Flooding of the apoplast is a key factor in the development of hyperhydricity.
ABSTRACT: The physiological disorder hyperhydricity occurs frequently in tissue culture and causes several morphological abnormalities such as thick, brittle, curled, and translucent leaves. It is well known that hyperhydric shoots are characterized by a high water content, but how this is related to the abnormalities is not clear. It was observed that water accumulated extensively in the apoplast of leaves of hyperhydric Arabidopsis seedlings and flooded apoplastic air spaces almost completely. In hyperhydric Arabidopsis seedlings, the volume of apoplastic air was reduced from 85% of the apoplast to only 15%. Similar results were obtained with hyperhydric shoots of statice. The elevated expression of hypoxia-responsive genes in hyperhydric seedlings showed that the water saturation of the apoplast decreased oxygen supply. This demonstrates a reduced gas exchange between the symplast and its surroundings, which will consequently lead to the accumulation of gases in the symplast, for example ethylene and methyl jasmonate. The impairment of gas exchange probably brings about the symptoms of hyperhydricity. Interestingly, stomatal aperture was reduced in hyperhydric plants, a previously reported response to injection of water into the apoplast. Closure of the stomata and the accumulation of water in the apoplast may be the reasons why seedlings with a low level of hyperhydricity showed improved acclimatization after planting into soil.
Project description:The apoplast, i.e. the cellular compartment external to the plasma membrane, undergoes important changes during senescence. Apoplastic fluid volume increases quite significantly in senescing leaves, thereby diluting its contents. Its pH elevates by about 0.8 units, similar to the apoplast alkalization in response to abiotic stresses. The levels of 159 proteins decrease, whereas 24 proteins increase in relative abundance in the apoplast of senescing leaves. Around half of the apoplastic proteins of non-senescent leaves contain a N-terminal signal peptide for secretion, while all the identified senescence-associated apoplastic proteins contain the signal peptide. Several of the apoplastic proteins that accumulate during senescence also accumulate in stress responses, suggesting that the apoplast may constitute a compartment where developmental and stress-related programs overlap. Other senescence-related apoplastic proteins are involved in cell wall modifications, proteolysis, carbohydrate, ROS and amino acid metabolism, signaling, lipid transport, etc. The most abundant senescence-associated apoplastic proteins, PR2 and PR5 (e.g. pathogenesis related proteins PR2 and PR5) are related to leaf aging rather than to the chloroplast degradation program, as their levels increase only in leaves undergoing developmental senescence, but not in dark-induced senescent leaves. Changes in the apoplastic space may be relevant for signaling and molecular trafficking underlying senescence.
Project description:The foliar plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae can establish large epiphytic populations on leaf surfaces before apoplastic colonization. However, the bacterial genes that contribute to these lifestyles have not been completely defined. The fitness contributions of 4,296 genes in P. syringae pv. syringae B728a were determined by genome-wide fitness profiling with a randomly barcoded transposon mutant library that was grown on the leaf surface and in the apoplast of the susceptible plant Phaseolus vulgaris Genes within the functional categories of amino acid and polysaccharide (including alginate) biosynthesis contributed most to fitness both on the leaf surface (epiphytic) and in the leaf interior (apoplast), while genes involved in type III secretion system and syringomycin synthesis were primarily important in the apoplast. Numerous other genes that had not been previously associated with in planta growth were also required for maximum epiphytic or apoplastic fitness. Fourteen hypothetical proteins and uncategorized glycosyltransferases were also required for maximum competitive fitness in and on leaves. For most genes, no relationship was seen between fitness in planta and either the magnitude of their expression in planta or degree of induction in planta compared to in vitro conditions measured in other studies. A lack of association of gene expression and fitness has important implications for the interpretation of transcriptional information and our broad understanding of plant-microbe interactions.
Project description:We develop a model based on the biophysical representation of water and sugar flows between the pedicel, fruit xylem and phloem, and the fruit apoplast and symplast in order to identify diurnal patterns of transport in the pedicel-fruit system of peach. The model predicts that during the night water is mainly imported to the fruit through the xylem, and that fruit phloem-xylem transfer of water allows sugar concentrations in the phloem to be higher in the fruit than in the pedicel. This results in relatively high sugar transport to the fruit apoplast, leading to relatively high sugar uptake by the fruit symplast despite low sugar concentrations in the pedicel. At midday, the model predicts a xylem backflow of water driven by a lower pressure potential in the xylem than in the fruit apoplast. In addition, fruit xylem-to-phloem transfer of water decreases the fruit phloem sugar concentration, resulting in moderate sugar uptake by the fruit symplast, despite the high sugar concentration in the pedicel. Globally, the predicted fruit xylem-phloem water transfers buffer the sugar concentrations in the fruit phloem and apoplast, leading to a diurnally regulated uptake of sugar. A possible fruit xylem-to-apoplast recirculation of water through the fruit phloem reduces water lost by xylem backflow at midday.
