Genome-wide methylation analysis shows similar patterns in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). To identify novel tumor suppressors involved in esophageal carcinogenesis and potential biomarkers for the malignant progression of BE, we performed a genome-wide methylation profiling of BE and EAC tissues. Using Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip microarray, we examined the methylation status of 27 578 CpG sites in 94 normal esophageal (NE), 77 BE and 117 EAC tissue samples. The overall methylation of CpG sites within the CpG islands was higher, but outside of the CpG islands was lower in BE and EAC tissues than in NE tissues. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed an excellent separation of NE tissues from BE and EAC tissues; however, the clustering of BE and EAC tissues was less clear, suggesting that methylation occurs early during the progression of EAC. We confirmed many previously reported hypermethylated genes and identified a large number of novel hypermethylated genes in BE and EAC tissues, particularly genes encoding ADAM (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase) peptidase proteins, cadherins and protocadherins, and potassium voltage-gated channels. Pathway analysis showed that a number of channel and transporter activities were enriched for hypermethylated genes. We used pyrosequencing to validate selected candidate genes and found high correlations between the array and pyrosequencing data (rho > 0.8 for each validated gene). The differentially methylated genes and pathways may provide biological insights into the development and progression of BE and become potential biomarkers for the prediction and early detection of EAC.
Project description:Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a preneoplastic condition in which normal esophageal squamous epithelium (SQ) is replaced by specialized intestinal metaplasia. It is the presumed precursor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) as well as the strongest risk factor for this cancer. Unfortunately, many patients with BE go undiagnosed under the current BE screening guidelines. The development of noninvasive and accurate BE detection assays could potentially identify many of these undiagnosed BE patients.DNA methylation is a common epigenetic alteration in BE. Therefore, we conducted a genome-wide methylation screen to identify potential BE biomarkers. Samples from SQ (N = 12), stomach (N = 28), and BE (N = 29) were analyzed and methylation levels at over 485,000 CpG sites were compared. Pyrosequencing assays were used to validate the results and MethyLight assays were developed to detect the methylated alleles in endoscopic brushings.We discovered two genes, B3GAT2 and ZNF793, that are aberrantly methylated in BE. Clinical validation studies confirmed B3GAT2 and ZNF793 methylation levels were significantly higher in BE samples (median = 32.5% and 33.1%, respectively) than in control tissues (median = 2.29% and 2.52%, respectively; P < 0.0001 for both genes). Furthermore, gene-specific MethyLight assays could accurately detect BE (P < 0.0001 for both) in endoscopic brushing samples.B3GAT2 and ZNF793 are hypermethylated in BE, and the methylation status of these genes can be used to detect BE in tissue samples.These findings support the development of methylated B3GAT2 and ZNF793 as biomarkers for noninvasive assays for the detection of BE.
Project description:Alterations in methylation of protein-coding genes are associated with Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Dysregulation of noncoding RNAs occurs during carcinogenesis but has never been studied in BE or EAC. We applied high-resolution methylome analysis to identify changes at genomic regions that encode noncoding RNAs in BE and EAC.We analyzed methylation of 1.8 million CpG sites using massively parallel sequencing-based HELP tagging in matched EAC, BE, and normal esophageal tissues. We also analyzed human EAC (OE33, SKGT4, and FLO-1) and normal (HEEpic) esophageal cells.BE and EAC exhibited genome-wide hypomethylation, significantly affecting intragenic and repetitive genomic elements as well as noncoding regions. These methylation changes targeted small and long noncoding regions, discriminating normal from matched BE or EAC tissues. One long noncoding RNA, AFAP1-AS1, was extremely hypomethylated and overexpressed in BE and EAC tissues and EAC cells. Its silencing by small interfering RNA inhibited proliferation and colony-forming ability, induced apoptosis, and reduced EAC cell migration and invasion without altering the expression of its protein-coding counterpart, AFAP1.BE and EAC exhibit reduced methylation that includes noncoding regions. Methylation of the long noncoding RNA AFAP1-AS1 is reduced in BE and EAC, and its expression inhibits cancer-related biologic functions of EAC cells.
