Despite small improvement, black nursing home residents remain less likely than whites to receive flu vaccine.
ABSTRACT: Vaccination is a key deterrent to influenza and its related complications and outcomes, including hospitalization and death. Using 2006-09 data, we found a small improvement in vaccination rates among nursing home residents, particularly for blacks. Nonetheless, overall vaccination rates remained well below the 90 percent target for high-quality care, and black nursing home residents remained less likely to be vaccinated than whites. Blacks were less likely to be vaccinated than were whites in the same facility and were more likely to live in facilities with lower vaccination rates. Blacks were also more likely to be noted as refusing vaccination. Strategies are needed to ensure that facilities offer vaccination to all residents and to make vaccination more acceptable to black residents and their families.
Project description:OBJECTIVE/STUDY QUESTION:To examine racial/ethnic differences in influenza and pneumococcal vaccination receipt and nonreceipt among nursing home (NH) residents post implementation of federal vaccination policy. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING/STUDY DESIGN/DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: An analysis of a merged national cross-sectional dataset containing resident assessment, facility, and community data for years 2010-2013 was conducted. Logistic regressions omitting and including facility fixed effects were used to examine the influence of race and ethnicity (black, Hispanic, white) and black concentration on vaccination status across and within NHs. PRINCIPLE FINDINGS:Vaccination receipt of 107,874 residents in 742 NHs was examined. Blacks were less likely than whites to receive influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations (OR = 0.75; OR = 0.81, respectively, p-values <.001). The likelihood of not being offered the influenza vaccination was greater for blacks (OR=1.25, p = .004) and the likelihood of not being offered the pneumococcal vaccination was greater for Hispanics (OR = 1.65, p = .04) compared to whites. Fixed effects showed that within the same NH, Hispanics were more likely to receive both vaccinations compared to whites (OR=1.22, p = .004 (influenza); OR=1.34, p < .001 (pneumococcal)). Facilities highly concentrated with blacks accounted for large proportions of differences seen in vaccination receipt. CONCLUSIONS:Racial/ethnic differences remain despite policy changes. Focused strategies aimed at NH personnel and racially segregated NHs are critical to improving vaccination delivery and eliminating disparities in care.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Institutionalized adults are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality from influenza and pneumococcal infection. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination have been shown to be effective in reducing hospitalization and deaths due to pneumonia and influenza in this population. OBJECTIVE:To assess trends in influenza vaccination coverage among US nursing home residents from the 2005-2006 through 2014-2015 influenza seasons and trends in pneumococcal vaccination coverage from 2006 to 2014 among US nursing home residents, by state and demographic characteristics. METHODS:Data were analyzed from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' (CMS's) Minimum Data Set (MDS). Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination status were assessed for all residents of CMS-certified nursing homes using data reported to the MDS by all certified facilities. RESULTS:Influenza vaccination coverage increased from 71.4% in the 2005-2006 influenza season to 75.7% in the 2014-2015 influenza season and pneumococcal vaccination coverage increased from 67.4% in 2006 to 78.4% in 2014. Vaccination coverage varied by state, with influenza vaccination coverage ranging from 50.0% to 89.7% in the 2014-2015 influenza season and pneumococcal vaccination coverage ranging from 55.0% to 89.7% in 2014. Non-Hispanic black and Hispanic residents had lower coverage compared with non-Hispanic white residents for both vaccines, and these differences persisted over time. CONCLUSION:Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination among US nursing home residents remains suboptimal. Nursing home staff can employ strategies such as provider reminders and standing orders to facilitate offering vaccination to all residents along with culturally appropriate vaccine promotion to increase vaccination coverage among this vulnerable population.
Project description:The benefits of expanding funding for Medicaid long-term care home and community-based services (HCBS) relative to institutional care are often taken as self-evident. However, little is known about the outcomes of these services, especially for racial and ethnic minority groups, whose members tend to use the services more than whites do, and for people with dementia who may need high-intensity care. Using national Medicaid claims data on older adults enrolled in both Medicare and Medicaid, we found that overall hospitalization rates were similar for HCBS and nursing facility users, although nursing facility users were generally sicker as reflected in their claims history. Among HCBS users, blacks were more likely to be hospitalized than non-Hispanic whites were, and the gap widened among blacks and whites with dementia. Also, conditional on receiving HCBS, Medicaid HCBS spending was higher for whites than for nonwhites, and higher Medicare and Medicaid hospital spending for blacks and Hispanics did not offset this difference. Our findings suggest that home and community-based services need to be carefully targeted to avoid adverse outcomes and that the racial/ethnic disparities in access to high-quality institutional long-term care are also present in HCBS. Policy makers should consider the full costs and benefits of shifting care from nursing facilities to home and community settings and the potential implications for equity.
