Genomic identification of founding haplotypes reveals the history of the selfing species Capsella rubella.
ABSTRACT: The shift from outcrossing to self-fertilization is among the most common evolutionary transitions in flowering plants. Until recently, however, a genome-wide view of this transition has been obscured by both a dearth of appropriate data and the lack of appropriate population genomic methods to interpret such data. Here, we present a novel population genomic analysis detailing the origin of the selfing species, Capsella rubella, which recently split from its outcrossing sister, Capsella grandiflora. Due to the recency of the split, much of the variation within C. rubella is also found within C. grandiflora. We can therefore identify genomic regions where two C. rubella individuals have inherited the same or different segments of ancestral diversity (i.e. founding haplotypes) present in C. rubella's founder(s). Based on this analysis, we show that C. rubella was founded by multiple individuals drawn from a diverse ancestral population closely related to extant C. grandiflora, that drift and selection have rapidly homogenized most of this ancestral variation since C. rubella's founding, and that little novel variation has accumulated within this time. Despite the extensive loss of ancestral variation, the approximately 25% of the genome for which two C. rubella individuals have inherited different founding haplotypes makes up roughly 90% of the genetic variation between them. To extend these findings, we develop a coalescent model that utilizes the inferred frequency of founding haplotypes and variation within founding haplotypes to estimate that C. rubella was founded by a potentially large number of individuals between 50 and 100 kya, and has subsequently experienced a twenty-fold reduction in its effective population size. As population genomic data from an increasing number of outcrossing/selfing pairs are generated, analyses like the one developed here will facilitate a fine-scaled view of the evolutionary and demographic impact of the transition to self-fertilization.
Project description:RNA-seq reads from the selfing species Arabidopsis thaliana were produced from flowers to study the consequences of the transition from the ancestral state (outcrossing) to the derived state (selfing). This was done in the context of examining another species in the Arabidopsis genus (A. lyrata) and another species pair (Capsella rubella versus Capsella grandiflora, which are selfing and outcrossing, respectively). These samples were generated to complement part of this larger study. Briefly, the shift from outcrossing to selfing is common in flowering plants, but neither the genomic consequences nor the speed with which they appear are well understood. An excellent model for understanding the evolution of self fertilization is provided by Capsella rubella, which became self-compatible <200,000 years ago. We present a reference genome for the species, and compare RNA expression and polymorphism patterns between C. rubella and its outcrossing progenitor C. grandiflora. There is a clear shift in the expression of genes associated with flowering phenotypes; a similar shift is seen in the related genus Arabidopsis, where self-fertilization evolved about 1 million years ago. DNA sequence polymorphisms distinguishing the two Capsella species reveal rapid genome-wide relaxation of purifying selection in C. rubella but without a concomitant change in transposable element abundance. Overall, we document that the transition to selfing may be typified by shifts in expression for genes that function in pollen and flower development, along with a measurable reduction of purifying selection. As part of a cross-species comparison of gene expression, RNA-seq data was generated in biological replication (2 replicates) from Arabidopsis thaliana at the floral stage. In total, two samples (biological replicates) were used. The reference strain was used for the experments (strain Col-0). Resulting data about gene expression was used as part of a larger study. The Capsella rubella and Capsella grandiflora data are included in GEO Series GSE45518.
