Test of mutually unbiased bases for six-dimensional photonic quantum systems.
ABSTRACT: In quantum information, complementarity of quantum mechanical observables plays a key role. The eigenstates of two complementary observables form a pair of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs). More generally, a set of MUBs consists of bases that are all pairwise unbiased. Except for specific dimensions of the Hilbert space, the maximal sets of MUBs are unknown in general. Even for a dimension as low as six, the identification of a maximal set of MUBs remains an open problem, although there is strong numerical evidence that no more than three simultaneous MUBs do exist. Here, by exploiting a newly developed holographic technique, we implement and test different sets of three MUBs for a single photon six-dimensional quantum state (a "qusix"), encoded exploiting polarization and orbital angular momentum of photons. A close agreement is observed between theory and experiments. Our results can find applications in state tomography, quantitative wave-particle duality, quantum key distribution.
Project description:Mutually unbiased measurements (MUMs) are generalized from the concept of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and include the complete set of MUBs as a special case, but they are superior to MUBs as they do not need to be rank one projectors. We investigate entanglement detection using sets of MUMs and derive separability criteria for multipartite qudit systems, arbitrary high-dimensional bipartite systems of a d1-dimensional subsystem and a d2-dimensional subsystem, and multipartite systems of multi-level subsystems. These criteria are of the advantages of more effective and wider application range than previous criteria. They provide experimental implementation in detecting entanglement of unknown quantum states.
Project description:Uncertainty principle is one of the cornerstones of quantum theory. In the literature, there are two types of uncertainty relations, the operator form concerning the variances of physical observables and the entropy form related to entropic quantities. Both these forms are inequalities involving pairwise observables, and are found to be nontrivial to incorporate multiple observables. In this work we introduce a new form of uncertainty relation which may give out complete trade-off relations for variances of observables in pure and mixed quantum systems. Unlike the prevailing uncertainty relations, which are either quantum state dependent or not directly measurable, our bounds for variances of observables are quantum state independent and immune from the "triviality" problem of having zero expectation values. Furthermore, the new uncertainty relation may provide a geometric explanation for the reason why there are limitations on the simultaneous determination of different observables in N-dimensional Hilbert space.
Project description:The exact treatment of Markovian open quantum systems, when based on numerical diagonalization of the Liouville super-operator or averaging over quantum trajectories, is severely limited by Hilbert space size. Perturbation theory, standard in the investigation of closed quantum systems, has remained much less developed for open quantum systems where a direct application to the Lindblad master equation is desirable. We present such a perturbative treatment which will be useful for an analytical understanding of open quantum systems and for numerical calculation of system observables which would otherwise be impractical.
Project description:An essential feature of genuine quantum correlation is the simultaneous existence of correlation in complementary bases. We reveal this feature of quantum correlation by defining measures based on invariance under a basis change. For a bipartite quantum state, the classical correlation is the maximal correlation present in a certain optimum basis, while the quantum correlation is characterized as a series of residual correlations in the mutually unbiased bases. Compared with other approaches to quantify quantum correlation, our approach gives information-theoretical measures that directly reflect the essential feature of quantum correlation.
Project description:A pure quantum state can fully describe thermal equilibrium as long as one focuses on local observables. The thermodynamic entropy can also be recovered as the entanglement entropy of small subsystems. When the size of the subsystem increases, however, quantum correlations break the correspondence and mandate a correction to this simple volume law. The elucidation of the size dependence of the entanglement entropy is thus essentially important in linking quantum physics with thermodynamics. Here we derive an analytic formula of the entanglement entropy for a class of pure states called cTPQ states representing equilibrium. We numerically find that our formula applies universally to any sufficiently scrambled pure state representing thermal equilibrium, i.e., energy eigenstates of non-integrable models and states after quantum quenches. Our formula is exploited as diagnostics for chaotic systems; it can distinguish integrable models from non-integrable models and many-body localization phases from chaotic phases.
Project description:When classical systems fail to explore their entire configurational space, intriguing macroscopic phenomena like aging and glass formation may emerge. Also closed quanto-mechanical systems may stop wandering freely around the whole Hilbert space, even if they are initially prepared into a macroscopically large combination of eigenstates. Here, we report numerical evidences that the dynamics of strongly interacting lattice bosons driven sufficiently far from equilibrium can be trapped into extremely long-lived inhomogeneous metastable states. The slowing down of incoherent density excitations above a threshold energy, much reminiscent of a dynamical arrest on the verge of a glass transition, is identified as the key feature of this phenomenon. We argue that the resulting long-lived inhomogeneities are responsible for the lack of thermalization observed in large systems. Such a rich phenomenology could be experimentally uncovered upon probing the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of conveniently prepared quantum states of trapped cold atoms which we hereby suggest.
Project description:Simultaneous existence of correlation in complementary bases is a fundamental feature of quantum correlation, and we show that this characteristic is present in any non-product bipartite state. We propose a measure via mutually unbiased bases to study this feature of quantum correlation, and compare it with other measures of quantum correlation for several families of bipartite states.
Project description:Understanding the core content of quantum mechanics requires us to disentangle the hidden logical relationships between the postulates of this theory. Here we show that the mathematical structure of quantum measurements, the formula for assigning outcome probabilities (Born's rule) and the post-measurement state-update rule, can be deduced from the other quantum postulates, often referred to as "unitary quantum mechanics", and the assumption that ensembles on finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces are characterized by finitely many parameters. This is achieved by taking an operational approach to physical theories, and using the fact that the manner in which a physical system is partitioned into subsystems is a subjective choice of the observer, and hence should not affect the predictions of the theory. In contrast to other approaches, our result does not assume that measurements are related to operators or bases, it does not rely on the universality of quantum mechanics, and it is independent of the interpretation of probability.
Project description:Precision measurement of nonlinear observables is an important goal in all facets of quantum optics. This allows measurement-based non-classical state preparation, which has been applied to great success in various physical systems, and provides a route for quantum information processing with otherwise linear interactions. In cavity optomechanics much progress has been made using linear interactions and measurement, but observation of nonlinear mechanical degrees-of-freedom remains outstanding. Here we report the observation of displacement-squared thermal motion of a micro-mechanical resonator by exploiting the intrinsic nonlinearity of the radiation-pressure interaction. Using this measurement we generate bimodal mechanical states of motion with separations and feature sizes well below 100 pm. Future improvements to this approach will allow the preparation of quantum superposition states, which can be used to experimentally explore collapse models of the wavefunction and the potential for mechanical-resonator-based quantum information and metrology applications.
Project description:Unextendible product bases (UPBs) play an important role in quantum information theory. However, very little is known about UPBs in Hilbert space of local dimension more than three. In this paper, we study the UPBs in qutrit-ququad system and find that there only exist six, seven and eight-state UPBs. We completely characterize the six-state and seven-state UPBs. For eight-state UPBs, seven classes of UPBs are found. As auxiliary results, we study the distinguishability of qutrit-ququad UPBs by separable measurements, and find that there exists a UPB that cannot be distinguished.