Mitochondrial cardiolipin is required for Nlrp3 inflammasome activation.
ABSTRACT: Nlrp3 inflammasome activation occurs in response to numerous agonists but the specific mechanism by which this takes place remains unclear. All previously evaluated activators of the Nlrp3 inflammasome induce the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), suggesting a model in which ROS is a required upstream mediator of Nlrp3 inflammasome activation. Here we have identified the oxazolidinone antibiotic linezolid as a Nlrp3 agonist that activates the Nlrp3 inflammasome independently of ROS. The pathways for ROS-dependent and ROS-independent Nlrp3 activation converged upon mitochondrial dysfunction and specifically the mitochondrial lipid cardiolipin. Cardiolipin bound to Nlrp3 directly and interference with cardiolipin synthesis specifically inhibited Nlrp3 inflammasome activation. Together these data suggest that mitochondria play a critical role in the activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome through the direct binding of Nlrp3 to cardiolipin.
Project description:The balance between NLRP3 inflammasome activation and mitophagy is essential for homeostasis and cellular health, but this relationship remains poorly understood. Here we found that interleukin-1α (IL-1α)-deficient macrophages have reduced caspase-1 activity and diminished IL-1β release, concurrent with reduced mitochondrial damage, suggesting a role for IL-1α in regulating this balance. LPS priming of macrophages induced pro-IL-1α translocation to mitochondria, where it directly interacted with mitochondrial cardiolipin (CL). Computational modeling revealed a likely CL binding motif in pro-IL-1α, similar to that found in LC3b. Thus, binding of pro-IL-1α to CL in activated macrophages may interrupt CL-LC3b-dependent mitophagy, leading to enhanced Nlrp3 inflammasome activation and more robust IL-1β production. Mutation of pro-IL-1α residues predicted to be involved in CL binding resulted in reduced pro-IL-1α-CL interaction, a reduction in NLRP3 inflammasome activity, and increased mitophagy. These data identify a function for pro-IL-1α in regulating mitophagy and the potency of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
Project description:The NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway is a major contributor to the neuroinflammatory process in the central nervous system. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are key pathophysiological processes of many chronic neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the inter-relationship between mitochondrial defects and neuroinflammation is not well understood. In the present study, we show that impaired mitochondrial function can augment the NLRP3 inflammasome-driven proinflammatory cascade in microglia. Primary mouse microglia treated with the common inflammogen LPS increased NLRP3 and pro-IL-1? expression. Interestingly, exposure of LPS-primed microglial cells to the mitochondrial complex-I inhibitory pesticides rotenone and tebufenpyrad specifically potentiated the NLRP3 induction, ASC speck formation and pro-IL-1? processing to IL-1? in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that mitochondrial impairment heightened the NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated proinflammatory response in microglia. The neurotoxic pesticide-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation was accompanied by bioenergetic defects and lysosomal dysfunction in microglia. Furthermore, the pesticides enhanced mitochondrial ROS generation in primary microglia, while amelioration of mitochondria-derived ROS by the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mito-apocynin completely abolished IL-1? release, indicating mitochondrial ROS drives potentiation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in microglia. Exposure to conditioned media obtained from mitochondrial inhibitor-treated, LPS-primed microglial cells, but not unprimed cells, induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in cultured primary mesencephalic and human dopaminergic neuronal cells (LUHMES). Notably, our in vivo results with chronic rotenone rodent models of PD further support the activation of proinflammatory NLRP3 inflammasome signaling due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Collectively, our results demonstrate that mitochondrial impairment in microglia can amplify NLRP3 inflammasome signaling, which augments the dopaminergic neurodegenerative process.
Project description:The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated in response to microbial and danger signals, resulting in caspase-1-dependent secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18. Canonical NLRP3 inflammasome activation is a two-step process requiring both priming and activation signals. During inflammasome activation, NLRP3 associates with mitochondria; however, the role for this interaction is unclear. In this article, we show that mouse NLRP3 and caspase-1 independently interact with the mitochondrial lipid cardiolipin, which is externalized to the outer mitochondrial membrane at priming in response to reactive oxygen species. An NLRP3 activation signal is then required for the calcium-dependent association of the adaptor molecule ASC with NLRP3 on the mitochondrial surface, resulting in inflammasome complex assembly and activation. These findings demonstrate a novel lipid interaction for caspase-1 and identify a role for mitochondria as supramolecular organizing centers in the assembly and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome.
