Induction of cotton ovule culture fibre branching by co-expression of cotton BTL, cotton SIM, and Arabidopsis STI genes.
ABSTRACT: The highly elongated single-celled cotton fibre consists of lint and fuzz, similar to the Arabidopsis trichome. Endoreduplication is an important determinant in Arabidopsis trichome initiation and morphogenesis. Fibre development is also controlled by functional homologues of Arabidopsis trichome patterning genes, although fibre cells do not have a branched shape like trichomes. The identification and characterization of the homologues of 10 key Arabidopsis trichome branching genes in Gossypium arboreum are reported here. Nuclear ploidy of fibres was determined, and gene function in cotton callus and fibre cells was investigated. The results revealed that the nuclear DNA content was constant in fuzz, whereas a limited and reversible change occurred in lint after initiation. Gossypeum arboreum branchless trichomes (GaBLT) was not transcribed in fibres. The homologue of STICHEL (STI), which is essential for trichome branching, was a pseudogene in Gossypium. Targeted expression of GaBLT, Arabidopsis STI, and the cytokinesis-repressing GaSIAMESE in G. hirsutum fibre cells cultured in vitro resulted in branching. The findings suggest that the distinctive developmental mechanism of cotton fibres does not depend on endoreduplication. This important component may be a relic function that can be activated in fibre cells.
Project description:Cotton fibre is an important natural fibre for the textile industry. The number of fibre initials determines the lint percentage, which is an important factor for cotton fibre yield. Although fibre development has been described by transcriptomic analysis, the mechanism by which the long noncoding RNA manipulates the initiation of lint and fuzz fibres remains unknown. In this study, three lines with different lint percentages were developed by crossing Xu142 with its fibreless mutant Xu142 fl. We collected the epidermal cells from the ovules with attached fibres at 0 and 5 days post anthesis (DPA) from Xu142, the fibreless mutant Xu142 fl and the three lint percent diversified lines for deep transcriptome sequencing. A total of 2641 novel genes, 35 802 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and 2262 circular RNAs (circRNAs) were identified, of which 645 lncRNAs were preferentially expressed in the fibreless mutant Xu142 fl and 651 lncRNAs were preferentially expressed in the fibre-attached lines. We demonstrated the functional roles of the three lncRNAs in fibre development via a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system. Our results showed that silencing XLOC_545639 and XLOC_039050 in Xu142 fl increased the number of fibre initials on the ovules, but silencing XLOC_079089 in Xu142 resulted in a short fibre phenotype. This study established the transcriptomic repertoires in cotton fibre initiation and provided evidence for the potential functions of lncRNAs in fibre development.
Project description:Cotton fibres, as single cells arising from the seed coat, can be classified as lint and fuzz according to their final length. Gossypium arboreum is a cultivated diploid cotton species and a potential donor of the A subgenome of the more widely grown tetraploid cottons. In this study, we performed genetic studies on one lintless and seven fuzzless G. arboreum accessions. Through association and genetic linkage analyses, a recessive locus on Chr06 containing GaHD-1 was found to be the likely gene underlying the lintless trait. GaHD-1 carried a mutation at a splicing acceptor site that resulted in alternative splicing and a deletion of 247 amino acid from the protein. The regions containing GaGIR1 and GaMYB25-like were found to be associated with fuzz development in G. arboreum, with the former being the major contributor. Comparative transcriptome analyses using 0-5 days post-anthesis (dpa) ovules from lintless, fuzzless, and normal fuzzy seed G. arboreum accessions revealed gene modules and hub genes potentially important for lint and fuzz initiation and development. Three significant modules and 26 hub genes associated with lint fibre initiation were detected by weighted gene co-expression network analysis. Similar analyses identified three vital modules and 10 hub genes to be associated with fuzz development. The findings in this study contribute to understanding the complex molecular mechanism(s) regulating fibre initiation and development and indicate that G. arboreum may have fibre developmental pathways different from tetraploid cotton. It also provides candidate genes for further investigation into modifying fibre development in G. arboreum.