Project description:MAL promoter hypermethylation was examined in 260 human esophageal specimens using real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP). MAL hypermethylation showed highly discriminative ROC curve profiles which clearly distinguished esophageal adenocarcinomas (EAC) from both esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) and normal esophagus (NE). Both MAL methylation frequency and normalized methylation value (NMV) were significantly higher in Barrett's esophagus (BE), dysplastic BE, and EAC than in ESCC or in NE. Among matched NE and EAC samples, MAL NMVs in EAC were significantly higher than in corresponding NE. There was a significant correlation between MAL hypermethylation and BE segment length. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reversed MAL methylation and reactivated MAL mRNA expression in OE33 EAC cells. MAL mRNA levels in EACs with unmethylated MAL were significantly higher than in EACs with methylated MAL. MAL hypermethylation is a common, tissue-specific event in human EAC and correlates with clinical neoplastic progression risk factors.
Project description:Determination of the profile of genes that are commonly methylated aberrantly in colorectal cancer (CRC) will have substantial value for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. However, there is limited knowledge of the DNA methylation pattern in CRC.We analyzed the methylation profile of 27,578 CpG sites spanning more than 14,000 genes in CRC and in the adjacent normal mucosa with bead-chip array-based technology.We identified 621 CpG sites located in promoter regions and CpG islands that were greatly hypermethylated in CRC compared to normal mucosa. The genes on chromosome 18 showed promoter hypermethylation most frequently. According to gene ontology analysis, the most common biologically relevant class of genes affected by methylation was the class associated with the cadherin signaling pathway. Compared to the genome-wide expression array, mRNA expression was more likely to be downregulated in the genes demonstrating promoter hypermethylation, even though this was not statistically significant. We validated ten CpG sites that were hypermethylated (ADHFE1, BOLL, SLC6A15, ADAMTS5, TFPI2, EYA4, NPY, TWIST1, LAMA1, GAS7) and 2 CpG sites showing hypomethylation (MAEL, SFT2D3) in CRC compared to the normal mucosa in the array studies using pyrosequencing. The methylation status measured by pyrosequencing was consistent with the methylation array data.Methylation profiling based on bead-chip arrays is an effective method for screening aberrantly methylated genes in CRC. In addition, we identified novel methylated genes that are candidate diagnostic or prognostic markers for CRC.
Project description:The identification of genes that are differentially methylated in colorectal cancer (CRC) has potential value for both diagnostic and therapeutic interventions specifically in high-risk populations such as African Americans (AAs). However, DNA methylation patterns in CRC, especially in AAs, have not been systematically explored and remain poorly understood. Here, we performed DNA methylome profiling to identify the methylation status of CpG islands within candidate genes involved in critical pathways important in the initiation and development of CRC. We used reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) in colorectal cancer and adenoma tissues that were compared with DNA methylome from a healthy AA subject's colon tissue and peripheral blood DNA. The identified methylation markers were validated in fresh frozen CRC tissues and corresponding normal tissues from AA patients diagnosed with CRC at Howard University Hospital. We identified and validated the methylation status of 355 CpG sites located within 16 gene promoter regions associated with CpG islands. Fifty CpG sites located within CpG islands-in genes ATXN7L1 (2), BMP3 (7), EID3 (15), GAS7 (1), GPR75 (24), and TNFAIP2 (1)-were significantly hypermethylated in tumor vs. normal tissues (P<0.05). The methylation status of BMP3, EID3, GAS7, and GPR75 was confirmed in an independent, validation cohort. Ingenuity pathway analysis mapped three of these markers (GAS7, BMP3 and GPR) in the insulin and TGF-?1 network-the two key pathways in CRC. In addition to hypermethylated