Project description:RNA-seq reads from the outcrossing species Arabidopsis lyrata were produced from flowers to study the consequences of the transition from the ancestral state (outcrossing) to the derived state (selfing) that is observed in the sister species Arabidopsis thaliana. This was done in the context of examining another species pair (Capsella rubella versus Capsella grandiflora, which are selfing and outcrossing, respectively). These samples were generated to complement part of this larger study. Briefly, the shift from outcrossing to selfing is common in flowering plants, but neither the genomic consequences nor the speed with which they appear are well understood. An excellent model for understanding the evolution of self fertilization is provided by Capsella rubella, which became self-compatible <200,000 years ago. We present a reference genome for the species, and compare RNA expression and polymorphism patterns between C. rubella and its outcrossing progenitor C. grandiflora. There is a clear shift in the expression of genes associated with flowering phenotypes; a similar shift is seen in the related genus Arabidopsis, where self-fertilization evolved about 1 million years ago. DNA sequence polymorphisms distinguishing the two Capsella species reveal rapid genome-wide relaxation of purifying selection in C. rubella but without a concomitant change in transposable element abundance. Overall, we document that the transition to selfing may be typified by shifts in expression for genes that function in pollen and flower development, along with a measurable reduction of purifying selection. As part of a cross-species comparison of gene expression, RNA-seq data was generated in biological replication (2 replicates) from Arabidopsis lyrata at the floral stage. In total, two samples (biological replicates) were used. The reference strain was used for the experments (strain MN47). Resulting data about gene expression was used as part of a larger study. The Capsella rubella and Capsella grandiflora data are included in GEO Series GSE45518.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Population bottlenecks can lead to a loss of variation at disease resistance loci, which could have important consequences for the ability of populations to adapt to pathogen pressure. Alternatively, current or past balancing selection could maintain high diversity, creating a strong heterogeneity in the retention of polymorphism across the genome of bottlenecked populations. We sequenced part of the LRR region of 9 NBS-LRR disease resistance genes in the outcrossing Capsella grandiflora and the recently derived, bottlenecked selfing species Capsella rubella, and compared levels and patterns of nucleotide diversity and divergence with genome-wide reference loci. RESULTS:In strong contrast with reference loci, average diversity at resistance loci was comparable between C. rubella and C. grandiflora, primarily due to two loci with highly elevated diversity indicative of past or present balancing selection. Average between-species differentiation was also reduced at the set of R-genes compared with reference loci, which is consistent with the maintenance of ancestral polymorphism. CONCLUSIONS:Historical or ongoing balancing selection on plant disease resistance genes is a likely contributor to the retention of ancestral polymorphism in some regions of the bottlenecked Capella rubella genome.
Project description:The transition to selfing in Capsella rubella accompanies its recent divergence from the ancestral outcrossing C. grandiflora species about 100,000 years ago. Whether the change in mating system was accompanied by the evolution of additional reproductive barriers that enforced species divergence remained unknown. Here, we show that C. rubella and C. grandiflora are reproductively separated by an endosperm-based, non-reciprocal postzygotic hybridization barrier. While hybridizations of C. rubella maternal plants with C. grandiflora pollen donors resulted in complete seed abortion caused by endosperm cellularization failure, the reciprocal hybridization resulted in the formation of small seeds with precociously cellularized endosperm. Strikingly, the transcriptomic response of both hybridizations mimicked respectively the response of paternal and maternal excess hybridizations in Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting unbalanced genome strength causes hybridization failure in both species. These results provide strong support for the theory that crosses between plants of different mating systems will be unbalanced, with the outcrosser behaving like a plant of increased ploidy, evoking a response that resembles an interploidy-type seed failure. Seed incompatilibity of C. rubella pollinated by C. grandiflora followed the Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model, involving negative genetic interaction of multiple paternal C. grandiflora loci with at least one maternal C. rubella locus. Given that both species only recently diverged, our data suggest that a fast evolving mechanism underlies the post-zygotic hybridization barrier(s) separating both species.
Project description:The evolution from outcrossing to predominant self-fertilization represents one of the most common transitions in flowering plant evolution. This shift in mating system is almost universally associated with the "selfing syndrome," characterized by marked reduction in flower size and a breakdown of the morphological and genetic mechanisms that prevent self-fertilization. In general, the timescale in which these transitions occur, and the evolutionary dynamics associated with the evolution of the selfing syndrome are poorly known. We investigated the origin and evolution of selfing in the annual plant Capsella rubella from its self-incompatible, outcrossing progenitor Capsella grandiflora by characterizing multilocus patterns of DNA sequence variation at nuclear genes. We estimate that the transition to selfing and subsequent geographic expansion have taken place during the past 20,000 years. This transition was probably associated with a shift from stable equilibrium toward a near-complete population bottleneck causing a major reduction in effective population size. The timing and severe founder event support the hypothesis that selfing was favored during colonization as new habitats emerged after the last glaciation and the expansion of agriculture. These results suggest that natural selection for reproductive assurance can lead to major morphological evolution and speciation on relatively short evolutionary timescales.
Project description:The transition from outcrossing to predominant self-fertilization is one of the most common evolutionary transitions in flowering plants. This shift is often accompanied by a suite of changes in floral and reproductive characters termed the selfing syndrome. Here, we characterize the genetic architecture and evolutionary forces underlying evolution of the selfing syndrome in Capsella rubella following its recent divergence from the outcrossing ancestor C. grandiflora. We conduct genotyping by multiplexed shotgun sequencing and map floral and reproductive traits in a large (N= 550) F2 population. Our results suggest that in contrast to previous studies of the selfing syndrome, changes at a few loci, some with major effects, have shaped the evolution of the selfing syndrome in Capsella. The directionality of QTL effects, as well as population genetic patterns of polymorphism and divergence at 318 loci, is consistent with a history of directional selection on the selfing syndrome. Our study is an important step toward characterizing the genetic basis and evolutionary forces underlying the evolution of the selfing syndrome in a genetically accessible model system.
