GM-CSF promotes the immunosuppressive activity of glioma-infiltrating myeloid cells through interleukin-4 receptor-?.
ABSTRACT: Malignant gliomas are lethal cancers in the brain and heavily infiltrated by myeloid cells. Interleukin-4 receptor-? (IL-4R?) mediates the immunosuppressive functions of myeloid cells, and polymorphisms in the IL-4R? gene are associated with altered glioma risk and prognosis. In this study, we sought to evaluate a hypothesized causal role for IL-4R? and myeloid suppressor cells in glioma development. In both mouse de novo gliomas and human glioblastoma cases, IL-4R? was upregulated on glioma-infiltrating myeloid cells but not in the periphery or in normal brain. Mice genetically deficient for IL-4R? exhibited a slower growth of glioma associated with reduced production in the glioma microenvironment of arginase, a marker of myeloid suppressor cells, which is critical for their T-cell inhibitory function. Supporting this result, investigations using bone marrow-derived myeloid cells showed that IL-4R? mediates IL-13-induced production of arginase. Furthermore, glioma-derived myeloid cells suppressed T-cell proliferation in an IL-4R?-dependent manner, consistent with their identification as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) plays a central role for the induction of IL-4R? expression on myeloid cells, and we found that GM-CSF is upregulated in both human and mouse glioma microenvironments compared with normal brain or peripheral blood samples. Together, our findings establish a GM-CSF-induced mechanism of immunosuppression in the glioma microenvironment via upregulation of IL-4R? on MDSCs.
Project description:Although previous reports suggest that tumor-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) inhibit T cells by L-arginine depletion through arginase-1 activity, we herein show that arginase-1 is neither inherently expressed in MDSC nor required for MDSC-mediated inhibition. Employing Percoll density gradients, large expansions of MDSC in the bone marrow of tumor-bearing mice were isolated and demonstrated potent inhibition in T-cell proliferation activated by TCR-ligation, Concanavalin A, PMA plus ionomycin, or IL-2. Despite demonstrating characteristic immunosuppressive capacity, these MDSC exhibit no arginase-1 expression and/or exert their inhibitory effects independent of arginase-1 activity. However, arginase-1 expression in MDSC can be induced by exposure to TCR-activated T cells or their culture medium, but not T cells activated by other means or growing tumor cells. Further investigation reveals multiple cytokines secreted by TCR-activated T cells as orchestrating two signaling-relay axes, IL-6-to-IL-4 and GM-CSF/IL-4-to-IL-10, leading to arginase-1 expression in MDSC. Specifically, IL-6 signaling increases IL-4R, enabling IL-4 to induce arginase-1 expression; similarly, GM-CSF in concert with IL-4 induces IL-10R, allowing IL-10-mediated induction. Surprisingly, our study indicates that induction of arginase-1 expression is not conducive to the critical MDSC-mediated inhibition toward T cells, which is rather dependent on direct cell contacts undiminished by PD-L1 blockade or SIRP? deficiency.
Project description:Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) controls proliferation and survival of myeloid cells including monocytes. Here, we describe a time-dependent licensing process driven by GM-CSF in murine Ly6Chigh and human CD14+ monocytes that disables their inflammatory functions and promotes their conversion into suppressor cells. This 2-step licensing of monocytes requires activation of the AKT/mTOR/mTORC1 signaling cascade by GM-CSF followed by signaling through the interferon-? receptor (IFN-?R)/interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) pathway. Only licensing-dependent adaptations in Toll-like receptor/inflammasome, IFN-?R, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mTOR signaling lead to stabilized expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by mouse and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) by human monocytes, which accounts for their suppressor activity. This study suggests various myeloid cells with characteristics similar to those described for monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells, Mreg, or suppressor macrophages may arise from licensed monocytes. Markers of GM-CSF-driven monocyte licensing, including p-Akt, p-mTOR, and p-S6, distinguish inflammatory monocytes from potentially suppressive monocytes in peripheral blood of patients with high-grade glioma.