genes, our analysis also revealed that LINE-1 repeat elements were progressively hypomethylated in the normal-adenoma-cancer sequence. We conclude that DNA methylome profiling based on RRBS is an effective method for screening aberrantly methylated genes in CRC. While previous studies focused on the limited identification of hypermethylated genes, ours is the first study to systematically and comprehensively identify novel hypermethylated genes, as well as hypomethylated LINE-1 sequences, which may serve as potential biomarkers for CRC in African Americans. Our discovered biomarkers were intimately linked to the insulin/TGF-B1 pathway, further strengthening the association of diabetic disorders with colon oncogenic transformation.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence has increased in the US and also has one of the fastest growing death rates of any cancer. The purpose of the current study was to discover novel genome-wide aberrant DNA methylation patterns in HCC tumors that are predominantly HCV-related. Infinium HumanMethylation 450K BeadChip arrays were used to examine genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in 66 pairs of HCC tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues. After Bonferroni adjustment, a total of 130,512 CpG sites significantly differed in methylation level in tumor compared with non-tumor tissues, with 28,017 CpG sites hypermethylated and 102,495 hypomethylated in tumor tissues. Absolute tumor/non-tumor methylation differences ? 20% were found in 24.9% of the hypermethylated and 43.1% of the hypomethylated CpG sites; almost 10,000 CpG sites have ? 30% DNA methylation differences. Most (60.1%) significantly hypermethylated CpG sites are located in CpG islands, with 21.6% in CpG shores and 3.6% in shelves. In contrast, only a small proportion (8.2%) of significantly hypomethylated CpG sites are situated in islands, while most are found in open sea (60.2%), shore (17.3%) or shelf (14.3%) regions. A total of 2,568 significant CpG sites (2,441 hypermethylated and 127 hypomethylated) covering 589 genes are located within 684 differentially methylated regions defined as regions with at least two significant CpG sites displaying > 20% methylation differences in the same direction within 250-bp. The top 500 significant CpG sites can significantly distinguish HCC tumor from adjacent tissues with one misclassification. Within adjacent non-tumor tissues, we also identified 75 CpG sites significantly associated with gender, 228 with HCV infection, 17,207 with cirrhosis, and 56 with both HCV infection and cirrhosis after multiple comparisons adjustment. Aberrant DNA methylation profiles across the genome were identified in tumor tissues from US HCC cases that are predominantly related to HCV infection. These results demonstrate the significance of aberrant DNA methylation in HCC tumorigenesis.
Project description:Alterations in DNA methylation frequently occur in hepatocellular cancer (HCC). We have previously demonstrated that hypermethylation in candidate genes can be detected in plasma DNA before HCC diagnosis. To identify, with a genome-wide approach, additional genes hypermethylated in HCC that could be used for more accurate analysis of plasma DNA for early diagnosis, we analyzed tumor and adjacent nontumor tissues from 62 Taiwanese HCC cases using Illumina methylation arrays (Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA) that screen 26,486 autosomal CpG sites. After Bonferroni adjustment, a total of 2,324 CpG sites significantly differed in methylation level, with 684 CpG sites significantly hypermethylated and 1,640 hypomethylated in tumor, compared to nontumor tissues. Array data were validated with pyrosequencing in a subset of five of these genes; correlation coefficients ranged from 0.92 to 0.97. Analysis of plasma DNA from 38 cases demonstrated that 37%-63% of cases had detectable hypermethylated DNA (? 5% methylation) for these five genes individually. At least one of these genes was hypermethylated in 87% of the cases, suggesting that measurement of DNA methylation in plasma samples is feasible.The panel of methylated genes indentified in the current study will be further tested in a large cohort of prospectively collected samples to determine their utility as early biomarkers of HCC.