Project description:Fibre cell initiation and elongation is critical for cotton fibre development. However, little is known about the regulation of initiation and elongation during fibre cell development. Here, the regulatory role of a novel protein GhCFE1A was uncovered. GhCFE1A is preferentially expressed at initiation and rapid elongation stages during fibre development; in addition, much higher expression of GhCFE1A was detected at the fibre initiation stage in ?breless cotton mutants than in the fibre-bearing TM-1 wild-type. Importantly, overexpression of GhCFE1A in cotton not only delayed fibre cell elongation but also significantly reduced the density of lint and fuzz fibre initials and stem trichomes. Yeast two-hybrid assay showed that GhCFE1A interacted with several actin proteins, and the interaction was further confirmed by co-sedimentation assay. Interestingly, a subcellular localization assay showed that GhCFE1A resided on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network and co-localized with actin cables. Moreover, the density of F-actin filaments was shown to be reduced in GhCFE1A-overexpressing fibres at the rapid elongation stage compared with the wild-type control. Taken together, the results demonstrate that GhCFE1A probably functions as a dynamic linker between the actin cytoskeleton and the ER network, and plays an important role in fibre cell initiation and elongation during cotton fibre development.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cotton is the dominant source of natural textile fibre and a significant oil crop. Cotton fibres, produced by certain species in the genus Gossypium, are seed trichomes derived from individual cells of the epidermal layer of the seed coat. Cotton fibre development is delineated into four distinct and overlapping developmental stages: fibre initiation, elongation, secondary wall biosynthesis and maturation. SCOPE: Recent advances in gene expression studies are beginning to provide new insights into a better understanding of early events in cotton fibre development. Fibre cell development is a complex process involving many pathways, including various signal transduction and transcriptional regulation components. Several analyses using expressed sequence tags and microarray have identified transcripts that preferentially accumulate during fibre development. These studies, as well as complementation and overexpression experiments using cotton genes in arabidopsis and tobacco, indicate some similar molecular events between trichome development from the leaf epidermis and fibre development from the ovule epidermis. Specifically, MYB transcription factors regulate leaf trichome development in arabidopsis and may regulate seed trichome development in cotton. In addition, transcript profiling and ovule culture experiments both indicate that several phytohormones and other signalling pathways mediate cotton fibre development. Auxin and gibberellins promote early stages of fibre initiation; ethylene- and brassinosteroid-related genes are up-regulated during the fibre elongation phase; and genes associated with calmodulin and calmodulin-binding proteins are up-regulated in fibre initials. Additional genomic data, mutant and functional analyses, and genome mapping studies promise to reveal the critical factors mediating cotton fibre cell development.
Project description:As the most important natural raw material for textile industry, cotton fibres are an excellent model for studying single-cell development. Although expression profiling and functional genomics have provided some data, the mechanism of fibre development is still not well known. A class I TCP transcription factor (designated GbTCP), encoding 344 amino acids, was isolated from the normalized cDNA library of sea-island cotton fibre (from -2 to 25 days post anthesis). GbTCP was preferentially expressed in the elongating cotton fibre from 5 to 15 days post anthesis. Some expression was also observed in stems, apical buds, and petals. RNAi silencing of GbTCP produced shorter fibre, a reduced lint percentage, and a lower fibre quality than the wild-type plants. Overexpression of GbTCP enhanced root hair initiation and elongation in Arabidopsis and regulated branching. Solexa sequencing and Affymetrix GeneChip analysis indicated that GbTCP positively regulates the level of jasmonic acid (JA) and, as a result, activates downstream genes (reactive oxygen species, calcium signalling, ethylene biosynthesis and response, and several NAC and WRKY transcription factors) necessary for elongation of fibres and root hairs. JA content analysis in cotton also confirmed that GbTCP has a profound effect on JA biosynthesis. In vitro ovule culture showed that an appropriate concentration of JA promoted fibre elongation. The results suggest that GbTCP is an important transcription factor for fibre and root hair development by regulating JA biosynthesis and response and other pathways, including reactive oxygen species, calcium channel and ethylene signalling.
Project description:Cotton fibres are single-celled trichomes arising from the epidermal cells of the seed coat and may be either long (lint) or very short (fuzz). The dominant fuzzless N1 of Gossypium hirsutum is a defective allele of the At-subgenome homoeolog of MYB25-like, but the genetic components underlying the recessive fuzzless trait from G. barbadense (Gb) are unknown. We have identified five genetic loci, including a major contributing locus containing MYB25-like_Dt, associated with Gb fuzzless seeds based on genotyping of fuzzy and fuzzless near isogenic lines (NILs) from an interspecies cross (G. barbadense × G. hirsutum). At 3 d post-anthesis when fuzz fibres are initiating, expression of MYB25-like_Dt was significantly lower in fuzzless NILs than in fuzzy seeded NILs, while higher MYB25-like_Dt expression was associated with more seed fuzz across different cotton genotypes. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of MYB25-like homoeoalleles in cottons showing different fibre phenotypes and their crossing progeny indicated that both MYB25-like_At and MYB25-like_Dt are associated with lint development, and that fuzz development is mainly determined by the expression level of MYB25-like_Dt at ~3 d post-anthesis. Expression of Gb fuzzless seeds depends on genetic background and interactions amongst the multiple loci identified. MYB25-like_Dt is one of the best candidates for N2.
