Inhibition of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and rat arginases by green tea EGCG, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin: a comparative structural analysis of enzyme-inhibitor interactions.
ABSTRACT: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a dietary polyphenol (flavanol) from green tea, possesses leishmanicidal and antitrypanosomal activity. Mitochondrial damage was observed in Leishmania treated with EGCG, and it contributed to the lethal effect. However, the molecular target has not been defined. In this study, EGCG, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were tested against recombinant arginase from Leishmania amazonensis (ARG-L) and rat liver arginase (ARG-1). The compounds inhibit ARG-L and ARG-1 but are more active against the parasite enzyme. Enzyme kinetics reveal that EGCG is a mixed inhibitor of the ARG-L while (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin are competitive inhibitors. The most potent arginase inhibitor is (+)-catechin (IC50 = 0.8 µM) followed by (-)-epicatechin (IC50 = 1.8 µM), gallic acid (IC50 = 2.2 µM) and EGCG (IC50 = 3.8 µM). Docking analyses showed different modes of interaction of the compounds with the active sites of ARG-L and ARG-1. Due to the low IC50 values obtained for ARG-L, flavanols can be used as a supplement for leishmaniasis treatment.
Project description:Inhibition of Leishmania arginase leads to a decrease in parasite growth and infectivity and thus represents an attractive therapeutic strategy. We evaluated the inhibitory potential of selected naturally occurring phenolic substances on Leishmania infantum arginase (ARGLi) and investigated their antileishmanial activity in vivo. ARGLi exhibited a Vmax of 0.28?±?0.016?mM/min and a Km of 5.1?±?1.1?mM for L-arginine. The phenylpropanoids rosmarinic acid and caffeic acid (100?µM) showed percentages of inhibition of 71.48?±?0.85% and 56.98?±?5.51%, respectively. Moreover, rosmarinic acid and caffeic acid displayed the greatest effects against L. infantum with IC50 values of 57.3?±?2.65 and 60.8?±?11??M for promastigotes, and 7.9?±?1.7 and 21.9?±?5.0?µM for intracellular amastigotes, respectively. Only caffeic acid significantly increased nitric oxide production by infected macrophages. Altogether, our results broaden the current spectrum of known arginase inhibitors and revealed promising drug candidates for the therapy of visceral leishmaniasis.
Project description:Arginase is an enzyme that converts L-arginine to urea and L-ornithine, an essential substrate for the polyamine pathway supporting Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis replication and its survival in the mammalian host. L-arginine is also the substrate of macrophage nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) to produce nitric oxide (NO) that kills the parasite. This competition can define the fate of Leishmania infection.The transcriptomic profiling identified a family of oxidoreductases in L. (L.) amazonensis wild-type (La-WT) and L. (L.) amazonensis arginase knockout (La-arg-) promastigotes and axenic amastigotes. We highlighted the identification of an oxidoreductase that could act as nitric oxide synthase-like (NOS-like), due to the following evidences: conserved domain composition, the participation of NO production during the time course of promastigotes growth and during the axenic amastigotes differentiation, regulation dependence on arginase activity, as well as reduction of NO amount through the NOS activity inhibition. NO quantification was measured by DAF-FM labeling analysis in a flow cytometry.We described an arginase-dependent NOS-like activity in L. (L.) amazonensis and its role in the parasite growth. The increased detection of NO production in the mid-stationary and late-stationary growth phases of La-WT promastigotes could suggest that this production is an important factor to metacyclogenesis triggering. On the other hand, La-arg- showed an earlier increase in NO production compared to La-WT, suggesting that NO production can be arginase-dependent. Interestingly, La-WT and La-arg- axenic amastigotes produced higher levels of NO than those observed in promastigotes. As a conclusion, our work suggested that NOS-like is expressed in Leishmania in the stationary growth phase promastigotes and amastigotes, and could be correlated to metacyclogenesis and amastigotes growth in a dependent way to the internal pool of L-arginine and arginase activity.
Project description:Since procyanidins (oligomeric catechin or epicatechin) were reported to exhibit health benefits, much attention has been paid to the synthesis of these compounds, especially those that are longer than trimers. In the present study, syntheses of cinnamtannin A3 (epicatechin pentamer), A4 (epicatechin hexamer), catechin tetramer, pentamer, arecatannin A2 (epicatechin-epicatechin-epicatechin-catechin) and A3 (epicatechin-epicatechin-epicatechin-epicatechin-catechin) were achieved. The key reaction was a Lewis acid mediated equimolar condensation. The antitumor effects of these synthesized compounds against a human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) were investigated. Among the tested compounds, cinnamtannin A3, A4 and arecatannin A3, which possess epicatechin oligomers longer than tetramers as the basic scaffold, showed significant activities for suppression of cell growth, invasion and FABP5 (fatty acid-binding protein 5) gene expression. Effects on cell cycle distribution showed that cell cycle arrest in the G2 phase was induced. Furthermore, these epicatechin oligomers suppressed significantly the expression of the cancer-promoting gene, FABP5, which is related to cell proliferation and metastasis in various cancer cells. Interestingly, the suppressive activities were associated with the degree of oligomerization of epicatechin. Thus, synthetic studies clearly demonstrate that epicatechin oligomers longer than trimers have significant anti-tumorigenic activities, but not the catechin counterparts.
