Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling grain size and shape in the D genome of synthetic hexaploid wheat lines.
ABSTRACT: Synthetic hexaploid wheat is an effective genetic resource for transferring agronomically important genes from Aegilops tauschii to common wheat. Wide variation in grain size and shape, one of the main targets for wheat breeding, has been observed among Ae. tauschii accessions. To identify the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for grain size and shape variation in the wheat D genome under a hexaploid genetic background, six parameters related to grain size and shape were measured using SmartGrain digital image software and QTL analysis was conducted using four F2 mapping populations of wheat synthetic hexaploids. In total, 18 QTLs for the six parameters were found on five of the seven D-genome chromosomes. The identified QTLs significantly contributed to the variation in grain size and shape among the synthetic wheat lines, implying that the D-genome QTLs might be at least partly functional in hexaploid wheat. Thus, synthetic wheat lines with diverse D genomes from Ae. tauschii are useful resources for the identification of agronomically important loci that function in hexaploid wheat.
Project description:Wild diploid wheat Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome progenitor of common wheat, carries large genetic variation in spikelet and grain morphology. Two differentiated subspecies of Ae. tauschii, subspecies tauschii and strangulata, have been traditionally defined based on differences in spikelet morphology. Here, we first assessed six spikelet shape-related traits among 199 Ae. tauschii accessions, and found that the accessions belonging to TauL1major lineage produced significantly longer spikes, higher spikelet density, and shorter, narrower spikelets than another major lineage, TauL2, in which the strangulata accessions are included. Next, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of the spikelet and grain shape using three mapping populations derived from interlineage crosses between TauL1 and TauL2 to identify the genetic loci for the morphological variations of the spikelet and grain shape in Ae. tauschii. Three major QTL regions for the examined traits were detected on chromosomes 3D, 4D and 7D. The 3D and 4D QTL regions for several spikelet shape-related traits were conserved in the three mapping populations, which indicated that the 3D and 4D QTLs contribute to divergence of the two major lineages. The 7D QTLs were found only in a mapping population from a cross of the two subspecies, suggesting that these 7D QTLs may be closely related to subspecies differentiation in Ae. tauschii. Thus, QTL analysis for spikelet and grain morphology may provide useful information to elucidate the evolutionary processes of intraspecific differentiation.
Project description:Strong early vigour plays a crucial role in wheat yield improvement by enhancing resource utilization efficiency. Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) combines the elite genes of tetraploid wheat with Aegilops tauschii and has been widely used in wheat genetic improvement for its abundant genetic variation. The two SHWs Syn79 and Syn80 were derived from the crossing of the same tetraploid wheat DOY1 with two different Ae. tauschii accessions, AT333 and AT428, respectively. The Syn80 possessed better early vigour traits than Syn79, theretically caused by their D genome from Ae. tauschii. To dissect their genetic basis in a hexaploid background, 203 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross of Syn79 x Syn80 were developed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for four early biomass related traits: plant height (PH), tiller number (TN), shoot fresh weight (SFW) and shoot dry weight (SDW) per plant, under five different environmental conditions. Determined from the data of SNP markers, two genome regions on 1DS and 7D were stably associated with the four early biomass related traits showing pleiotropic effects. Four stable QTLs QPh.saas-1DS, QTn.saas-1DS, QSfw.saas-1DS and QSdw.saas-1DS explaining 7.92, 15.34, 9.64 and 10.15% of the phenotypic variation, respectively, were clustered in the region of 1DS from AX-94812958 to AX-110910133. Meanwhile, QPh.saas-7D, QTn.saas-7D, QSfw.saas-7D and QSdw.saas-7D were flanked by AX-109917900 and AX-110605376 on 7D, explaining 16.12, 24.35, 15.25 and 13.37% of the phenotypic variation on average, respectively. Moreover, these genomic QTLs on 1DS and 7D enhancing biomass in the parent Syn80 were from Ae. tauschii AT428. These findings suggest that these two QTLs from Ae. tauschii can be expressed stably in a hexaploid background at the jointing stage and be used for wheat improvement.
Project description:The seed dormancy characteristic is regarded as one of the most critical factors for pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) resistance. As a wild wheat relative species, Aegilops tauschii is a potential genetic resource for improving common wheat. In this study, an advanced backcross population (201 strains) containing only Ae. tauschii segments was developed by means of synthetic octaploid wheat (hexaploid wheat Zhoumai 18 × Ae. tauschii T093). Subsequently, seed dormancy rate (Dor) in the advanced backcross population was evaluated on the day 3, 5 and 7, in which 2 major QTLs (QDor-2D and QDor-3D) were observed on chromosomes 2D and 3D with phenotypic variance explained values (PVEs) of 10.25 and 20.40%, respectively. Further investigation revealed significant correlation between QDor-3D and Tamyb10 gene, while no association was found between the former and TaVp1 gene, implying that QDor-3D site could be of closer position to Tamyb10. The obtained quantitative trait locus sites (QTLs) in this work could be applied to develop wheat cultivars with PHS resistance.