Project description:Hip fractures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the nursing home. Our objective was to describe the incidence rate (IR) of hip fracture according to age, sex, and race in a nationwide sample of long-stay nursing home residents.Using 2007-2010 Medicare claims data linked with the Minimum Data Set, we identified 892,837 long-stay residents (?100 days in the same nursing facility) between May 1, 2007 and April 30, 2008. Hip fractures were defined using Part A diagnostic codes (ICD-9). Residents were followed from the date they became a long-stay resident until the first event of death, discharge, hip fracture, or 2 years of follow-up.Mean age was 84 years (range 65-113 years), and 74.5% were women. 83.9% were white and 12.0% were black. The overall IR of hip fracture was 2.3/100 person years. The IR was similar in men and women across age groups. The IR of hip fracture was highest in Native Americans aged 85 years or older (3.7/100 person years), in whites (2.6/100 person years), and during the first 100 days of institutionalization (2.7/100 person years). IRs of hip fracture were lowest in blacks (1.3/100 person years).In nursing home residents surviving 100 days or more in a facility, the incidence of hip fracture is high, particularly among older white, Native American, and newly admitted residents. This is the first nationwide study to provide sex- and age-specific estimates among U.S. nursing home residents, and it underscores the magnitude of the problem.
Project description:A variety of nursing home quality improvement programs have been implemented during the last decade but their implications for racial disparities on quality are unknown.To determine the longitudinal trend of racial disparities in pressure ulcer prevalence among high-risk, long-term nursing home residents and to assess whether persistent disparities are related to where residents received care.Observational cohort study of pressure ulcer rates in 2.1 million white and 346,808 black residents of 12,473 certified nursing homes in the United States that used the nursing home resident assessment; Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting files; and Area Resource Files for 2003 through 2008. Nursing homes were categorized according to their proportions of black residents.Risk-adjusted racial disparities between and within sites of care and risk-adjusted odds of pressure ulcers in stages 2 through 4 for black and white residents receiving care in different nursing home facilities.Pressure ulcer rates decreased overall from 2003 through 2008 but black residents of nursing homes showed persistently higher pressure ulcer rates than white residents. In 2003, the pressure ulcer rate was 16.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.6%-17.0%) for black nursing home residents compared with 11.4% (95% CI, 11.3%-11.5%) for white residents; in 2008, the rate was 14.6% (95% CI, 14.4%-14.8%) compared with 9.6% (95% CI, 9.5%-9.7%), respectively (P >.05 for trend of disparities). In nursing homes with the highest percentages of black residents (?35%), both black residents (unadjusted rate of 15.5% [95% CI, 15.2%-15.8%] in 2008; adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.59 [95% CI, 1.52-1.67]) and white residents (unadjusted rate of 12.1% [95% CI, 11.8%-12.4%]; AOR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.26-1.40]) had higher rates of pressure ulcers than nursing homes serving primarily white residents (concentration of black residents <5%), in which white residents had an unadjusted rate of 8.8% (95% CI, 8.7%-8.9%).From 2003 through 2008, the prevalence of pressure ulcers among high-risk nursing home residents was higher among black residents than among white residents. This disparity was in part related to the site of nursing home care.
Project description:Little has been reported on strategies to ensure key covariate balance in cluster randomized trials in the nursing home setting. Facilities vary widely on key characteristics, small numbers may be randomized, and staggered enrollment is often necessary. A covariate-constrained algorithm was used to randomize facilities in the Trial to Reduce Antimicrobial use In Nursing home residents with Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias (TRAIN-AD), an ongoing trial in Boston-area facilities (14 facilities/arm). Publicly available 2015 LTCfocus.org data were leveraged to inform the distribution of key facility-level covariates. The algorithm was applied in waves (2-8 facilities/wave) June 2017-March 2019. To examine the algorithm's general performance, simulations calculated an imbalance score (minimum 0) for similar trial designs. The algorithm provided good balance for profit status (Arm 1, 7 facilities; Arm 2, 6 facilities). Arm 2 was allocated more nursing homes with the number of severely cognitive impaired residents above the median (Arm 1, 7 facilities; Arm 2, 10 facilities), resulting in an imbalance in total number of residents enrolled (Arm 1, 196 residents; Arm 2, 228 residents). Facilities with number of black residents above the median were balanced (7 facilities/arm), while the numbers of black residents enrolled differed slightly between arms (Arm 1, 26 residents (13%); Arm 2, 22 residents (10%)). Simulations showed the median imbalance for TRAIN-AD's original randomization scheme (score = 3), was similar to the observed imbalance (score = 4). Covariate-constrained randomization flexibly accommodates logistical complexities of cluster trials in the nursing home setting, where LTCfocus.org is a valuable source of baseline data. Trial registration number and trial register:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03244917.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Racial/ethnic disparities in rates of influenza vaccinations in the US remain an issue even among those with access, no out-of-pocket costs, and after adjusting for confounders. We used an approach called the Oaxaca-Blinder (OB) decomposition method to ascertain the contribution of covariates individually and in aggregate to the racial disparity in influenza vaccination.<h4>Methods</h4>We included members > = 18 years of age as of 05/01/2014 with continuous enrollment through 04/30/2015. Influenza vaccination was defined by diagnosis, procedure, or medication codes, or documentation in the immunization table. Characteristics were reported by race. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of vaccination associated with: (1) race; and (2) covariates stratified by race. The Oaxaca-Blinder (OB) method calculated the contribution of covariates to the difference or disparity in vaccination between Blacks and Whites.<h4>Results</h4>We found that among adults, 44% were vaccinated; 55% were Black; and 45% were White. Black members have 42% lower odds of vaccination than White members. The contribution of the differences in the average value of the study covariates between Black and White members (the OB covariate effect) accounted for 29% of the racial disparity. The contributions to the total White-Black disparity in vaccination included: age (16%), neighborhood median income (11%), and registration on the online patient portal (13%). The contribution of the differences in how the covariates impact vaccination (OB coefficient effect) accounted for 71% of the disparity in vaccination between Blacks and Whites.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In conclusion, equalizing average covariate values in Blacks and Whites could reduce the racial disparity in influenza vaccination by 29%. For health system vaccine campaigns, improving registration on the patient portal may be a target component of an effective system-level strategy to reduce racial disparities in vaccination. Additional information on patient-centered factors could further improve the value of the OB approach.
