Neuronal ROS signaling rather than AMPK/sirtuin-mediated energy sensing links dietary restriction to lifespan extension.
ABSTRACT: Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan and promotes metabolic health in evolutionary distinct species. DR is widely believed to promote longevity by causing an energy deficit leading to increased mitochondrial respiration. We here show that inhibitors of mitochondrial complex I promote physical activity, stress resistance as well as lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans despite normal food uptake, i.e. in the absence of DR. However, complex I inhibition does not further extend lifespan in dietarily restricted nematodes, indicating that impaired complex I activity mimics DR. Promotion of longevity due to complex I inhibition occurs independently of known energy sensors, including DAF-16/FoxO, as well as AAK-2/AMPK and SIR-2.1/sirtuins, or both. Consistent with the concept of mitohormesis, complex I inhibition transiently increases mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that activate PMK-1/p38 MAP kinase and SKN-1/NRF-2. Interference with this retrograde redox signal as well as ablation of two redox-sensitive neurons in the head of the worm similarly prevents extension of lifespan. These findings unexpectedly indicate that DR extends organismal lifespan through transient neuronal ROS signaling rather than sensing of energy depletion, providing unexpected pharmacological options to promote exercise capacity and healthspan despite unaltered eating habits.
Project description:Arsenite is one of the most toxic chemical substances known and is assumed to exert detrimental effects on viability even at lowest concentrations. By contrast and unlike higher concentrations, we here find that exposure to low-dose arsenite promotes growth of cultured mammalian cells. In the nematode C. elegans, low-dose arsenite promotes resistance against thermal and chemical stressors and extends lifespan of this metazoan, whereas higher concentrations reduce longevity. While arsenite causes a transient increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in C. elegans, co-exposure to ROS scavengers prevents the lifespan-extending capabilities of arsenite, indicating that transiently increased ROS levels act as transducers of arsenite effects on lifespan, a process known as mitohormesis. This requires two transcription factors, namely DAF-16 and SKN-1, which employ the metallothionein MTL-2 as well as the mitochondrial transporter TIN-9.1 to extend lifespan. Taken together, low-dose arsenite extends lifespan, providing evidence for nonlinear dose-response characteristics of toxin-mediated stress resistance and longevity in a multicellular organism.
Project description:Mitochondrial network remodeling between fused and fragmented states facilitates mitophagy, interaction with other organelles, and metabolic flexibility. Aging is associated with a loss of mitochondrial network homeostasis, but cellular processes causally linking these changes to organismal senescence remain unclear. Here, we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and dietary restriction (DR) promote longevity in C. elegans via maintaining mitochondrial network homeostasis and functional coordination with peroxisomes to increase fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Inhibiting fusion or fission specifically blocks AMPK- and DR-mediated longevity. Strikingly, however, preserving mitochondrial network homeostasis during aging by co-inhibition of fusion and fission is sufficient itself to increase lifespan, while dynamic network remodeling is required for intermittent fasting-mediated longevity. Finally, we show that increasing lifespan via maintaining mitochondrial network homeostasis requires FAO and peroxisomal function. Together, these data demonstrate that mechanisms that promote mitochondrial homeostasis and plasticity can be targeted to promote healthy aging.
Project description:Dietary restriction (DR) is the most effective environmental intervention to extend lifespan in a wide range of species. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the benefits of DR on longevity are still poorly characterized. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated by a decrease in energy levels, raising the possibility that AMPK might mediate lifespan extension by DR.By using a novel DR assay that we developed and validated in C. elegans, we find that AMPK is required for this DR method to extend lifespan and delay age-dependent decline. We find that AMPK exerts its effects in part via the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16. FOXO/DAF-16 is necessary for the beneficial effects of this DR method on lifespan. Expression of an active version of AMPK in worms increases stress resistance and extends longevity in a FOXO/DAF-16-dependent manner. Lastly, we find that AMPK activates FOXO/DAF-16-dependent transcription and phosphorylates FOXO/DAF-16 at previously unidentified sites, suggesting a possible direct mechanism of regulation of FOXO/DAF-16 by AMPK.Our study shows that an energy-sensing AMPK-FOXO pathway mediates the lifespan extension induced by a novel method of dietary restriction in C. elegans.