Project description:Gene expression levels of newly synthetic triploid wheat (ABD), its chromosome-doubled hexaploid (AABBDD), stable synthetic hexaploid (AABBDD), and their parents, Triticum turgidum (accession KU124, AABB) and Aegilops tauschii (accession KU2074, DD) were compared to understand genome-wide change of gene expressions during the course of amphidiploidization and genome stabilization. Stable synthetic hexaploid which were maintained through self-pollinations for 13 generations using the same combinations of the parents for production of synthetic common wheat. Overall design: Amphidiploidization event between T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum (AABB) and Ae. tauschii ssp. strangulata (DD) was recreated. Gene expression levels of newly synthetic triploid wheat (ABD), its chromosome-doubled hexaploid (AABBDD), stable synthetic hexaploid (AABBDD), and their parents, Triticum turgidum (AABB) and Aegilops tauschii (DD) were compared. Total RNA of each line was extracted from three biological replicates of two leaves seedlings.
Project description:Modern wheat cultivars are increasingly sensitive to ground level ozone, with 7-10% mean yield reductions in the northern hemisphere. In this study, three of the genome donors of bread wheat, Triticum urartu (AA), T. dicoccoides (AABB), and Aegilops tauschii (DD) along with a modern wheat cultivar (T. aestivum 'Skyfall'), a 1970s cultivar (T. aestivum 'Maris Dove'), and a line of primary Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat were grown in 6 L pots of sandy loam soil in solardomes (Bangor, North Wales) and exposed to low (30 ppb), medium (55 ppb), and high (110 ppb) levels of ozone over 3 months. Measurements were made at harvest of shoot biomass and grain yield. Ae. tauschii appeared ozone tolerant with no significant effects of ozone on shoot biomass, seed head biomass, or 1000 grain + husk weight even under high ozone levels. In comparison, T. urartu had a significant reduction in 1000 grain + husk weight, especially under high ozone (-26%). The older cultivar, 'Maris Dove', had a significant reduction in seed head biomass (-9%) and 1000 grain weight (-11%) but was less sensitive than the more recent cultivar 'Skyfall', which had a highly significant reduction in its seed head biomass (-21%) and 1000 grain weight (-27%) under high ozone. Notably, the line of primary Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat was ozone tolerant, with no effect on total seed head biomass (-1%) and only a 5% reduction in 1000 grain weight under high ozone levels. The potential use of synthetic wheat in breeding ozone tolerant wheat is discussed.
Project description:Bread wheat is an important and the most consumed cereal worldwide. However, people with predominantly cereal-based diets are increasingly affected by micronutrient deficiencies, suggesting the need for biofortified wheat varieties. The limited genetic diversity in hexaploid wheat warrants exploring the wider variation present in wheat wild relatives, among these Aegilops tauschii, the wild progenitor of the bread wheat D genome. In this study, a panel of 167 Ae. tauschii accessions was phenotyped for grain Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn concentrations for 3 years and was found to have wide variation for these micronutrients. Comparisons between the two genetic subpopulations of Ae. tauschii revealed that lineage 2 had higher mean values for Fe and Cu concentration than lineage 1. To identify potentially new genetic sources for improving grain micronutrient concentration, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 114 non-redundant Ae. tauschii accessions using 5,249 genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) markers. Best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) values were calculated for all traits across the three growing seasons. A total of 19 SNP marker trait associations (MTAs) were detected for all traits after applying Bonferroni corrected threshold of -log10(P-value) ? 4.68. These MTAs were found on all seven chromosomes. For grain Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn concentrations, five, four, three, and seven significant associations were detected, respectively. The associations were linked to the genes encoding transcription factor regulators, transporters, and phytosiderophore synthesis. The results demonstrate the utility of GWAS for understanding the genetic architecture of micronutrient accumulation in Ae. tauschii, and further efforts to validate these loci will aid in using them to diversify the D-genome of hexaploid wheat.
