Antimicrobial activity of heterotrophic bacterial communities from the marine sponge Erylus discophorus (Astrophorida, Geodiidae).
ABSTRACT: Heterotrophic bacteria associated with two specimens of the marine sponge Erylus discophorus were screened for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds against a panel of human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus wild type and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus), fish pathogen (Aliivibrio fischeri) and environmentally relevant bacteria (Vibrio harveyi). The sponges were collected in Berlengas Islands, Portugal. Of the 212 isolated heterotrophic bacteria belonging to Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, 31% produced antimicrobial metabolites. Bioactivity was found against both Gram positive and Gram negative and clinically and environmentally relevant target microorganisms. Bioactivity was found mainly against B. subtilis and some bioactivity against S. aureus MRSA, V. harveyi and A. fisheri. No antifungal activity was detected. The three most bioactive genera were Pseudovibrio (47.0%), Vibrio (22.7%) and Bacillus (7.6%). Other less bioactive genera were Labrenzia, Acinetobacter, Microbulbifer, Pseudomonas, Gordonia, Microbacterium, Micrococcus and Mycobacterium, Paenibacillus and Staphylococcus. The search of polyketide I synthases (PKS-I) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) genes in 59 of the bioactive bacteria suggested the presence of PKS-I in 12 strains, NRPS in 3 strains and both genes in 3 strains. Our results show the potential of the bacterial community associated with Erylus discophorus sponges as producers of bioactive compounds.
Project description:Forty four marine actinomycetes of the family Microccocaceae isolated from sponges collected primarily in Florida Keys (USA) were selected from our strain collection to be studied as new sources for the production of bioactive natural products. A 16S rRNA gene based phylogenetic analysis showed that the strains are members of the genera Kocuria and Micrococcus. To assess their biosynthetic potential, the strains were PCR screened for the presence of secondary metabolite genes encoding nonribosomal synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthases (PKS). A small extract collection of 528 crude extracts generated from nutritional microfermentation arrays was tested for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites against clinically relevant strains (Bacillus subtilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Acinetobacter baumannii and Candida albicans). Three independent isolates were shown to produce a new anti-MRSA bioactive compound that was identified as kocurin, a new member of the thiazolyl peptide family of antibiotics emphasizing the role of this family as a prolific resource for novel drugs.
Project description:Interest in the study of marine sponges and their associated microbiome has increased both for ecological reasons and for their great biotechnological potential. In this work, heterotrophic bacteria associated with three specimens of the marine sponge Erylus deficiens, were isolated in pure culture, phylogenetically identified and screened for antimicrobial activity. The isolation of bacteria after an enrichment treatment in heterotrophic medium revealed diversity in bacterial composition with only Pseudoalteromonas being shared by two specimens. Of the 83 selected isolates, 58% belong to Proteobacteria, 23% to Actinobacteria and 19% to Firmicutes. Diffusion agar assays for bioactivity screening against four bacterial strains and one yeast, revealed that a high number of the isolated bacteria (68.7%) were active, particularly against Candida albicans and Vibrio anguillarum. Pseudoalteromonas, Microbacterium, and Proteus were the most bioactive genera. After this preliminary screening, the bioactive strains were further evaluated in liquid assays against C. albicans, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Filtered culture medium and acetone extracts from three and 5 days-old cultures were assayed. High antifungal activity against C. albicans in both aqueous and acetone extracts as well as absence of activity against B. subtilis were confirmed. Higher levels of activity were obtained with the aqueous extracts when compared to the acetone extracts and differences were also observed between the 3 and 5 day-old extracts. Furthermore, a low number of active strains was observed against E. coli. Potential presence of type-I polyketide synthases (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) genes were detected in 17 and 30 isolates, respectively. The high levels of bioactivity and the likely presence of associated genes suggest that Erylus deficiens bacteria are potential sources of novel marine bioactive compounds.
Project description:Marine environments are a fruitful source of bioactive compounds some of which are the newest leading drugs in medicinal therapeutics. Of particular importance are organisms like sponges and macroalgae and their associated microbiome. Planctomycetes, abundant in macroalgae biofilms, are promising producers of bioactive compounds since they share characteristics, like large genomes and complex life cycles, with the most bioactive bacteria, the Actinobacteria. Furthermore, genome mining revealed the presence of secondary metabolite pathway genes or clusters in 13 analyzed Planctomycetes genomes. In order to assess the antimicrobial production of a large and diverse collection of Planctomycetes isolated from macroalgae from the Portuguese coast, molecular, and bioactivity assays were performed in 40 bacteria from several taxa. Two genes commonly associated with the production of bioactive compounds, nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), and polyketide synthases (PKS) genes were screened. Molecular analysis revealed that 95% of the planctomycetes potentially have one or both secondary bioactive genes; 85% amplified with PKS-I primers and 55% with NRPS primers. Some of the amplified genes were confirmed to be involved in secondary metabolite pathways. Using bioinformatic tools their biosynthetic pathways were predicted. The secondary metabolite genomic potential of strains LF1, UC8, and FC18 was assessed using in silico analysis of their genomes. Aqueous and organic extracts of the Planctomycetes were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against an environmental Escherichia coli, E. coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, and a clinical isolate of Candida albicans. The screening assays showed a high number of planctomycetes with bioactive extracts revealing antifungal (43%) and antibacterial (54%) activity against C. albicans and B. subtilis, respectively. Bioactivity was observed in strains from Rhodopirellula lusitana, R. rubra, R. baltica, Roseimaritima ulvae, and Planctomyces brasiliensis. This study confirms the bioactive capacity of Planctomycetes to produce antimicrobial compounds and encourages further studies envisaging molecule isolation and characterization for the possible discovery of new drugs.
