Ascitic microbiota composition is correlated with clinical severity in cirrhosis with portal hypertension.
ABSTRACT: Identification of pathogenic bacteria in ascites correlates with poor clinical outcomes. Ascites samples are commonly reported culture-negative, even where frank infection is indicated. Culture-independent methods have previously reported bacterial DNA in ascites, however, whether this represents viable bacterial populations has not been determined. We report the first application of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR in conjunction with propidium monoazide sample treatment to characterise the viable bacterial composition of ascites. Twenty five cirrhotic patients undergoing paracentesis provided ascites. Samples were treated with propidium monoazide to exclude non-viable bacterial DNA. Total bacterial load was quantified by 16S rRNA Q-PCR with species identity and relative abundance determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Correlation of molecular microbiology data with clinical measures and diagnostic microbiology was performed. Viable bacterial signal was obtained in 84% of ascites samples, both by Q-PCR and pyrosequencing. Approximately 190,000 ribosomal pyrosequences were obtained, representing 236 species, including both gut and non gut-associated species. Substantial variation in the species detected was observed between patients. Statistically significant relationships were identified between the bacterial community similarity and clinical measures, including ascitic polymorphonuclear leukocyte count and Child-Pugh class. Viable bacteria are present in the ascites of a majority of patients with cirrhosis including those with no clinical signs of infection. Microbiota composition significantly correlates with clinical measures. Entry of bacteria into ascites is unlikely to be limited to translocation from the gut, raising fundamental questions about the processes that underlie the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.
Project description:Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis are serious diseases of preterm infants that can result in feeding intolerance, the need for bowel resection, impaired physiological and neurological development, and high mortality rates. Neonatal healthcare improvements have allowed greater survival rates in preterm infants leading to increased numbers at risk of developing NEC and sepsis. Gut bacteria play a role in protection from or propensity to these conditions and have therefore, been studied extensively using targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods. However, exact epidemiology of these conditions remain unknown and the role of the gut microbiota in NEC remains enigmatic. Many studies have confounding variables such as differing clinical intervention strategies or major methodological issues such as the inability of 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods to determine viable from non-viable taxa. Identification of viable community members is important to identify links between the microbiota and disease in the highly unstable preterm infant gut. This is especially important as remnant DNA is robust and persists in the sampling environment following cell death. Chelation of such DNA prevents downstream amplification and inclusion in microbiota characterisation. This study validates use of propidium monoazide (PMA), a DNA chelating agent that is excluded by an undamaged bacterial membrane, to reduce bias associated with 16S rRNA gene analysis of clinical stool samples. We aim to improve identification of the viable microbiota in order to increase the accuracy of clinical inferences made regarding the impact of the preterm gut microbiota on health and disease. Gut microbiota analysis was completed on stools from matched twins (n = 16) that received probiotics. Samples were treated with PMA, prior to bacterial DNA extraction. Meta-analysis highlighted a significant reduction in bacterial diversity in 68.8% of PMA treated samples as well as significantly reduced overall rare taxa abundance. Importantly, overall abundances of genera associated with protection from and propensity to NEC and sepsis such as: Bifidobacterium; Clostridium, and Staphylococcus sp. were significantly different following PMA-treatment. These results suggest non-viable cell exclusion by PMA-treatment reduces bias in gut microbiota analysis from which clinical inferences regarding patient susceptibility to NEC and sepsis are made.
Project description:Spontaneously expectorated sputum is traditionally used as the sampling method for the investigation of lower airway infections. While guidelines exist for the handling of these samples for culture-based diagnostic microbiology, there is no comparable consensus on their handling prior to culture-independent analysis. The increasing incorporation of culture-independent approaches in diagnostic microbiology means that it is of critical importance to assess potential biases. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of delayed freezing on culture-independent microbiological analyses and to identify acceptable parameters for sample handling. Sputum samples from eight adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients were collected and aliquoted into sterile Bijou bottles. Aliquots were stored at room temperature before being frozen at -80 °C for increasing intervals, up to a 72-h period. Samples were treated with propidium monoazide to distinguish live from dead cells prior to DNA extraction, and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to characterize their bacterial compositions. Substantial variation was observed in samples with high-diversity bacterial communities over time, whereas little variation was observed in low-diversity communities dominated by recognized CF pathogens, regardless of time to freezing. Partitioning into common and rare species demonstrated that the rare species drove changes in similarity. The percentage abundance of anaerobes over the study significantly decreased after 12 h at room temperature (P = 0.008). Failure to stabilize samples at -80 °C within 12 h of collection results in significant changes in the detected community composition.
