved 16S rRNA gene from soil DNA (Gans et al., 2005). Here we present the use of high throughput DNA pyrosequencing and statistical inference to assess bacterial diversity in four soils across a large transect of the western hemisphere. The number of bacterial 16S rRNA sequences obtained from each site varied from 26,140 to 53,533. The most abundant bacterial groups in all four soils were the Bacteroidetes, Betaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. Using three estimators of diversity, the maximum number of unique sequences (operational taxonomic units roughly corresponding to the species level) never exceeded 52,000 in these soils at the lowest level of dissimilarity. Furthermore, the bacterial diversity of the forest soil was phylum rich compared to the agricultural soils, which are species rich but phylum poor. The forest site also showed far less diversity of the Archaea with only 0.009% of all sequences from that site being from this group as opposed to 4%-12% of the sequences from the three agricultural sites. This work is the most comprehensive examination to date of bacterial diversity in soil and suggests that agricultural management of soil may significantly influence the diversity of bacteria and archaea.
Project description:We studied the resident (16S rDNA) and the active (16S rRNA) members of soil archaeal and bacterial communities during rice plant development by sampling three growth stages (vegetative, reproductive and maturity) under field conditions. Additionally, the microbial community was investigated in two non-flooded fields (unplanted, cultivated with upland maize) in order to monitor the reaction of the microbial communities to non-flooded, dry conditions. The abundance of Bacteria and Archaea was monitored by quantitative PCR showing an increase in 16S rDNA during reproductive stage and stable 16S rRNA copies throughout the growth season. Community profiling by T-RFLP indicated a relatively stable composition during rice plant growth whereas pyrosequencing revealed minor changes in relative abundance of a few bacterial groups. Comparison of the two non-flooded fields with flooded rice fields showed that the community composition of the Bacteria was slightly different, while that of the Archaea was almost the same. Only the relative abundance of Methanosarcinaceae and Soil Crenarchaeotic Group increased in non-flooded vs. flooded soil. The abundance of bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA copies was highest in flooded rice fields, followed by non-flooded maize and unplanted fields. However, the abundance of ribosomal RNA (active microbes) was similar indicating maintenance of a high level of ribosomal RNA under the non-flooded conditions, which were unfavorable for anaerobic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. This maintenance possibly serves as preparedness for activity when conditions improve. In summary, the analyses showed that the bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting Philippine rice field soil were relatively stable over the season but reacted upon change in field management.
Project description:The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is one of the 25 biodiversity hot spots in the world. Although the diversity of its fauna and flora has been studied fairly well, little is known of its microbial communities. In this work, we analyzed the Atlantic Forest ecosystem to determine its bacterial biodiversity, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and correlated changes in deduced taxonomic profiles with the physicochemical characteristics of the soil. DNAs were purified from soil samples, and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified to construct libraries. Comparison of 754 independent 16S rRNA gene sequences from 10 soil samples collected along a transect in an altitude gradient showed the prevalence of Acidobacteria (63%), followed by Proteobacteria (25.2%), Gemmatimonadetes (1.6%), Actinobacteria (1.2%), Bacteroidetes (1%), Chloroflexi (0.66%), Nitrospira (0.4%), Planctomycetes (0.4%), Firmicutes (0.26%), and OP10 (0.13%). Forty-eight sequences (6.5%) represented unidentified bacteria. The Shannon diversity indices of the samples varied from 4.12 to 3.57, indicating that the soils have a high level of diversity. Statistical analysis showed that the bacterial diversity is influenced by factors such as altitude, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio, and Al(3+) and phosphorus content, which also affected the diversity within the same lineage. In the samples analyzed, pH had no significant impact on diversity.