Project description:The diversity of actinomycetes associated with marine sponges collected off Fsar Reef (Saudi Arabia) was investigated in the present study. Forty-seven actinomycetes were cultivated and phylogenetically identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were assigned to 10 different actinomycete genera. Eight putatively novel species belonging to genera Kocuria, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, and Rhodococcus were identified based on sequence similarity values below 98.2% to other 16S rRNA gene sequences available in the NCBI database. PCR-based screening for biosynthetic genes including type I and type II polyketide synthases (PKS-I, PKS-II) as well as nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) showed that 20 actinomycete isolates encoded each at least one type of biosynthetic gene. The organic extracts of nine isolates displayed bioactivity against at least one of the test pathogens, which were Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, human parasites, as well as in a West Nile Virus protease enzymatic assay. These results emphasize that marine sponges are a prolific resource for novel bioactive actinomycetes with potential for drug discovery.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most prevalent drug resistant bacteria. In 2012, over 11,000 fatalities in the United States were directly attributable to MRSA. In an effort to develop novel structural and mechanistic classes of antibacterial agents to fight against MRSA, we have optimized a hit compound, Of4, previously discovered in a screening campaign of a bio-inspired polycyclic indoline library previously developed in our lab. We took advantage of our concise and versatile synthetic strategy to conduct initial structure-activity relationship studies of Of4, and we now report the discovery of compound 4k as a more potent antibacterial agent against S. aureus. Compound 4k also displayed equivalent activity in four MRSA and a methicillin-susceptible strains while demonstrating an improved mammalian cytotoxicity profile compared to Of4. Interestingly, 4k shares the same tricyclic indoline core as Of1, a ?-lactam-selective resistance-modifying agent, but harbors a distinct modification pattern conferring unique bioactivity. This phenomenon is reminiscent of many bioactive natural products.
Project description:Marine cyanobacteria are considered a prolific source of bioactive natural products with a range of biotechnological and pharmacological applications. However, data on the production of natural compounds from sponge-associated cyanobacteria are scarce. This study aimed to assess the potential of sponge-associated cyanobacteria strains representing different taxonomic groups for the production of bioactive compounds and the biological activity of their extracts. Phylogenetic analysis of sponge-associated cyanobacteria and screening for the presence of genes encoding non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs) were performed. Methanol extracts of the sponge-associated strains were analyzed for cyanotoxin production and tested for antioxidant activity and cytotoxic activity against several human cancer cell lines and pathogenic bacteria. PKS were detected in all sponge-associated strains examined, indicating the metabolic potential of the isolates. PKS genes were more ubiquitous than NRPS genes. Cyanotoxins (i.e., cylindrospermopsin, anatoxin-a, nodularin, and microcystins) were not detected in any of the sponge-associated cyanobacterial strains. Strains belonging to Leptothoe, Pseudanabaena, and Synechococcus were found to have activity mainly against Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, sponge-associated Leptothoe strains (TAU-MAC 0915, 1015, 1115, and 1215) were found to be highly cytotoxic and in most cases more effective against human cancer cell lines than against normal cells. Extracts with the most promising bioactivity deserve further investigation in order to isolate and identify the bioactive molecule(s).
Project description:Cycloaddition reactions such as intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) are extremely important in constructing multicyclic scaffolds with diverse bioactivities. Using MycB as a biomarker, three new polyketides - Chaetolivacines A (1), B (3), and C (4) - with one known compound Myceliothermophin E (2) comprising of decalin and 4-hydroxy-2-pyridones were obtained from the culture of Chaetomium olivaceum SD-80A under the guidance of gene mining. The structures of these compounds were established using detailed 1D, 2D NMR, and high-resolution electron spray ionization mass spectroscopy (HRESIMS) analysis. The relative and absolute configurations of the compounds 1, 3, and 4 were elucidated by NOESY and ECD. The biosynthesis pathways of these compounds were proposed, which involves in three key genes ChaA [polyketide synthase-non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (PKS-NRPS)], ChaB, and ChaC. Compounds 1-4 were tested for their antimicrobial activities, and compounds 2 and 3 showed moderate bioactivity against Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) with MIC values of 15.8 and 27.1 ?M. The results showed that configuration of C-21 in 3 and 4 is important for anti-SA and anti-MRSA activities. This study reveals the significant potential of the genus Chaetomium in producing new PKS-NRPS, therefore increasing the speed in the mining for new sources of antimicrobial agents.