Project description:Arginases are enzymes that are involved in many human diseases and have been targeted for new treatments. Here a series of cinnamides was designed, synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in silico for their inhibitory activity against mammalian arginase. Using a microassay on purified liver bovine arginase (b-ARG I), (E)-N-(2-phenylethyl)-3,4-dihydroxycinnamide, also named caffeic acid phenylamide (CAPA), was shown to be slightly more active than our natural reference inhibitor, chlorogenic acid (IC50 = 6.9 ± 1.3 and 10.6 ± 1.6 µM, respectively) but it remained less active that the synthetic reference inhibitor N?-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine nor-NOHA (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.2 µM). Enzyme kinetic studies showed that CAPA was a competitive inhibitor of arginase with Ki = 5.5 ± 1 µM. Whereas the activity of nor-NOHA was retained (IC50 = 5.7 ± 0.6 µM) using a human recombinant arginase I (h-ARG I), CAPA showed poorer activity (IC50 = 60.3 ± 7.8 µM). However, our study revealed that the cinnamoyl moiety and catechol function were important for inhibitory activity. Docking results on h-ARG I demonstrated that the caffeoyl moiety could penetrate into the active-site pocket of the enzyme, and the catechol function might interact with the cofactor Mn2+ and several crucial amino acid residues involved in the hydrolysis mechanism of arginase. The results of this study suggest that 3,4-dihydroxycinnamides are worth being considered as potential mammalian arginase inhibitors, and could be useful for further research on the development of new arginase inhibitors.
Project description:Proliferation of Leishmania (L.) parasites depends on polyamine availability, which can be generated by the L-arginine catabolism and the enzymatic activity of arginase (ARG) of the parasites and of the mammalian hosts. In the present study, we characterized and compared the arginase (arg) genes from pathogenic L. major and L. tropica and from non-pathogenic L. tarentolae. We quantified the level of the ARG activity in promastigotes and macrophages infected with pathogenic L. major and L. tropica and non-pathogenic L. tarentolae amastigotes. The ARG's amino acid sequences of the pathogenic and non-pathogenic Leishmania demonstrated virtually 98.6% and 88% identities with the reference L. major Friedlin ARG. Higher ARG activity was observed in all pathogenic promastigotes as compared to non-pathogenic L. tarentolae. In vitro infection of human macrophage cell line (THP1) with pathogenic and non-pathogenic Leishmania spp. resulted in increased ARG activities in the infected macrophages. The ARG activities present in vivo were assessed in susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice infected with L. major, L. tropica and L. tarentolae. We demonstrated that during the development of the infection, ARG is induced in both strains of mice infected with pathogenic Leishmania. However, in L. major infected BALB/c mice, the induction of ARG and parasite load increased simultaneously according to the time course of infection, whereas in C57BL/6 mice, the enzyme is upregulated solely during the period of footpad swelling. In L. tropica infected mice, the footpads' swellings were slow to develop and demonstrated minimal cutaneous pathology and ARG activity. In contrast, ARG activity was undetectable in mice inoculated with the non-pathogenic L. tarentolae. Our data suggest that infection by Leishmania parasites can increase ARG activity of the host and provides essential polyamines for parasite salvage and its replication. Moreover, the ARG of Leishmania is vital for parasite proliferation and required for infection in mice. ARG activity can be used as one of the main marker of the disease severity.
Project description:Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis is an intracellular protozoan parasite responsible for the cutaneous leishmaniasis. The parasite replicates inside mammalian macrophage to establish infection. Host-pathogen interactions result in microRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of host genes involved in inflammatory immune response. We analyzed macrophage miRNA profiles during L. (L.) amazonensis infection. The regulation of macrophage miRNA expression by the parasite correlates with/depends on parasite arginase activity during infection. L. (L.) amazonensis (La-WT) presented significant miRNA profile alteration (27%) compared to L. (L.) amazonensis arginase knockout (La-arg<sup>-</sup>) (~40%) in relation to uninfected-macrophages. We observed that 78% of the altered miRNAs were up-regulated in La-WT infection, while only 32% were up-regulated in La-arg<sup>-</sup>-infected macrophages. In contrast to La-WT, the lack of L. (L.) amazonensis arginase led to the inhibition of miR-294 and miR-721 expression. The expression of miR-294 and miR-721 was recovered to levels similar to La-WT in La-arg<sup>-</sup> addback mutant. The inhibition of miR-294/Nos2 and miR721/Nos2 interactions increased NOS2 expression and NO production, and reduced L. (L.) amazonensis infectivity, confirming Nos2 as target of these miRNAs. The role of miR-294 and miR-721 in the regulation of NOS2 expression during Leishmania replication in infected macrophages pointing these miRNAs as potential new targets for drug development.