Project description:Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) is a tool that facilitates the elicitation and continuity of life-sustaining care preferences. POLST was implemented in California in 2009, but how well it disseminated across a large, racially diverse population is not known and has implications for end-of-life care.To evaluate the use of POLST among California nursing home residents, including variation by resident characteristics and by nursing home facility.Observational study using California Minimum Data Set Section S.A total of 296,276 people with a stay in 1,220 California nursing homes in 2011.The proportion of residents with a completed POLST (containing a resuscitation status order and resident/proxy and physician signatures) and relationship to resident characteristics; change in POLST use during 2011; and POLST completion and unsigned forms within nursing homes.During 2011, POLST completion increased from 33 to 49 % of California nursing home residents. Adjusting for age and gender using a mixed-effects logistic model, long-stay residents were more likely than short-stay residents to have a completed POLST [OR?=?2.36 (95 % CI 2.30, 2.42)]; severely cognitively impaired residents were less likely than unimpaired to have a completed POLST [OR?=?0.89 (95 % CI 0.87, 0.92)]; and there was little difference by functional status. There was no difference in POLST completion among White non-Hispanic, Black, and Hispanic residents. Variation in POLST completion among nursing homes far exceeded that attributable to resident characteristics with 40 % of facilities having ?80 % of long-stay residents with a completed POLST, while 20 % of facilities had ?10 % of long-stay residents with a completed POLST. Thirteen percent of nursing home residents had a POLST containing a resuscitation preference but lacked a signature, rendering the POLST invalid.Statewide nursing home data show broad uptake of POLST in California without racial disparity. However, variation in POLST completion among nursing homes identifies potential areas for quality improvement.
Project description:While demographic shifts project an increased need for long-term care for an aging population, hundreds of nursing homes close each year. We examine whether nursing home closures are geographically concentrated and related to local community characteristics such as the racial and ethnic population mix and poverty.National Online Survey Certification and Reporting data were used to document cumulative nursing facility closures over a decade, 1999 through 2008. Census 2000 zip code level demographics and poverty rates were matched to study facilities. The weighted Gini coefficient was used to measure geographic concentration of closures, and geographic information system maps to illustrate spatial clustering patterns of closures. Changes in bed supply due to closures were examined at various geographic levels.Between 1999 and 2008, a national total of 1776 freestanding nursing homes closed (11%), compared with 1126 closures of hospital-based facilities (nearly 50%). Combined, there was a net loss of over 5% of beds. The relative risk of closure was significantly higher in zip code areas with a higher proportion of blacks or Hispanics or a higher poverty rate. The weighted Gini coefficient for closures was 0.55 across all metropolitan statistical areas and 0.71 across zip codes. Closures tended to be spatially clustered in minority-concentrated zip codes around the urban core, often in pockets of concentrated poverty.Nursing home closures are geographically concentrated in minority and poor communities. Since nursing home use among the minority elderly population is growing while it is declining among whites, these findings suggest that disparities in access will increase.
Project description:To examine the evolution of depression identification and use of antidepressants in elderly long-stay nursing home residents from 1999 through 2007 and the associated sociodemographic and facility characteristics.Annual cross-sectional analysis of merged resident assessment data from the Minimum Data Set (MDS) and facility characteristics from the Online Survey Certification and Reporting data.Nursing homes in eight states (5,445 facilities).Long-stay nursing home residents aged 65 and older (2,564,687 assessments).Physician-documented depression diagnoses recorded in the MDS were used to identify residents with depression; antidepressant use was measured using MDS information about residents' receipt of an antidepressant in the 7 days before assessment.Diagnosis of depression and antidepressant therapy in residents diagnosed increased at a rapid rate. By 2007, 51.8% of residents were diagnosed with depression, 82.8% of whom received an antidepressant. Adjusted odds of treatment were higher for younger residents, whites, and those with moderate impairment of cognitive function.This study demonstrates striking increases in depression diagnosis and treatment with antidepressant medications, but disparities persist without clear evidence about underlying mechanisms. More research is needed to assess effectiveness of antidepressant prescribing.