Project description:Paeonia ostii is known for its excellent medicinal values as Chinese traditional plant. To date, the diversity of culturable endophytes associated with P. ostii is in its initial phase of exploration. In this study, 56 endophytic bacteria and 51 endophytic fungi were isolated from P. ostii roots in China. Subsequent characterization of 56 bacterial strains by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis revealed that nine families and 13 different genera were represented. All the fungal strains were classed into six families and 12 genera based on ITS gene sequence. The biosynthetic potential of all the endophytes was further investigated by the detection of putative polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes. The PCR screens were successful in targeting thirteen bacterial PKS, five bacterial NRPS, ten fungal PKS and nine fungal NRPS gene fragments. Bioinformatic analysis of these detected endophyte gene fragments facilitated inference of the potential bioactivity of endophyte bioactive products, suggesting that the isolated endophytes are capable of producing a plethora of secondary metabolites. These results suggest that endophytes isolated from P. ostii had abundant population diversity and biosynthetic potential, which further proved that endophytes are valuable reservoirs of novel bioactive compounds.Paeonia ostii is known for its excellent medicinal values as Chinese traditional plant. To date, the diversity of culturable endophytes associated with P. ostii is in its initial phase of exploration. In this study, 56 endophytic bacteria and 51 endophytic fungi were isolated from P. ostii roots in China. Subsequent characterization of 56 bacterial strains by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis revealed that nine families and 13 different genera were represented. All the fungal strains were classed into six families and 12 genera based on ITS gene sequence. The biosynthetic potential of all the endophytes was further investigated by the detection of putative polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes. The PCR screens were successful in targeting thirteen bacterial PKS, five bacterial NRPS, ten fungal PKS and nine fungal NRPS gene fragments. Bioinformatic analysis of these detected endophyte gene fragments facilitated inference of the potential bioactivity of endophyte bioactive products, suggesting that the isolated endophytes are capable of producing a plethora of secondary metabolites. These results suggest that endophytes isolated from P. ostii had abundant population diversity and biosynthetic potential, which further proved that endophytes are valuable reservoirs of novel bioactive compounds.
Project description:This study investigated the potential antibacterial activity of three series of compounds synthesized from 12 linear and branched polyamines with 2-8 amino groups, which were substituted to produce the corresponding guanides, biguanides, or phenylguanides, against Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial activity was measured for each compound by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration against the bacteria, and the toxicity towards mammalian cells was determined. The most effective compound, THAM trisphenylguanide, was studied in time-to-kill and cytoplasmic leakage assays against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, USA300) in comparison to chlorhexidine. Preliminary toxicity and MRSA challenge studies in mice were also conducted on this compound. THAM trisphenylguanide showed significant antibacterial activity (MIC ?1 mg/L) and selectivity against MRSA relative to all the other bacteria examined. In time-to-kill assays it showed increased antimicrobial activity against MRSA versus chlorhexidine. It induced leakage of cytoplasmic content at concentrations that did not reduce cell viability, suggesting the mechanism of action may involve membrane disruption. Using an intraperitoneal mouse model of invasive MRSA disease, THAM trisphenylguanide reduced bacterial burden locally and in deeper tissues. This study has identified a novel guanide compound with selective microbicidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, including a methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strain.
Project description:The misuse and overuse of antibiotics have led to the emergence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms, which decreases the chance of treating those infected with existing antibiotics. This resistance calls for the search of new antimicrobials from prolific producers of novel natural products including marine sponges. Many of the novel active compounds reported from sponges have originated from their microbial symbionts. Therefore, this study aims to screen for bioactive metabolites from bacteria isolated from sponges. Twelve sponge samples were collected from South Australian marine environments and grown on seven isolation media under four incubation conditions; a total of 1234 bacterial isolates were obtained. Of these, 169 bacteria were tested in media optimized for production of antimicrobial metabolites and screened against eleven human pathogens. Seventy bacteria were found to be active against at least one test bacterial or fungal pathogen, while 37% of the tested bacteria showed activity against <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> including methicillin-resistant strains and antifungal activity was produced by 21% the isolates. A potential novel active compound was purified possessing inhibitory activity against <i>S. aureus.</i> Using 16S rRNA, the strain was identified as <i>Streptomyces</i> sp. Our study highlights that the marine sponges of South Australia are a rich source of abundant and diverse bacteria producing metabolites with antimicrobial activities against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi.