Mutation Analysis of SLC20A2 and SPP2 as Candidate Genes for Familial Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Familial Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder which is usually transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. IBGC is genetically heterogeneous and SLC20A2, on chromosome 8p21.1-8q11.23, is the first gene found in IBGC-affected patients with varied ancestry. On the other hand, several candidate genes for IBGC on chromosome 2q37, including the SPP2 gene, may play a role in inhibiting calcification. METHODS:Totally, 22 members of a three generational Iranian family affected by IBGC, with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance were included in this study. DNA was extracted from the whole blood using standard salting out method. To find a mutation responsible for IBGC, we sequenced the coding region of SLC20A2 as well as promoter and coding region of SPP2 in the index subject of IBGC-affected family. RESULTS:Pathogenic mutation was found neither in SLC20A2 nor in SPP2. CONCLUSION:Our results strengthen genetic heterogeneity of this condition. Additional mutation studies are necessary to find a gene or genes responsible for IBGC in this affected family.
Project description:Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is characterized by bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia associated with a spectrum of neuropsychiatric and motor syndromes. In this study, we set out to determine the frequency of the recently identified IBGC gene SLC20A2 in 27 IBGC cases from the Mayo Clinic Florida Brain Bank using both Sanger sequencing and TaqMan copy number analysis to cover the complete spectrum of possible mutations. We identified SLC20A2 pathogenic mutations in two of the 27 cases of IBGC (7 %). Sequencing analysis identified a p.S113* nonsense mutation in SLC20A2 in one case. TaqMan copy number analysis of SLC20A2 further revealed a genomic deletion in a second case, which was part of a large previously reported Canadian IBGC family with dystonia. Subsequent whole-genome sequencing in this family revealed a 563,256-bp genomic deletion with precise breakpoints on chromosome 8 affecting multiple genes including SLC20A2 and the known dystonia-related gene THAP1. The deletion co-segregated with disease in all family members. The deletion of THAP1 in addition to SLC20A2 in the Canadian IBGC family may contribute to the severe and early onset dystonia in this family. The identification of an SLC20A2 genomic deletion in a familial form of IBGC demonstrates that reduced SLC20A2 in the absence of mutant protein is sufficient to cause neurodegeneration and that previously reported SLC20A2 mutation frequencies may be underestimated.
Project description:Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) or Fahr's disease is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain regions, which is associated with neuropsychiatric and motor symptoms. Familial IBGC is genetically heterogeneous and typically transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. We performed a mutational analysis of SLC20A2, the first gene found to cause IBGC, to assess its genetic contribution to familial IBGC. We recruited 218 subjects from 29 IBGC-affected families of varied ancestry and collected medical history, neurological exam, and head CT scans to characterize each patient's disease status. We screened our patient cohort for mutations in SLC20A2. Twelve novel (nonsense, deletions, missense, and splice site) potentially pathogenic variants, one synonymous variant, and one previously reported mutation were identified in 13 families. Variants predicted to be deleterious cosegregated with disease in five families. Three families showed nonsegregation with clinical disease of such variants, but retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging data strongly suggested previous misclassification. Overall, mutations in SLC20A2 account for as many as 41% of our familial IBGC cases. Our screen in a large series expands the catalog of SLC20A2 mutations identified to date and demonstrates that mutations in SLC20A2 are a major cause of familial IBGC. Non-perfect segregation patterns of predicted deleterious variants highlight the challenges of phenotypic assessment in this condition with highly variable clinical presentation.
Project description:Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (FIBGC) is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder involving bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. To identify gene mutations related to a Chinese FIBGC lineage, we evaluated available individuals in the family using CT scans. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of available family members, and both exonic and flanking intronic sequences of the SLC20A2 gene were amplified by PCR and then sequenced. Non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was used to confirm the presence of mutations. Allele imbalances of the SLC20A2 gene or relative quantity of SLC20A2 transcripts were evaluated using qRT-PCR. A novel heterozygous single base-pair deletion (c.510delA) within the SLC20A2 gene was identified. This deletion mutation was found to co-segregate with basal ganglia calcification in all of the affected family members but was not detected in unaffected individuals or in 167 unrelated Han Chinese controls. The mutation will cause a frameshift, producing a truncated SLC20A2 protein with a premature termination codon, most likely leading to the complete loss of function of the SLC20A2 protein. This mutation may also lead to a reduction in SLC20A2 mRNA expression by approximately 30% in cells from affected individuals. In conclusion, we identified a novel mutation in SLC20A2 that is linked to FIBGC. In addition to the loss of function at the protein level, decreasing the expression of SLC20A2 mRNA may be another mechanism that can regulate SLC20A2 function in IBGC individuals. We propose that the regional expression pattern of SLC20A1 and SLC20A2 might explain the unique calcification pattern observed in FIBGC patients.
Project description:Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is characterized by brain calcification and a wide variety of neurologic and psychiatric symptoms. In families with autosomal dominant inheritance, three causative genes have been identified: SLC20A2, PDGFRB, and, very recently, PDGFB. Whereas in clinical practice sporadic presentation of IBGC is frequent, well-documented reports of true sporadic occurrence are rare. We report the case of a 20-year-old woman who presented laryngeal dystonia revealing IBGC. Her healthy parents' CT scans were both normal. We identified in the proband a new nonsense mutation in exon 4 of PDGFB, c.439C>T (p.Gln147*), which was absent from the parents' DNA. This mutation may result in a loss-of-function of PDGF-B, which has been shown to cause IBGC in humans and to disrupt the blood-brain barrier in mice, resulting in brain calcification. The c.439C>T mutation is located between two previously reported nonsense mutations, c.433C>T (p.Gln145*) and c.445C>T (p.Arg149*), on a region that could be a hot spot for de novo mutations. We present the first full demonstration of the de novo occurrence of an IBGC-causative mutation in a sporadic case.
Project description:Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is a rare intractable disease characterized by abnormal mineral deposits, including mostly calcium in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum. SLC20A2 is encoding the phosphate transporter PiT-2 and was identified in 2012 as the causative gene of familial IBGC. In this study, we investigated functionally two novel SLC20A2 variants (c.680C?>?T, c.1487G?>?A) and two SLC20A2 variants (c.82G?>?A, c.358G?>?C) previously reported from patients with IBGC. We evaluated the function of variant PiT-2 using stable cell lines. While inorganic phosphate (Pi) transport activity was abolished in the cells with c.82G?>?A, c.358G?>?C, and c.1487G?>?A variants, activity was maintained at 27.8% of the reference level in cells with the c.680C?>?T variant. Surprisingly, the c.680C?>?T variant had been discovered by chance in healthy members of an IBGC family, suggesting that partial preservation of Pi transport activity may avoid the onset of IBGC. In addition, we confirmed that PiT-2 variants could be translocated into the cell membrane to the same extent as PiT-2 wild type. In conclusion, we investigated the PiT-2 dysfunction of four SLC20A2 variants and suggested that a partial reduced Pi transport function of PiT-2 might not be sufficient to induce brain calcification of IBGC.
Project description:Vitamin D deficiency (hypovitaminosis D) causes osteomalacia and poor long bone mineralization. In apparent contrast, hypovitaminosis D has been reported in patients with primary brain calcifications ("Fahr's disease"). We evaluated the expression of two phosphate transporters which we have found to be associated with primary brain calcification (SLC20A2, whose promoter has a predicted vitamin D receptor binding site, and XPR1), and one unassociated (SLC20A1), in an in vitro model of calcification. Expression of all three genes was significantly decreased in calcifying human bone osteosarcoma (SaOs-2) cells. Further, we confirmed that vitamin D (calcitriol) reduced calcification as measured by Alizarin Red staining. Cells incubated with calcitriol under calcifying conditions specifically maintained expression of the phosphate transporter SLC20A2 at higher levels relative to controls, by RT-qPCR. Neither SLC20A1 nor XPR1 were affected by calcitriol treatment and remained suppressed. Critically, knockdown of SLC20A2 gene and protein with CRISPR technology in SaOs2 cells significantly ablated vitamin D mediated inhibition of calcification. This study elucidates the mechanistic importance of SLC20A2 in suppressing the calcification process. It also suggests that vitamin D might be used to regulate SLC20A2 gene expression, as well as reduce brain calcification which occurs in Fahr's disease and normal aging.
Project description:PiT-1 (encoded by SLC20A1) and PiT-2 (encoded by SLC20A2) are type-III sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporters (NaPiTs). Recently, SLC20A2 mutations have been found in patients with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC), and were predicted to bring about an inability to transport Pi from the extracellular environment. Here we investigated the effect of low Pi loading on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and the human glioblastoma A172 cell lines. The results show a different sensitivity to low Pi loading and differential regulation of type-III NaPiTs in these cells. We also examined whether 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) inhibited low Pi loading-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Concomitant application of 5-ALA with low Pi loading markedly attenuated low Pi-induced cell death and mitochondrial dysfunction via the induction of HO-1 by p38 MAPK. The findings provide us with novel viewpoints to understand the pathophysiology of IBGC, and give a new insight into the clinical prevention and treatment of IBGC.
Project description:Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) shows progressive loss of photoreceptors involved with heterogeneous genetic background. Here, by exome sequencing and linkage analysis on a Chinese family with autosomal dominant RP, we identified a putative pathogenic variant, p.Gly97Arg, in the gene SPP2, of which expression was detected in multiple tissues including retina. The p.Gly97Arg was absent in 800 ethnically matched chromosomes and 1400 in-house exome dataset, and was located in the first of the two highly conserved disulfide bonded loop of secreted phosphoprotein 2 (Spp-24) encoded by SPP2. Overexpression of p.Gly97Arg and another signal peptide mutation, p.Gly29Asp, caused cellular retention of both endogenous wild type and exogenous mutants in vitro, and primarily affected rod photoreceptors in zebrafish mimicking cardinal feature of RP. Taken together, our data indicate that the two mutations of SPP2 have dominant negative effects and cellular accumulation of Spp-24 might be particularly toxic to photoreceptors and/or retinal pigment epithelium. SPP2 has a new role in retinal degeneration.
Project description:Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification is a brain calcification disorder that has been genetically linked to autosomal dominant mutations in the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter, SLC20A2. The mechanisms whereby deficiency of Slc20a2 leads to basal ganglion calcification are unknown. In the mouse brain, we found that Slc20a2 was expressed in tissues that produce and/or regulate cerebrospinal fluid, including choroid plexus, ependyma and arteriolar smooth muscle cells. Haploinsufficient Slc20a2 +/- mice developed age-dependent basal ganglia calcification that formed in glymphatic pathway-associated arterioles. Slc20a2 deficiency uncovered phosphate homeostasis dysregulation characterized by abnormally high cerebrospinal fluid phosphate levels and hydrocephalus, in addition to basal ganglia calcification. Slc20a2 siRNA knockdown in smooth muscle cells revealed increased susceptibility to high phosphate-induced calcification. These data suggested that loss of Slc20a2 led to dysregulated phosphate homeostasis and enhanced susceptibility of arteriolar smooth muscle cells to elevated phosphate-induced calcification. Together, dysregulated cerebrospinal fluid phosphate and enhanced smooth muscle cell susceptibility may predispose to glymphatic pathway-associated arteriolar calcification.
Project description:The essential nutrient phosphorus must be taken up by the mammalian embryo during gestation. The mechanism(s) and key proteins responsible for maternal to fetal phosphate transport have not been identified. Established parameters for placental phosphate transport match those of the type III phosphate transporters, Slc20a1 and Slc20a2. Both members are expressed in human placenta, and their altered expression is linked to preeclampsia. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Slc20a2 is required for placental function. Indeed, complete deficiency of Slc20a2 in either the maternal or embryonic placental compartment results in fetal growth restriction. We found that Slc20a2 null mice can reproduce, but are subviable; ?50% are lost prior to weaning age. We also observed that 23% of Slc20a2 deficient females develop pregnancy complications at full term, with tremors and placental abnormalities including abnormal vascular structure, increased basement membrane deposition, abundant calcification, and accumulation of novel CD13 and laminin?1 positive cells. Together these data support that Slc20a2 deficiency impacts both maternal and neonatal health, and Slc20a2 is required for normal placental function. In humans, decreased levels of placental Slc20a1 and Slc20a2 have been correlated with early onset preeclampsia, a disorder that can manifest from placental dysfunction. In addition, preterm placental calcification has been associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. We surveyed placental calcification in human preeclamptic placenta samples, and detected basement membrane-associated placental calcification as well as a comparable laminin?1 positive cell type, indicating that similar mechanisms may underlie both human and mouse placental calcification.