Project description:Plant proteases are key regulators of plant cell processes such as seed development, immune responses, senescence and programmed cell death (PCD). Apoplastic papain-like cysteine proteases (PL) are hubs in plant-microbe interactions and play an important role during abiotic stresses. The apoplast is a crucial interface for the interaction between plant and microbes. So far, apoplastic maize PL and their function have been mostly described for aerial parts. In this study, we focused on apoplastic PLCPs in the roots of maize plants. We have analyzed the phylogeny of maize PLCPs and investigated their protein abundance after salicylic acid (SA) treatment. Using activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) we have identified a novel root-specific PLCP belonging to the RD21-like subfamily, as well as three SA activated PLCPs. The root specific PLCP CP1C shares sequence and structural similarities to known CP1-like proteases. Biochemical analysis of recombinant CP1C revealed different substrate specificities and inhibitor affinities compared to the related proteases. This study characterized a root-specific PLCP and identifies differences between the SA-dependent activation of PLCPs in roots and leaves.
Project description:The plant cuticle is often considered a passive barrier from the environment. We show that the cuticle regulates active transport of the defense hormone salicylic acid (SA). SA, an important regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), is preferentially transported from pathogen-infected to uninfected parts via the apoplast. Apoplastic accumulation of SA, which precedes its accumulation in the cytosol, is driven by the pH gradient and deprotonation of SA. In cuticle-defective mutants, increased transpiration and reduced water potential preferentially routes SA to cuticle wax rather than to the apoplast. This results in defective long-distance transport of SA, which in turn impairs distal accumulation of the SAR-inducer pipecolic acid. High humidity reduces transpiration to restore systemic SA transport and, thereby, SAR in cuticle-defective mutants. Together, our results demonstrate that long-distance mobility of SA is essential for SAR and that partitioning of SA between the symplast and cuticle is regulated by transpiration.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Riverine ecosystems, highly sensitive to climate change and human activities, are characterized by rapid environmental change to fluctuating water levels and siltation, causing stress on their biological components. We have little understanding of mechanisms by which riverine plant species have developed adaptive strategies to cope with stress in dynamic environments while maintaining growth and development. RESULTS: We report that poplar (Populus spp.) has evolved a systems level "stress proteome" in the leaf-stem-root apoplast continuum to counter biotic and abiotic factors. To obtain apoplast proteins from P. deltoides, we developed pressure-chamber and water-displacement methods for leaves and stems, respectively. Analyses of 303 proteins and corresponding transcripts coupled with controlled experiments and bioinformatics demonstrate that poplar depends on constitutive and inducible factors to deal with water, pathogen, and oxidative stress. However, each apoplast possessed a unique set of proteins, indicating that response to stress is partly compartmentalized. Apoplast proteins that are involved in glycolysis, fermentation, and catabolism of sucrose and starch appear to enable poplar to grow normally under water stress. Pathogenesis-related proteins mediating water and pathogen stress in apoplast were particularly abundant and effective in suppressing growth of the most prevalent poplar pathogen Melampsora. Unexpectedly, we found diverse peroxidases that appear to be involved in stress-induced cell wall modification in apoplast, particularly during the growing season. Poplar developed a robust antioxidative system to buffer oxidation in stem apoplast. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that multistress response in the apoplast constitutes an important adaptive trait for poplar to inhabit dynamic environments and is also a potential mechanism in other riverine plant species.
Project description:The redox state of the apoplast is largely determined by ascorbate oxidase (AO) activity. The influence of AO activity on leaf acclimation to changing irradiance was explored in wild-type (WT) and transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) lines containing either high [pumpkin AO (PAO)] or low [tobacco AO (TAO)] AO activity at low [low light (LL); 250 ?mol m-2 s-1 ] and high [high light (HL); 1600 ?mol m-2 s-1 ] irradiance and following the transition from HL to LL. AO activities changed over the photoperiod, particularly in the PAO plants. AO activity had little effect on leaf ascorbate, which was significantly higher under HL than under LL. Apoplastic ascorbate/dehydroascorbate (DHA) ratios and threonate levels were modified by AO activity. Despite decreased levels of transcripts encoding ascorbate synthesis enzymes, leaf ascorbate increased over the first photoperiod following the transition from HL to LL, to much higher levels than LL-grown plants. Photosynthesis rates were significantly higher in the TAO leaves than in WT or PAO plants grown under HL but not under LL. Sub-sets of amino acids and fatty acids were lower in TAO and WT leaves than in the PAO plants under HL, and following the transition to LL. Light acclimation processes are therefore influenced by the apoplastic as well as chloroplastic redox state.