Project description:Sponges host complex microbial communities of recognized ecological and biotechnological importance. Extensive cultivation efforts have been made to isolate sponge bacteria, but most still elude cultivation. To identify the bottlenecks of sponge bacterial cultivation, we combined high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing with a variety of cultivation media and incubation conditions. We aimed to determine the extent to which sample processing and cultivation conditions can impact bacterial viability and recovery in culture. We isolated 325 sponge bacteria from six specimens of Cymbastela concentrica and three specimens of Scopalina sp. These isolates were distributed over 37 different genera and 47 operational taxonomic units (defined at 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity). The cultivable bacterial community was highly specific to its sponge host and different media compositions yielded distinct microbial isolates. Around 97% of the isolates could be detected in the original sponge and represented a large but highly variable proportion (0.5-92% total abundance, depending on sponge species) of viable bacteria obtained after sample processing, as determined by propidium monoazide selective DNA modification of compromised cells. Our results show that the most abundant viable bacteria are also the most predominant groups found in cultivation, reflecting, to some extent, the relative abundances of the viable bacterial community, rather than the overall community estimated by direct molecular approaches. Cultivation is therefore shaped not only by the growth conditions provided, but also by the different cell viabilities of the bacteria that constitute the cultivation inoculum. These observations highlight the need to perform experiments to assess each method of sample processing for its accurate representation of the actual in situ bacterial community and its yield of viable cells.
Project description:Microbiota in the pit mud (PM) plays a crucial role in the production of Chinese strong-flavor liquor (CSFL), the most popular distilled liquor in China. However, previous studies used total microbes, instead of viable ones, for the characterization of the microbial community in this environment. In this study, we used propidium monoazide (PMA) combined with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to verify the effect of non-viablee bacteria on the characterization of PM bacteria. After PMA concentration optimization, 50 ?M PMA was chosen to pretreat 5 and 20 years PMs. The qPCR results showed that there were 50.78 and 71.84% of non-viable bacteria in the 5-year PM and 20-year PM, respectively. Both copy numbers of total bacteria and viable bacteria were significantly higher in 20-year PM than those in 5-year PM. Nevertheless, in terms of bacterial diversity and composition analyses at the operational taxonomic unit (OTU), phylum, class, and genus levels, 16S rRNA gene sequencing results displayed no significant differences between total bacteria and viable bacteria in both PM types. In conclusion, it is necessary for non-viable bacteria to be considered in determining absolute biomass of bacteria in PM, but not necessary in the analysis of diversity and composition of PM bacteria. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first attempt to analyze viable bacteria in the PM of CSFL and provides useful information on how to accurately characterize a microbial community in a PM environment.
Project description:Extracellular DNA has been reported to comprise a large fraction of total DNA in near-seafloor sediment. However, the potential effect of extracellular DNA, arising from dead or moribund cells, on sequencing surveys is a critical concern that has largely not been addressed for marine sedimentary habitats. To address this concern, we interrogated freshly collected Arctic and Pacific sediment for extracellular 16S rRNA genes using the photoactive DNA-binding dye Propidium Monoazide. Significant differences between relative abundances of total (intracellular + extracellular) Bacterial 16S rRNA genes and relative abundances of intracellular Bacterial 16S rRNA genes are only detected in three of twelve shallow [10 cm below seafloor (cmbsf)] samples. Relative abundances of total Bacterial 16S rRNA genes are statistically indistinguishable from relative abundances of intracellular Bacterial 16S rRNA genes in all interrogated samples from depths greater than 10 cmbsf. 16S rRNA gene sequencing shows that even where significantly higher abundances of extracellular genes are detected, they have little or no influence on prokaryote community composition. Taxon-level analyses suggest that extracellular DNA, arising from in situ death, may be sourced from different organisms in sediment of different ages. However, the overall effect of extracellular genes on sequencing surveys of marine sedimentary prokaryotes is minimal.
Project description:The advent of phylogenetic DNA microarrays and high-throughput pyrosequencing technologies has dramatically increased the resolution and accuracy of detection of distinct microbial lineages in mixed microbial assemblages. Despite an expanding array of approaches for detecting microbes in a given sample, rapid and robust means of assessing the differential viability of these cells, as a function of phylogenetic lineage, remain elusive. In this study, pre-PCR propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment was coupled with downstream pyrosequencing and PhyloChip DNA microarray analyses to better understand the frequency, diversity and distribution of viable bacteria in spacecraft assembly cleanrooms. Sample fractions not treated with PMA, which were indicative of the presence of both live and dead cells, yielded a great abundance of highly diverse bacterial pyrosequences. In contrast, only 1% to 10% of all of the pyrosequencing reads, arising from a few robust bacterial lineages, originated from sample fractions that had been pre-treated with PMA. The results of PhyloChip analyses of PMA-treated and -untreated sample fractions were in agreement with those of pyrosequencing. The viable bacterial population detected in cleanrooms devoid of spacecraft hardware was far more diverse than that observed in cleanrooms that housed mission-critical spacecraft hardware. The latter was dominated by hardy, robust organisms previously reported to survive in oligotrophic cleanroom environments. Presented here are the findings of the first ever comprehensive effort to assess the viability of cells in low-biomass environmental samples, and correlate differential viability with phylogenetic affiliation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Best practice when performing culture-independent microbiological analysis of sputum samples involves their rapid freezing and storage at -80°C. However, accessing biobanked collections can mean that material has been passed through repeated freeze-thaw cycles. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of these cycles on microbial community profiles. METHODS:Sputum was collected from eight adults with cystic fibrosis, and each sample was subjected to six freeze-thaw cycles. Following each cycle, an aliquot was removed and treated with propidium monoazide (PMA) prior to DNA extraction and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. RESULTS:The impact of freeze-thaw cycles was greatest on rare members of the microbiota, with variation beyond that detected with within-sample repeat analysis observed after three cycles. CONCLUSION:Four or more freeze thaw cycles result in a significant distortion of microbiota profiles from CF sputum.