Project description:Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are increased in tumor patients. Studies have shown generation of MDSCs from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by various cytokine combinations. However, large scale expansion of human MDSCs has not been demonstrated or applied in clinic settings. We investigated which cytokine combinations among GM-CSF/SCF, G-CSF/SCF, or M-CSF/SCF efficiently expand and differentiate human MDSCs following culture CD34+ cells of umbilical cord blood (CB). GM-CSF/SCF showed the greatest expansion of MDSCs. Up to 108 MDSCs (HLA-DRlowCD11b+CD33+) could be produced from 1 unit of CB following 6 weeks of continuous culture. MDSCs produced from culture of CD34+ cells with GM-CSF/SCF for 6 weeks had the greatest suppressive function of T cell proliferation and had the highest expression of immunosuppressive molecules including iNOS, arginase 1 and IDO compared to those differentiated with G-CSF/SCF or M-CSF/SCF. MDSCs secreted IL-10, TGB-?, and VEGF. The infusion of expanded MDSCs significantly prolonged the survival and decreased the GVHD score in a NSG xenogeneic model of GVHD. Injected MDSCs increased IL-10 and TGF-? but decreased the level of TNF-? and IL-6 in the serum of treated mice. Notably, FoxP3 expressing regulatory T (Treg) cells were increased while IFN-? (Th1) and IL-17 (Th17) producing T cells were decreased in the spleen of MDSC treated mice compared to untreated GVHD mice. Our results demonstrate that human MDSCs are generated from CB CD34+ cells using GM-CSF/SCF. These MDSCs exhibited potent immunosuppressive function, suggesting that they are useable as a treatment for inflammatory diseases such as GVHD.
Project description:Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a well-defined population of cells that accumulate in the tissue of tumor-bearing animals and are known to inhibit immune responses. Within 4 days, bone marrow cells cultured in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor resulted in the generation of CD11b(+)Ly6G(lo)Ly6C(+) MDSCs, the majority of which are interleukin-4R? (IL-4R?(+)) and F4/80(+). Such MDSCs potently inhibited in vitro allogeneic T-cell responses. Suppression was dependent on L-arginine depletion by arginase-1 activity. Exogenous IL-13 produced an MDSC subset (MDSC-IL-13) that was more potently suppressive and resulted in arginase-1 up-regulation. Suppression was reversed with an arginase inhibitor or on the addition of excess L-arginine to the culture. Although both MDSCs and MDSC-IL-13 inhibited graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) lethality, MDSC-IL-13 were more effective. MDSC-IL-13 migrated to sites of allopriming. GVHD inhibition was associated with limited donor T-cell proliferation, activation, and proinflammatory cytokine production. GVHD inhibition was reduced when arginase-1-deficient MDSC-IL-13 were used. MDSC-IL-13 did not reduce the graft-versus-leukemia effect of donor T cells. In vivo administration of a pegylated form of human arginase-1 (PEG-arg1) resulted in L-arginine depletion and significant GVHD reduction. MDSC-IL-13 and pegylated form of human arginase-1 represent novel strategies to prevent GVHD that can be clinically translated.
Project description:The methylation profiles of bisulfite-modified DNA of human CD14+ monocytes were compared with derived immature dendritic cells (GM-CSF/IL-4 ), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (GM-CSF/IL-4/PGE-2), EP2 antagonized myeloid-derived suppressor cells (GM-CSF/IL-4/PGE-2/ PF 04418948 5 µM), EP4 antagonized myeloid-derived suppressor cells (GM-CSF/IL-4/PGE-2/ L-161,982 5 µM) and EP2 + EP4 antagonized myeloid-derived suppressor cells (GM-CSF/IL-4/PGE-2/PF 04418948 5 µM /L-161,982 5 µM) using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips (Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA,). This platform allows the interrogation of >485,000 methylation sites per sample at single-nucleotide resolution, and comprises an average of 17 CpG sites per gene in the 99% of RefSeq genes. 96% of CpG islands are covered, with additional coverage in CpG island shores and the regions flanking them. The samples were hybridized in the array following the manufacturer’s instructions. Overall design: Total DNA isolated by standard procedures from CD14+ cells (total monocytes, MOs) corresponding to six sets of samples of monocytes (MOs), derived immature DCs, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, EP2 antagonized myeloid-derived suppressor cells, EP4 antagonized myeloid-derived suppressor cells and EP2 + EP4 antagonized myeloid-derived suppressor cells (DCS and MDSCs).