Project description:In an initial epigenetic characterization of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), we evaluated the DNA methylation levels of over 500 CpG islands. Twelve CpG islands (AR, CDKN1C, DLC1, DRD2, GATA4, GDNF, GRIN2B, MTHFR, MYOD1, NEUROD1, ONECUT2 and TFAP2A) showed significant methylation in over 85% of tumors. Interestingly, the methylation levels of a CpG island proximal to FLJ21062 differed between the activated B-cell-like (ABC-DLBCL) and germinal center B-cell-like (GCB-DLBCL) subtypes. In addition, we compared the methylation and expression status of 67 genes proximal (within 500 bp) to the methylation assays. We frequently observed that hypermethylated CpG islands are proximal to genes that are expressed at low or undetectable levels in tumors. However, many of these same genes were also poorly expressed in DLBCL tumors where their cognate CpG islands were hypomethylated. Nevertheless, the proportional reductions in BNIP3, MGMT, RBP1, GATA4, IGSF4, CRABP1 and FLJ21062 expression with increasing methylation suggest that epigenetic processes strongly influence these genes. Lastly, the moderate expression of several genes proximal to hypermethylated CpG tracts suggests that DNA methylation assays are not always accurate predictors of gene silencing. Overall, further investigation of the highlighted CpG islands as potential clinical biomarkers is warranted.
Project description:Aberrant DNA methylation is critical for development and progression of breast cancer. We investigated the association of CpG island methylation in candidate genes and clinicopathological features in 65 African-American (AA) and European-American (EA) breast cancer patients. Quantitative methylation analysis was carried out on bisulfite modified genomic DNA and sequencing (pyrosequencing) for promoter CpG islands of p16, ESR1, RASSF1A, RAR?2, CDH13, HIN1, SFRP1 genes and the LINE1 repetitive element using matched paired non-cancerous and breast tumor specimen (32 AA and 33 EA women). Five of the genes, all known tumor suppressor genes (RASSF1A, RAR?2, CDH13, HIN1 and SFRP1), were found to be frequently hypermethylated in breast tumor tissues but not in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Significant differences in the CDH13 methylation status were observed by comparing DNA methylation between AA and EA patients, with more obvious CDH13 methylation differences between the two patient groups in the ER- disease and among young patients (age<50). In addition, we observed associations between CDH13, SFRP1, and RASSF1A methylation and breast cancer subtypes and between SFRP1 methylation and patient's age. Furthermore, tumors that received neoadjuvant therapy tended to have reduced RASSF1A methylation when compared with chemotherapy naïve tumors. Finally, Kaplan Meier survival analysis showed a significant association between methylation at 3 loci (RASSF1A, RAR?2 and CDH13) and reduced overall disease survival. In conclusion, the DNA methylation status of breast tumors was found to be significantly associated with clinicopathological features and race/ethnicity of the patients.
Project description:Transitional-CpG methylation between unmethylated promoters and nearby methylated retroelements plays a role in the establishment of tissue-specific transcription. This study examined whether chromosomal losses reducing the active genes in cancers can change transitional-CpG methylation and the transcription activity in a cancer-type-dependent manner. The transitional-CpG sites at the CpG-island margins of nine genes and the non-island-CpG sites round the transcription start sites of six genes lacking CpG islands were examined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The number of active genes in normal and cancerous tissues of the stomach, colon, breast, and nasopharynx were analyzed using the public data in silico. The CpG-island margins and non-island CpG sites tended to be hypermethylated and hypomethylated in all cancer types, respectively. The CpG-island margins were hypermethylated and a low number of genes were active in the normal stomach compared with other normal tissues. In gastric cancers, the CpG-island margins and non-island-CpG sites were hypomethylated in association with high-level chromosomal losses, and the number of active genes increased. Colon, breast, and nasopharyngeal cancers showed no significant association between the chromosomal losses and methylation changes. These findings suggest that chromosomal losses in gastric cancers are associated with the hypomethylation of the gene-control regions and the increased number of active genes.