Project description:A synthetic doubled-haploid hexaploid wheat population, SynDH1, derived from the spontaneous chromosome doubling of triploid F1 hybrid plants obtained from the cross of hybrids Triticum turgidum ssp. durum line Langdon (LDN) and ssp. turgidum line AS313, with Aegilops tauschii ssp. tauschii accession AS60, was previously constructed. SynDH1 is a tetraploidization-hexaploid doubled haploid (DH) population because it contains recombinant A and B chromosomes from two different T. turgidum genotypes, while all the D chromosomes from Ae. tauschii are homogenous across the whole population. This paper reports the construction of a genetic map using this population.Of the 606 markers used to assemble the genetic map, 588 (97%) were assigned to linkage groups. These included 513 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers, 72 simple sequence repeat (SSR), one insertion site-based polymorphism (ISBP), and two high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) markers. These markers were assigned to the 14 chromosomes, covering 2048.79?cM, with a mean distance of 3.48?cM between adjacent markers. This map showed good coverage of the A and B genome chromosomes, apart from 3A, 5A, 6A, and 4B. Compared with previously reported maps, most shared markers showed highly consistent orders. This map was successfully used to identify five quantitative trait loci (QTL), including two for spikelet number on chromosomes 7A and 5B, two for spike length on 7A and 3B, and one for 1000-grain weight on 4B. However, differences in crossability QTL between the two T. turgidum parents may explain the segregation distortion regions on chromosomes 1A, 3B, and 6B.A genetic map of T. turgidum including 588 markers was constructed using a synthetic doubled haploid (SynDH) hexaploid wheat population. Five QTLs for three agronomic traits were identified from this population. However, more markers are needed to increase the density and resolution of this map in the future study.
Project description:Kernel weight and shape-related traits are inherited stably and increase wheat yield. Narrow genetic diversity limits the progress of wheat breeding. Here, we evaluated kernel weight and shape-related traits and applied genome-wide association analysis to a panel of wheat multiple synthetic derivative (MSD) lines. The MSD lines harbored genomic fragments from <i>Aegilops tauschii</i>. These materials were grown under optimum conditions in Japan, as well as under heat and combined heat-drought conditions in Sudan. We aimed to explore useful QTLs for kernel weight and shape-related traits under stress conditions. These can be useful for enhancing yield under stress conditions. MSD lines possessed remarkable genetic variation for all traits under all conditions, and some lines showed better performance than the background parent Norin 61. We identified 82 marker trait associations (MTAs) under the three conditions; most of them originated from the D genome. All of the favorable alleles originated from <i>Ae. tauschii</i>. For the first time, we identified markers on chromosome 5D associated with a candidate gene encoding a RING-type E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase and expected to have a role in regulating wheat seed size. Our study provides important knowledge for the improvement of wheat yield under optimum and stress conditions. The results emphasize the importance of <i>Ae. tauschii</i> as a gene reservoir for wheat breeding.
Project description:Due to the accumulation of various useful traits over evolutionary time, emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccum and dicoccoides, 2n?=?4x?=?28; AABB), durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp. durum, 2n?=?4x?=?28; AABB), T. timopheevii (2n?=?4x?=?28; AAGG) and D genome containing Aegilops species offer excellent sources of novel variation for the improvement of bread wheat (T. aestivum L., AABBDD). Here, we made 192 different cross combinations between diverse genotypes of wheat and Aegilops species including emmer wheat?×?Ae. tauschii (2n?=?DD or DDDD), durum wheat?×?Ae. tauschii, T. timopheevii?×?Ae. tauschii, Ae. crassa?×?durum wheat, Ae. cylindrica?×?durum wheat and Ae. ventricosa?×?durum wheat in the field over three successive years. We successfully recovered 56 different synthetic hexaploid and octaploid F2 lines with AABBDD, AABBDDDD, AAGGDD, D1D1XcrXcrAABB, DcDcCcCcAABB and DvDvNvNvAABB genomes via in vitro rescue of F1 embryos and spontaneous production of F2 seeds on the Fl plants. Cytogenetic analysis of F2 lines showed that the produced synthetic wheat lines were generally promising stable amphiploids. Contribution of D genome bearing Aegilops and the less-investigated emmer wheat genotypes as parents in the crosses resulted in synthetic amphiploids which are a valuable resource for bread wheat breeding.
Project description:Aegilops tauschii Coss. is the D-genome donor to hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and is the most promising wild species as a genetic resource for wheat breeding. To study the population structure and diversity of 81 Ae. tauschii accessions collected from various regions of its geographical distribution, the genomic representation of these lines were used to develop a diversity array technology (DArT) marker array. This Ae. tauschii array and a previously developed DArT wheat array were used to scan the genomes of the 81 accessions. Out of 7500 markers (5500 wheat and 2000 Ae. tauschii), 4449 were polymorphic (3776 wheat and 673 Ae. tauschii). Phylogenetic and population structure studies revealed that the accessions could be divided into three groups. The two Ae. tauschii subspecies could also be separately clustered, suggesting that the current taxonomy might be valid. DArT markers are effective to detect very small polymorphisms. The information obtained about Ae. tauschii in the current study could be useful for wheat breeding. In addition, the new DArT array from this Ae. tauschii population is expected to be an effective tool for hexaploid wheat studies.