Project description:Leishmania (L.) amazonensis uses arginine to synthesize polyamines to support its growth and survival. Here we describe the presence of two gene copies, arranged in tandem, that code for the arginine transporter. Both copies show similar Open Reading Frames (ORFs), which are 93% similar to the L. (L.) donovani AAP3 gene, but their 5' and 3' UTR's have distinct regions. According to quantitative RT-PCR, the 5.1 AAP3 mRNA amount was increased more than 3 times that of the 4.7 AAP3 mRNA along the promastigote growth curve. Nutrient deprivation for 4 hours and then supplemented or not with arginine (400 µM) resulted in similar 4.7 AAP3 mRNA copy-numbers compared to the starved and control parasites. Conversely, the 5.1 AAP3 mRNA copy-numbers increased in the starved parasites but not in ones supplemented with arginine (p<0.05). These results correlate with increases in amino acid uptake. Both Meta1 and arginase mRNAs remained constant with or without supplementation. The same starvation experiment was performed using a L. (L.) amazonensis null knockout for arginase (arg(-)) and two other mutants containing the arginase ORF with (arg(-)/ARG) or without the glycosomal addressing signal (arg(-)/arg?SKL). The arg(-) and the arg(-)/arg?SKL mutants did not show the same behavior as the wild-type (WT) parasite or the arg(-)/ARG mutant. This can be an indicative that the internal pool of arginine is also important for controlling transporter expression and function. By inhibiting mRNA transcription or/and mRNA maturation, we showed that the 5.1 AAP3 mRNA did not decay after 180 min, but the 4.7 AAP3 mRNA presented a half-life decay of 32.6 +/- 5.0 min. In conclusion, parasites can regulate amino acid uptake by increasing the amount of transporter-coding mRNA, possibly by regulating the mRNA half-life in an environment where the amino acid is not present or is in low amounts.
Project description:To provide a platform for evaluating significant interactions contributing to the enhanced physiological efficacy and reduced hepatotoxicity, we used a robust design to determine the optimal combination of six major green tea catechins, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epicatechin (EC), gallocatechin, and catechin. Based on the mixture design, 28 experiments were performed to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 cells and hepatotoxicity in Chang liver cells. Significant candidates, EGCG, EC, gallocatechin and catechin, were selected after optimization. The combination showing simultaneous enhancement of NO inhibition and reduction of hepatotoxicity was EGCG and gallocatechin at a ratio of 0.65 to 0.35 by surface response methodology and desirability function, through which their co-treatment was validated. Here, we describe a platform for simultaneously determining the optimized combination of natural components exerting enhanced efficacy and reduced toxicity.
Project description:The breakdown of L-arginine to ornithine and urea by host arginase supports Leishmania proliferation in macrophages. Studies using arginase-null mutants show that Leishmania-derived arginase plays an important role in disease pathogenesis. We investigated the role of parasite-derived arginase in secondary (memory) anti-Leishmania immunity in the resistant C57BL/6 mice. We found that C57BL/6 mice infected with arginase-deficient (arg(-)) L. major failed to completely resolve their lesion and maintained chronic pathology after 16 wk, a time when the lesion induced by wild-type L. major is completely resolved. This chronic disease was associated with impaired Ag-specific proliferation and IFN-? production, a concomitant increase in programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) expression on CD4(+) T cells, and failure to induce protection against secondary L. major challenge. Treatment with anti-PD-1 mAb restored T cell proliferation and IFN-? production in vitro and led to complete resolution of chronic lesion in arg(-) L. major-infected mice. These results show that infection with arg(-) L. major results in chronic disease due in part to PD-1-mediated clonal exhaustion of T cells, suggesting that parasite-derived arginase contributes to the overall quality of the host immune response and subsequent disease outcome in L. major-infected mice. They also indicate that persistent parasites alone do not regulate the quality of secondary anti-Leishmania immunity in mice and that the quality of the primary immune response may be playing a hitherto unrecognized dominant role in this process.
Project description:Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) play an important role in the monomeric units biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs) such as catechin and epicatechin in several plants. The aim of this study was to clone ANR and LAR genes involved in PAs biosynthesis and examine the expression of these two genes in different organs under different growth conditions in two tartary buckwheat cultivars, Hokkai T8 and T10. Gene expression was carried out by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and catechin and epicatechin content was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The expression pattern of ANR and LAR did not match the accumulation pattern of PAs in different organs of two cultivars. Epicatechin content was the highest in the flowers of both cultivars and it was affected by light in only Hokkai T8 sprouts. ANR and LAR levels in tartary buckwheat might be regulated by different mechanisms for catechin and epicatechin biosynthesis under light and dark conditions.