Project description:Brown cotton fibres are the most widely used naturally coloured raw materials for the eco-friendly textile industry. Previous studies have indicated that brown fibre pigments belong to proanthocyanidins (PAs) or their derivatives, and fibre coloration is negatively associated with cotton productivity and fibre quality. To date, the molecular basis controlling the biosynthesis and accumulation of brown pigments in cotton fibres is largely unknown. In this study, based on expressional and transgenic analyses of cotton homologs of ArabidopsisPA regulator TRANSPARENT TESTA 2 (TT2) and fine-mapping of the cotton dark-brown fibre gene (Lc1), we show that a TT2 homolog, GhTT2-3A, controls PA biosynthesis and brown pigmentation in cotton fibres. We observed that GhTT2-3A activated GhbHLH130D, a homolog of ArabidopsisTT8, which in turn synergistically acted with GhTT2-3A to activate downstream PA structural genes and PA synthesis and accumulation in cotton fibres. Furthermore, the up-regulation of GhTT2-3A in fibres at the secondary wall-thickening stage resulted in brown mature fibres, and fibre quality and lint percentage were comparable to that of the white-fibre control. The findings of this study reveal the regulatory mechanism controlling brown pigmentation in cotton fibres and demonstrate a promising biotechnological strategy to break the negative linkage between coloration and fibre quality and/or productivity.
Project description:Some naturally coloured brown cotton fibres from accessions of Gossypium hirsutum L. can be used to make textiles with enhanced flame retardancy (FR). Several independent brown fibre loci have been identified and mapped to chromosomes, but the underlying genes have not yet been identified, and the mechanism of lint fibre FR is not yet fully understood. In this study, we show that both the brown colour and enhanced FR of the Lc1 lint colour locus are linked to a 1.4Mb inversion on chromosome A07 that is immediately upstream of a gene with similarity to Arabidopsis TRANSPARENT TESTA 2 (TT2). As a result of the alternative upstream sequence, the transcription factor GhTT2_A07 is highly up-regulated in developing fibres. In turn, genes in the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway are activated, leading to biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins and accumulation of inorganic elements. We show that enhanced FR and anthocyanin precursors appear in developing brown fibres well before the brown colour is detectible, demonstrating for the first time that the polymerized proanthocyanidins that constitute the brown colour are not the source of enhanced FR. Identifying the particular colourless metabolite that provides Lc1 cotton with enhanced FR could help minimize the use of synthetic chemical flame retardant additives in textiles.
Project description:Cotton fibres are unicellular seed trichomes. Our previous study suggested that the cotton R2R3 MYB transcript factor GaMYB2 is a functional homologue of the Arabidopsis trichome regulator GLABRA1 (GL1). Here, the GaMYB2 promoter activity is reported in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and Arabidopsis plants. A 2062 bp promoter of GaMYB2 was isolated from G. arboreum, and fused to a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. In cotton, the GaMYB2 promoter exhibited activities in developing fibre cells and trichomes of other aerial organs, including leaves, stems and bracts. In Arabidopsis the promoter was specific to trichomes. Different from Arabidopsis and cotton that have unicellular non-glandular simple trichomes, tobacco plants contain more than one type of trichome, including multicellular simple and glandular secreting trichomes (GSTs). Interestingly, in tobacco plants the GaMYB2 promoter directed GUS expression exclusively in glandular cells of GSTs. A series of 5'-deletions revealed that a 360 bp fragment upstream to the translation initiation codon was sufficient to drive gene expression. A putative cis-element of the T/G-box was located at -233 to -214; a yeast one-hybrid assay showed that Arabidopsis bHLH protein GLABRA3 (GL3), also a trichome regulator, and GhDEL65, a GL3-like cotton protein, had high binding activities to the T/G-box motif. Overexpression of GL3 or GhDEL65 enhanced the GaMYB2 promoter activity in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. A comparison of GaMYB2 promoter specificities in trichomes of different plant species with different types of trichomes provides a tool for further dissection of plant trichome structure and development.
Project description:In planta, a vital regulatory complex, MYB-basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-WD40 (MBW), is involved in trichome development and synthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanin in Arabidopsis. Usually, WD40 proteins provide a scaffold for protein-protein interaction between MYB and bHLH proteins. Members of subgroup 9 of the R2R3 MYB transcription factors, which includes MYBMIXTA-Like (MML) genes important for plant cell differentiation, are unable to interact with bHLH. In this study, we report that a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seed trichome or lint fiber-related GhMML factor, GhMML4_D12, interacts with a diverged WD40 protein (GhWDR) in a process similar to but different from that of the MBW ternary complex involved in Arabidopsis trichome development. Amino acids 250-267 of GhMML4_D12 and the first and third WD40 repeat domains of GhWDR determine their interaction. GhWDR could rescue Arabidopsis ttg1 to its wild type, confirming its orthologous function in trichome development. Our findings shed more light towards understanding the key role of the MML and WD40 families in plants and in the improvement of cotton fiber production.