Project description:Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in multiple species. To examine the mechanisms of lifespan extension upon DR, we assayed genome-wide translational changes in Drosophila. A number of nuclear encoded mitochondrial genes, including those in Complex I and IV of the electron transport chain, showed increased ribosomal loading and enhanced overall activity upon DR. We found that various mitochondrial genes possessed shorter and less structured 5'UTRs, which were important for their enhanced mRNA translation. The translational repressor 4E-BP, the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein, was upregulated upon DR and mediated DR dependent changes in mitochondrial activity and lifespan extension. Inhibition of individual mitochondrial subunits from Complex I and IV diminished the lifespan extension obtained upon DR, reflecting the importance of enhanced mitochondrial function during DR. Our results imply that translational regulation of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gene expression by 4E-BP plays an important role in lifespan extension upon DR. For a video summary of this article, see the PaperFlick file with the Supplemental Data available online.
Project description:Chronic inflammation predisposes to aging-associated disease, but it is unknown whether immunity regulation might be important for extending healthy lifespan. Here we show that in C. elegans, dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan by modulating a conserved innate immunity pathway that is regulated by p38 signaling and the transcription factor ATF-7. Longevity from DR depends upon p38-ATF-7 immunity being intact but downregulated to a basal level. p38-ATF-7 immunity accelerates aging when hyperactive, influences lifespan independently of pathogen exposure, and is activated by nutrients independently of mTORC1, a major DR mediator. Longevity from reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling (rIIS) also involves p38-ATF-7 downregulation, with signals from DAF-16/FOXO reducing food intake. We conclude that p38-ATF-7 is an immunometabolic pathway that senses bacterial and nutrient signals, that immunity modulation is critical for DR, and that DAF-16/FOXO couples appetite to growth regulation. These conserved mechanisms may influence aging in more complex organisms.
Project description:The green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is widely consumed as a dietary supplement. Its potential properties include slowing aging and extending lifespan, although how exactly this is achieved remains unclear. Here, we report that EGCG promoted healthy lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans when administered throughout or only at early-to-mid adulthood. Specifically, EGCG extended lifespan in an inverted U-shaped dose-response manner. The life-extending mechanism was stimulated by EGCG-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, EGCG triggered mitochondrial biogenesis to restore mitochondrial function. The EGCG-induced increase in lifespan depends on known energy sensors such as AMPK/AAK-2, as well as SIRT1/SIR-2.1 and FOXO/DAF-16. Interestingly, aging decreased the response to EGCG and progressively neutralized its beneficial effects on longevity. Collectively, our findings link EGCG to the process of mitohormesis and suggest an inducible, AMPK/SIRT1/FOXO-dependent redox signaling module that could be invoked in different contexts to extend healthy lifespan. Its effectiveness is higher in younger adults and declines with age.
Project description:Mild inhibition of mitochondrial respiration leads to longevity. Disruption of mitochondrial respiratory components extends lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans, but the effects appear to be complex and the underlying mechanism for lifespan regulation by mitochondrial respiratory genes is still not fully understood. Here, we investigated the role of Y82E9BR.3, a worm homolog of the ATP synthase subunit C, in modulating longevity in C. elegans. We found that the Y82E9BR.3 protein is localized in mitochondria and expressed in various tissues throughout development. RNAi knockdown of Y82E9BR.3 extends lifespan, decreases the accumulation of lipofuscin, and affects various physiological processes, including development delay, reproduction impairment and slow behavior. Further tissue-specific RNAi analysis showed that the intestine is a crucial organ for the longevity effects conferred by Y82E9BR.3 RNAi. Moreover, we demonstrated that lifespan extension by Y82E9BR.3 RNAi is associated with reduced mitochondrial function, as well as the suppression of complex I activity in mitochondria. Unexpectedly, Y82E9BR.3 RNAi knock down did not influence the whole-worm ATP level. Our findings first reveal the crucial role of Y82E9BR.3 in mitochondrial function and the underlying mechanism of how Y82E9BR.3 regulates lifespan in C. elegans.