Project description:Flowering plants often prevent selfing through mechanisms of self-incompatibility (S.I.). The loss of S.I. has occurred many times independently, because it provides short-term advantages in situations where pollinators or mates are rare. The genus Capsella, which is closely related to Arabidopsis, contains a pair of closely related diploid species, the self-incompatible Capsella grandiflora and the self-compatible Capsella rubella. To elucidate the transition to selfing and its relationship to speciation of C. rubella, we have made use of comparative sequence information. Our analyses indicate that C. rubella separated from C. grandiflora recently ( approximately 30,000-50,000 years ago) and that breakdown of S.I. occurred at approximately the same time. Contrasting the nucleotide diversity patterns of the 2 species, we found that C. rubella has only 1 or 2 alleles at most loci, suggesting that it originated through an extreme population bottleneck. Our data are consistent with diploid speciation by a single, selfing individual, most likely living in Greece. The new species subsequently colonized the Mediterranean by Northern and Southern routes, at a time that also saw the spread of agriculture. The presence of phenotypic diversity within modern C. rubella suggests that this species will be an interesting model to understand divergence and adaptation, starting from very limited standing genetic variation.
Project description:Background and Aims:Capsella is a model genus for studying the transition from outcrossing to selfing, with or without change in ploidy levels. The genomic consequences and changes in reproductive traits (selfing syndrome) associated with these shifts have been studied in depth. However, potential ecological divergence among species of the genus has not been determined. Among ecological traits, competitive ability could be relevant for selfing evolution, as selfing has been shown to be statistically associated with reduced competitiveness in a recent meta-analysis. Methods:We assessed the effect of competition on three Capsella species differing in their mating system and ploidy level. We used an experimental design where fitness related traits were measured in focal individuals with and without competitors. Key Results:The diploid selfer (C. rubella) was most sensitive to competition, whereas the tetraploid selfer (C. bursa-pastoris) performed the best, with the diploid outcrosser (C. grandiflora) being intermediate. Conclusions:These results add to the detailed characterization of Capsella species and highlight the possible roles of ecological context and ploidy in the evolutionary trajectories of selfing species.
Project description:In the Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model of genetic incompatibilities post-zygotic gene-flow barriers arise by fixation of novel alleles at interacting loci in separated populations. Many such incompatibilities are polymorphic in plants, implying an important role for genetic drift or balancing selection in their origin and evolution. Here we show that NPR1 and RPP5 loci cause a genetic incompatibility between the incipient species Capsella grandiflora and C. rubella, and the more distantly related C. rubella and C. orientalis. The incompatible RPP5 allele results from a mutation in C. rubella, while the incompatible NPR1 allele is frequent in the ancestral C. grandiflora. Compatible and incompatible NPR1 haplotypes are maintained by balancing selection in C. grandiflora, and were divergently sorted into the derived C. rubella and C. orientalis. Thus, by maintaining differentiated alleles at high frequencies, balancing selection on ancestral polymorphisms can facilitate establishing gene-flow barriers between derived populations through lineage sorting of the alternative alleles.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Despite having predominately deleterious fitness effects, transposable elements (TEs) are major constituents of eukaryote genomes in general and of plant genomes in particular. Although the proportion of the genome made up of TEs varies at least four-fold across plants, the relative importance of the evolutionary forces shaping variation in TE abundance and distributions across taxa remains unclear. Under several theoretical models, mating system plays an important role in governing the evolutionary dynamics of TEs. Here, we use the recently sequenced Capsella rubella reference genome and short-read whole genome sequencing of multiple individuals to quantify abundance, genome distributions, and population frequencies of TEs in three recently diverged species of differing mating system, two self-compatible species (C. rubella and C. orientalis) and their self-incompatible outcrossing relative, C. grandiflora. RESULTS: We detect different dynamics of TE evolution in our two self-compatible species; C. rubella shows a small increase in transposon copy number, while C. orientalis shows a substantial decrease relative to C. grandiflora. The direction of this change in copy number is genome wide and consistent across transposon classes. For insertions near genes, however, we detect the highest abundances in C. grandiflora. Finally, we also find differences in the population frequency distributions across the three species. CONCLUSION: Overall, our results suggest that the evolution of selfing may have different effects on TE evolution on a short and on a long timescale. Moreover, cross-species comparisons of transposon abundance are sensitive to reference genome bias, and efforts to control for this bias are key when making comparisons across species.