Project description:Gliomas are primary brain tumors that are associated with a poor prognosis. The introduction of new treatment modalities (including immunotherapy) for these neoplasms in the last 3 decades has resulted in only limited improvement in survival. Gliomas are known to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment that hampers the efficacy of (immuno)therapy. One component of this immunosuppressive environment is the myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC).We set out to analyze the presence and activation state of MDSCs in blood (n = 41) and tumor (n = 20) of glioma patients by measuring S100A8/9 and arginase using flow cytometry and qPCR. Inhibition of T cell proliferation and cytokine production after stimulation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 coated beads was used to measure in vitro MDSC suppression capacity.We report a trend toward a tumor grade-dependent increase of both monocytic (M-) and polymorphonuclear (PMN-) MDSC subpopulations in the blood of patients with glioma. M-MDSCs of glioma patients have increased levels of intracellular S100A8/9 compared with M-MDSCs in healthy controls (HCs). Glioma patients also have increased S100A8/9 serum levels, which correlates with increased arginase activity in serum. PMN-MDSCs in both blood and tumor tissue demonstrated high expression of arginase. Furthermore, we assessed blood-derived PMN-MDSC function and showed that these cells have potent T cell suppressive function in vitro.These data indicate a tumor grade-dependent increase of MDSCs in the blood of patients with a glioma. These MDSCs exhibit an increased activation state compared with MDSCs in HCs, independent of tumor grade.
Project description:Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) emerged as major factors driving the tumor progression due to numerous immunosuppressive mechanisms they possess. Prostaglandin (PG)E2 is shown critical for the induction of MDSC and their suppressive functions in vivo, but it is poorly understood how it affects the capacity of MDSC to induce different subsets of regulatory T cells (Treg). By using a novel protocol for the generation of mononuclear (M)-MDSC, we showed that PGE2 potentiates the GM-CSF/IL-6-dependent induction of CD33+CD11b+HLA-DR-CD14+ M-MDSC in vitro. PGE2 diminished the capacity of GM-CSF/IL-6 M-MDSC to produce proinflammatory cytokines upon activation and augmented their capacity to produce IL-27, IL-33, and TGF-?. These results correlated with an increased potential of GM-CSF/IL-6/PGE2 M-MDSC to suppress T cell proliferation, expand alloreactive Th2 cells, and reduce the development of alloreactive Th17 and cytotoxic T cells. Interestingly, GM-CSF/IL-6/PGE2 M-MDSC displayed a lower capacity to induce TGF-?-producing FoxP3+ regulatory Treg compared to GM-CSF/IL-6 M-MDSC, as a consequence of reduced IDO-1 expression. In contrast, GM-CSF/IL-6/PGE2 M-MDSC potentiated IL-10 production by CD8+T, Th2, and particularly CD4+FoxP3- type 1 Treg, the latter of which depended on ILT3 and ILT4 expression. Cumulatively, PGE2 potentiated the suppressive phenotype and functions of GM-CSF/IL-6-induced M-MDSC and changed the mechanisms involved in Treg induction, which could be important for investigating new therapeutic strategies focused on MDSC-related effects in tumors and autoimmune diseases.