Project description:Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in various species and also slows the onset of age-related diseases. Previous studies from flies and yeast have demonstrated that the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway is essential for longevity phenotypes resulting from DR. TOR is a conserved protein kinase that regulates growth and metabolism in response to nutrients and growth factors. While some of the downstream targets of TOR have been implicated in regulating lifespan, it is still unclear whether additional targets of this pathway also modulate lifespan. It has been shown that the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is one of the targets of the TOR pathway in mammalian cells. HIF-1 is a transcription factor complex that plays key roles in oxygen homeostasis, tumor formation, glucose metabolism, cell survival, and inflammatory response. Here, we describe a novel role for HIF-1 in modulating lifespan extension by DR in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that HIF-1 deficiency results in extended lifespan, which overlaps with that by inhibition of the RSKS-1/S6 kinase, a key component of the TOR pathway. Using a modified DR method based on variation of bacterial food concentrations on solid agar plates, we find that HIF-1 modulates longevity in a nutrient-dependent manner. The hif-1 loss-of-function mutant extends lifespan under rich nutrient conditions but fails to show lifespan extension under DR. Conversely, a mutation in egl-9, which increases HIF-1 activity, diminishes the lifespan extension under DR. This deficiency is rescued by tissue-specific expression of egl-9 in specific neurons and muscles. Increased lifespan by hif-1 or DR is dependent on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress regulator inositol-requiring protein-1 (IRE-1) and is associated with lower levels of ER stress. Therefore, our results demonstrate a tissue-specific role for HIF-1 in the lifespan extension by DR involving the IRE-1 ER stress pathway.
Project description:Moderate mitochondrial stress can lead to persistent activation of cytoprotective mechanisms - a phenomenon termed mitohormesis. Here, we show that mitohormesis primes a subpopulation of cancer cells to basally upregulate mitochondrial stress responses, such as the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) providing an adaptive metastatic advantage. In this subpopulation, UPRmt activation persists in the absence of stress, resulting in reduced oxidative stress indicative of mitohormesis. Mechanistically, we showed that the SIRT3 axis of UPRmt is necessary for invasion and metastasis. In breast cancer patients, a 7-gene UPRmt signature demonstrated that UPRmt-HIGH patients have significantly worse clinical outcomes, including metastasis. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that UPRmt-HIGH patients have expression profiles characterized by metastatic programs and the cytoprotective outcomes of mitohormesis. While mitohormesis is associated with health and longevity in non-pathological settings, these results indicate that it is perniciously used by cancer cells to promote tumor progression.
Project description:Mitochondrial function is central to longevity and an imbalance in mitonuclear protein homeostasis activates a protective response called the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt). Toxic compounds damaging mitochondria trigger the UPRmt, but at sublethal doses these insults extend lifespan in simple animals like C. elegans. Mitochondria are the main energy suppliers in eukaryotes, but it is not known if diet influences the UPRmt. High dietary glucose reduces lifespan in worms, and we show that high dietary glucose activates the UPRmt to protect against lifespan reduction. While lifelong exposure to glucose reduces lifespan, glucose exposure restricted to developing animals extends lifespan and requires the UPRmt. However, this lifespan extension is abolished by further mitochondrial stress in adult animals. We demonstrate that dietary conditions regulate mitochondrial homeostasis, where induction of the UPRmt during development extends lifespan, but prolonged activation into adulthood reduces lifespan.