Project description:The NLRP3 inflammasome can sense different pathogens or danger signals, and has been reported to be involved in the development of many human diseases. Potassium efflux and mitochondrial damage are both reported to mediate NLRP3 inflammasome activation, but the underlying, orchestrating signaling events are still unclear. Here we show that chloride intracellular channels (CLIC) act downstream of the potassium efflux-mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) axis to promote NLRP3 inflammasome activation. NLRP3 agonists induce potassium efflux, which causes mitochondrial damage and ROS production. Mitochondrial ROS then induces the translocation of CLICs to the plasma membrane for the induction of chloride efflux to promote NEK7-NLRP3 interaction, inflammasome assembly, caspase-1 activation, and IL-1? secretion. Thus, our results identify CLICs-dependent chloride efflux as an essential and proximal upstream event for NLRP3 activation.The NLRP3 inflammasome is key to the regulation of innate immunity against pathogens or stress, but the underlying signaling regulation is still unclear. Here the authors show that chloride intracellular channels (CLIC) interface between mitochondria stress and inflammasome activation to modulate inflammatory responses.
Project description:The abnormal activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is closely related to the occurrence and development of many inflammatory diseases. Targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome has been considered an efficient therapy to treat infections. We found that dihydrotanshinone I (DHT) specifically blocked the canonical and non-canonical activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Nevertheless, DHT had no relation with the activation of AIM2 or the NLRC4 inflammasome. Further study demonstrated that DHT had no influences on potassium efflux, calcium flux, or the production of mitochondrial ROS. We also discovered that DHT suppressed ASC oligomerization induced by NLRP3 agonists, suggesting that DHT inhibited the assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Importantly, DHT possessed a significant therapeutic effect on NLRP3 inflammasome–mediated sepsis in mice. Therefore, our results aimed to clarify DHT as a specific small-molecule inhibitor for the NLRP3 inflammasome and suggested that DHT can be used as a potential drug against NLRP3-mediated diseases.
Project description:Abnormality in mitochondria has been suggested to be associated with development of allergic airway disorders. In this study, to evaluate the relationship between mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in allergic asthma, we used a newly developed mitochondrial ROS inhibitor, NecroX-5. NecroX-5 reduced the increase of mitochondrial ROS generation in airway inflammatory cells, as well as bronchial epithelial cells, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-?B, increased expression of various inflammatory mediators and pathophysiological features of allergic asthma in mice. Finally, blockade of IL-1? substantially reduced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in the asthmatic mice. These findings suggest that mitochondrial ROS have a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation through the modulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, providing a novel role of airway epithelial cells expressing NLRP3 inflammasome as an immune responder.
Project description:The NLRP3 (NALP3, cryopyrin) inflammasome, a key component of the innate immune system, facilitates caspase-1 and interleukin (IL)-1? processing, which amplifies the inflammatory response. Here, we investigated whether NLRP3 knockdown decreases neutrophil infiltration, reduces brain edema, and improves neurological function in an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) mouse model. We also determined whether mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) governed by mitochondrial permeability transition pores (mPTPs) would trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation following ICH.ICH was induced by injecting autologous arterial blood (30?l) into a mouse brain. NLRP3 small interfering RNAs were administered 24 hours before ICH. A mPTP inhibitor (TRO-19622) or a specific mitochondria ROS scavenger (Mito-TEMPO) was coinjected with the blood. In naive animals, rotenone, which is a respiration chain complex I inhibitor, was applied to induce mitochondrial ROS production, and followed by TRO-19622 or Mito-TEMPO treatment. Neurological deficits, brain edema, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, in vivo chemical cross-linking, ROS assay, and immunofluorescence were evaluated.ICH activated the NLRP3 inflammasome. NLRP3 knockdown reduced brain edema and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels at 24 hours, and improved neurological functions from 24 to 72 hours following ICH. TRO-19622 or Mito-TEMPO reduced ROS, NLRP3 inflammasome components, and MPO levels following ICH. In naive animals, rotenone administration induced mPTP formation, ROS generation, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which were then reduced by TRO-19622 or Mito-TEMPO.The NLRP3 inflammasome amplified the inflammatory response by releasing IL-1? and promoting neutrophil infiltration following ICH. Mitochondria ROS may be a major trigger of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The results of our study suggest that the inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome may effectively reduce the inflammatory response following ICH.ANN NEUROL 2014;75:209-219.
Project description:Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has recently been identified as a novel and independent risk factor for promoting atherosclerosis through inducing vascular inflammation. However, the exact mechanism is currently unclear. Studies have established a central role of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in the pathogenesis of vascular inflammation. Here, we examined the potential role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in TMAO-induced vascular inflammation in vitro and in vivo and the underlying mechanisms.Experiments using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, Western blot, and fluorescent probes showed that TMAO-induced inflammation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and aortas from ApoE-/- mice. Moreover, TMAO promoted NLRP3 and activated caspase-1 p20 expression and caspase-1 activity in vitro and in vivo. Notably, a caspase-1 inhibitor (YVAD), an NLRP3 inhibitor (MCC950), as well as NLRP3 short interfering RNA attenuated TMAO-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, subsequently leading to suppression of inflammation in HUVECs. TMAO additionally stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, in particular, mitochondrial ROS, while inhibiting manganese superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) activation and sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) expression in HUVECs and aortas from ApoE-/- mice. TMAO-induced endothelial NLRP3 inflammasome activation was ameliorated by the mitochondrial ROS scavenger Mito-TEMPO, or SIRT3 overexpression in HUVECs. Conversely, TMAO failed to further inhibit magnesium SOD2 and activate the NLRP3 inflammasome or induce inflammation in SIRT3 short interfering RNA-treated HUVECs and aortas from SIRT3-/- mice.TMAO promoted vascular inflammation by activating the NLRP3 inflammasome, and the NLRP3 inflammasome activation in part was mediated through inhibition of the SIRT3-SOD2-mitochondrial ROS signaling pathway.
Project description:Although mitophagy is known to restrict NLRP3 inflammasome activation, the underlying regulatory mechanism remains poorly characterized. Here we describe a type of early endosome-dependent mitophagy that limits NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Deletion of the endosomal adaptor protein APPL1 impairs mitophagy, leading to accumulation of damaged mitochondria producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized cytosolic mitochondrial DNA, which in turn trigger NLRP3 inflammasome overactivation in macrophages. NLRP3 agonist causes APPL1 to translocate from early endosomes to mitochondria, where it interacts with Rab5 to facilitate endosomal-mediated mitophagy. Mice deficient for APPL1 specifically in hematopoietic cell are more sensitive to endotoxin-induced sepsis, obesity-induced inflammation and glucose dysregulation. These are associated with increased expression of systemic interleukin-1β, a major product of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our findings indicate that the early endosomal machinery is essential to repress NLRP3 inflammasome hyperactivation by promoting mitophagy in macrophages. Inflammasome regulation is not fully understood. Here the authors show that the early endosomal APPL1-Rab5 axis removes damaged mitochondria and then restricts the inflammasome response in macrophages, alleviating the inflammatory diseases.
Project description:There is experimental and clinical evidence that some exanthematous allergic drug hypersensitivity reactions are mediated by drug-specific T cells. We hypothesized that the capacity of certain drugs to directly stimulate the innate immune system may contribute to generate drug-specific T cells. Here we analyzed whether abacavir, an HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor often inducing severe delayed-type drug hypersensitivity, can trigger innate immune activation that may contribute to its allergic potential. We show that abacavir fails to generate direct innate immune activation in human monocytes but potently triggers IL-1? release upon pro-inflammatory priming with phorbol ester or Toll-like receptor stimulation. IL-1? processing and secretion were sensitive to Caspase-1 inhibition, NLRP3 knockdown, and K<sup>+</sup> efflux inhibition and were not observed with other non-allergenic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, identifying abacavir as a specific inflammasome activator. It further correlated with dose-dependent mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and cytotoxicity, indicating that inflammasome activation resulted from mitochondrial damage. However, both NLRP3 depletion and inhibition of K<sup>+</sup> efflux mitigated abacavir-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and cytotoxicity, suggesting that these processes were secondary to NLRP3 activation. Instead, depletion of cardiolipin synthase 1 abolished abacavir-induced IL-1? secretion, suggesting that mitochondrial cardiolipin release may trigger abacavir-induced inflammasome activation. Our data identify abacavir as a novel inflammasome-stimulating drug allergen. They implicate a potential contribution of innate immune activation to medication-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity, which may stimulate new concepts for treatment and prevention of drug allergies.