Project description:Microbial contamination during long-term confinements of space exploration presents potential risks for both crew members and spacecraft life support systems. A novel swab kit was used to sample various surfaces from a submerged, closed, analog habitat to characterize the microbial populations. Samples were collected from various locations across the habitat which were constructed from various surface materials (linoleum, dry wall, particle board, glass, and metal), and microbial populations were examined by culture, quantitative PCR (qPCR), microbiome 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and shotgun metagenomics. Propidium monoazide (PMA)-treated samples identified the viable/intact microbial population of the habitat. The cultivable microbial population ranged from below the detection limit to 106 CFU/sample, and their identity was characterized using Sanger sequencing. Both 16S rRNA amplicon and shotgun sequencing were used to characterize the microbial dynamics, community profiles, and functional attributes (metabolism, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance). The 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing revealed abundance of viable (after PMA treatment) Actinobacteria (Brevibacterium, Nesternkonia, Mycobacterium, Pseudonocardia, and Corynebacterium), Firmicutes (Virgibacillus, Staphylococcus, and Oceanobacillus), and Proteobacteria (especially Acinetobacter) on linoleum, dry wall, and particle board (LDP) surfaces, while members of Firmicutes (Leuconostocaceae) and Proteobacteria (Enterobacteriaceae) were high on the glass/metal surfaces. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling determined from both 16S rRNA and metagenomic analyses revealed differential microbial species on LDP surfaces and glass/metal surfaces. The shotgun metagenomic sequencing of samples after PMA treatment showed bacterial predominance of viable Brevibacterium (53.6%), Brachybacterium (7.8%), Pseudonocardia (9.9%), Mycobacterium (3.7%), and Staphylococcus (2.1%), while fungal analyses revealed Aspergillus and Penicillium dominance.IMPORTANCE This study provides the first assessment of monitoring cultivable and viable microorganisms on surfaces within a submerged, closed, analog habitat. The results of the analyses presented herein suggest that the surface material plays a role in microbial community structure, as the microbial populations differed between LDP and metal/glass surfaces. The metal/glass surfaces had less-complex community, lower bioburden, and more closely resembled the controls. These results indicated that material choice is crucial when building closed habitats, even if they are simply analogs. Finally, while a few species were associated with previously cultivated isolates from the International Space Station and MIR spacecraft, the majority of the microbial ecology of the submerged analog habitat differs greatly from that of previously studied analog habitats.
Project description:Antibiotic resistance is a public health issue with links to environmental sources of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). ARGs from nonviable sources may pose a hazard given the potential for transformation whereas ARGs in viable sources may proliferate during host growth or conjugation. In this study, ARGs in the effluent from three municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and the receiving surface waters were investigated using a viability-based qPCR technique (vPCR) with propidium monoazide (PMA). ARGs sul1, tet(G), and blaTEM, fecal indicator marker BacHum, and 16S rRNA gene copies/mL were found to be significantly lower in viable-cells than in total concentrations for WWTP effluent. Viable-cell and total gene copy concentrations were similar in downstream samples except for tet(G). Differences with respect to season in the prevalence of nonviable ARGs in surface water or WWTP effluent were not observed. The results of this study indicate that qPCR may overestimate viable-cell ARGs and fecal indicator genes in WWTP effluent but not necessarily in the surface water >1.8?km downstream.
Project description:High-throughput pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis offer greatly improved accuracy and depth of characterisation of lower respiratory infections. However, such approaches suffer from an inability to distinguish between DNA derived from viable and non-viable bacteria. This discrimination represents an important step in characterising microbial communities, particularly in contexts with poor clearance of material or high antimicrobial stress, as non-viable bacteria and extracellular DNA can contribute significantly to analyses. Pre-treatment of samples with propidium monoazide (PMA) is an effective approach to non-viable cell exclusion (NVCE). However, the impact of NVCE on microbial community characteristics (abundance, diversity, composition and structure) is not known. Here, adult cystic fibrosis (CF) sputum samples were used as a paradigm. The effects of PMA treatment on CF sputum bacterial community characteristics, as analysed by pyrosequencing and enumeration by species-specific (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and total bacterial Q-PCR, were assessed. At the local community level, abundances of both total bacteria and of P. aeruginosa were significantly lower in PMA-treated sample portions. Meta-analysis indicated no overall significant differences in diversity; however, PMA treatment resulted in a significant alteration in local community membership in all cases. In contrast, at the metacommunity level, PMA treatment resulted in an increase in community evenness, driven by an increase in diversity, predominately representing rare community members. Importantly, PMA treatment facilitated the detection of both recognised and emerging CF pathogens, significantly influencing 'core' and 'satellite' taxa group membership. Our findings suggest failure to implement NVCE may result in skewed bacterial community analyses.