Project description:The role of calcium (Ca) on the cellular distribution of U(VI) in Brassica juncea roots and root-to-shoot translocation was investigated using hydroponic experiments, microscopy, and spectroscopy. Uranium accumulated mainly in the roots (727-9376 mg kg-1) after 30 days of exposure to 80 ?M dissolved U in water containing 1 mM HCO3 - at different Ca concentrations (0-6 mM) at pH 7.5. However, the concentration of U in the shoots increased 22 times in experiments with 6 mM Ca compared to 0 mM Ca. In the Ca control experiment, transmission electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy analyses detected U-P-bearing precipitates in the cortical apoplast of parenchyma cells. In experiments with 0.3 mM Ca, U-P-bearing precipitates were detected in the cortical apoplast and the bordered pits of xylem cells. In experiments with 6 mM Ca, U-P-bearing precipitates aggregated in the xylem with no apoplastic precipitation. These results indicate that Ca in carbonate water inhibits the transport and precipitation of U in the root cortical apoplast and facilitates the symplastic transport and translocation toward shoots. These findings reveal the considerable role of Ca in the presence of carbonate in facilitating the transport of U in plants and present new insights for future assessment and phytoremediation strategies.
Project description:The apoplast is the arena in which endophytic pathogens such as Pseudomonas syringae grow and interact with plant cells. Using metabolomic and ion analysis techniques, this study shows how the composition of Phaseolus vulgaris leaf apoplastic fluid changes during the first six hours of compatible and incompatible interactions with two strains of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph) that differ in the presence of the genomic island PPHGI-1. Leaf inoculation with the avirulent island-carrying strain Pph 1302A elicited effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and resulted in specific changes in apoplast composition, including increases in conductivity, pH, citrate, ?-aminobutyrate (GABA) and K(+) , that are linked to the onset of plant defence responses. Other apoplastic changes, including increases in Ca(2+) , Fe(2/3+) Mg(2+) , sucrose, ?-cyanoalanine and several amino acids, occurred to a relatively similar extent in interactions with both Pph 1302A and the virulent, island-less strain Pph RJ3. Metabolic footprinting experiments established that Pph preferentially metabolizes malate, glucose and glutamate, but excludes certain other abundant apoplastic metabolites, including citrate and GABA, until preferred metabolites are depleted. These results demonstrate that Pph is well-adapted to the leaf apoplast metabolic environment and that loss of PPHGI-1 enables Pph to avoid changes in apoplast composition linked to plant defences.
Project description:Lower plant transpiration rate (TR) under high vapor pressure deficit (VPD) conditions and early plant vigor are proposed as major traits influencing the rate of crop water use and possibly the fitness of chickpea lines to specific terminal drought conditions-this being the major constraint limiting chickpea productivity. The physiological mechanisms underlying difference in TR under high VPD and vigor are still unresolved, and so is the link between vigor and TR. Lower TR is hypothesized to relate to hydraulic conductance differences. Experiments were conducted in both soil (Vertisol) and hydroponic culture. The assessment of the TR response to increasing VPD showed that high vigor genotypes had TR restriction under high VPD, and this was confirmed in the early vigor parent and progeny genotype (ICC 4958 and RIL 211) having lower TR than the late vigor parent and progeny genotype (ICC 1882 and RIL 022). Inhibition of water transport pathways [apoplast and symplast (aquaporins)] in intact plants led to a lower transpiration inhibition in the early vigor/low TR genotypes than in the late vigor/high TR genotypes. De-rooted shoot treatment with an aquaporin inhibitor led to a lower transpiration inhibition in the early vigor/low TR genotypes than in the late vigor/high TR genotypes. Early vigor genotypes had lower root hydraulic conductivity than late vigor/high TR genotypes. Under inhibited conditions (apoplast, symplast), root hydraulic conductivity was reduced more in the late vigor/high TR genotypes than in the early vigor/low TR genotypes. We interpret that early vigor/low TR genotypes have a lower involvement of aquaporins in water transport pathways and may also have a smaller apoplastic pathway than high TR genotypes, which could explain the transpiration restriction under high VPD and would be helpful to conserve soil water under high evaporative demand. These findings open an opportunity for breeding to tailor genotypes with different "dosage" of these traits toward adaptation to varying drought-prone environments.