Project description:Objectives: GM-CSF is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with multiple actions predominantly on myeloid cells. Enhanced GM-CSF expression by lymphocytes from patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) has recently been described, however, its potential pathogenic role(s) in AS are unknown. Methods: The effects of GM-CSF on TNF, IL-23, and CCL17 production by blood, PBMCs and isolated CD14+ monocytes from AS patients and healthy controls (HCs) were studied using ELISA. Serum CCL17 and GM-CSF and T cell GM-CSF production were studied in AS patients including pre-and on TNFi therapy. Results: GM-CSF markedly increased TNF production by LPS-stimulated whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and purified monocytes from AS patients, with 2 h GM-CSF exposure sufficient for monocyte "priming." Blocking of GM-CSF significantly reduced the production of TNF by whole blood from AS patients but not HCs. GM-CSF priming increased IL-23 production from LPS-stimulated AS and HC whole blood 5-fold, with baseline and stimulated IL-23 levels being significantly higher in AS whole blood. GM-CSF also stimulated CCL17 production from AS and HC blood and CCL17 levels were elevated in AS plasma. GM-CSF could be detected in plasma from 14/46 (30%) AS patients compared to 3/18 (17%) HC. Conclusion: We provide evidence that GM-CSF primes TNF and IL-23 responses in myeloid cells from AS patients and HC. We also show CCL17 levels, downstream of GM-CSF, were elevated in plasma samples of AS patients. Taken together these observations are supportive of GM-CSF neutralization as a potential novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of AS.
Project description:Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of early myeloid progenitors and precursors at different stages of differentiation into granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Blockade of their differentiation into mature myeloid cells in cancer results in an expansion of this population. High-grade gliomas are the most common malignant tumours of the central nervous system (CNS), with a poor prognosis despite intensive radiation and chemotherapy. Histopathological and flow cytometry analyses of human and rodent experimental gliomas revealed the extensive heterogeneity of immune cells infiltrating gliomas and their microenvironment. Immune cell infiltrates consist of: resident (microglia) and peripheral macrophages, granulocytes, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and T lymphocytes. Intratumoural density of glioma-associated MDSCs correlates positively with the histological grade of gliomas and patient's survival. MDSCs have the ability to attract T regulatory lymphocytes to the tumour, but block the activation of tumour-reactive CD4+ T helper cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Immunomodulatory mechanisms employed by malignant gliomas pose an appalling challenge to brain tumour immunotherapy. In this mini-review we describe phenotypic and functional characteristics of MDSCs in humans and rodents, and their occurrence and potential roles in glioma progression. While understanding the complexity of immune cell interactions in the glioma microenvironment is far from being accomplished, there is significant progress that may lead to the development of immunotherapy for gliomas.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has emerged as a crucial cytokine that activates myeloid cells to initiate tissue inflammation. However, the molecular actions of GM-CSF against innate immunity are still poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the in vitro effects of GM-CSF on the activation of human myeloid lineages, neutrophils, and the underlying intracellular signaling mechanism, including inflammasome activation. METHODS:Human neutrophils were stimulated with GM-CSF in the presence or absence of tofacitinib. The cellular supernatants were analyzed for interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) and caspase-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. Pro-IL-1? mRNA expressions in human neutrophils were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Protein phosphorylation of neutrophils was assessed by Western blot using phospho-specific antibodies. RESULTS:Stimulation with GM-CSF alone, but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha, was shown to increase the release of IL-1? and cleaved caspase-1 (p20) from human neutrophils. Tofacitinib, which inhibits GM-CSF-induced Janus kinase 2 (Jak2)-mediated signal transduction, completely abrogated GM-CSF-induced IL-1? and caspase-1 (p20) secretion from neutrophils. GM-CSF stimulation also induced pro-IL-1? mRNA expression in neutrophils and induced NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) protein expression. Although tofacitinib pretreatment marginally inhibited GM-CSF-induced pro-IL-1? mRNA expression, tofacitinib completely abrogated NLRP3 protein expression in neutrophils. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that GM-CSF signaling induces NLRP3 expression and subsequent IL-1? production by affecting neutrophils, which may cause the activation of innate immunity. Therefore, GM-CSF is a key regulator of the NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1? production by activating innate immune cells. This process can be blocked by tofacitinib, which interferes with JAK/STAT signaling pathways.