Mdm20 stimulates polyQ aggregation via inhibiting autophagy through Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation.
ABSTRACT: Mdm20 is an auxiliary subunit of the NatB complex, which includes Nat5, the catalytic subunit for protein N-terminal acetylation. The NatB complex catalyzes N-acetylation during de novo protein synthesis initiation; however, recent evidence from yeast suggests that NatB also affects post-translational modification of tropomyosin, which is involved in intracellular sorting of aggregated proteins. We hypothesized that an acetylation complex such as NatB may contribute to protein clearance and/or proteostasis in mammalian cells. Using a poly glutamine (polyQ) aggregation system, we examined whether the NatB complex or its components affect protein aggregation in rat primary cultured hippocampal neurons and HEK293 cells. The number of polyQ aggregates increased in Mdm20 over-expressing (OE) cells, but not in Nat5-OE cells. Conversely, in Mdm20 knockdown (KD) cells, but not in Nat5-KD cells, polyQ aggregation was significantly reduced. Although Mdm20 directly associates with Nat5, the overall cellular localization of the two proteins was slightly distinct, and Mdm20 apparently co-localized with the polyQ aggregates. Furthermore, in Mdm20-KD cells, a punctate appearance of LC3 was evident, suggesting the induction of autophagy. Consistent with this notion, phosphorylation of Akt, most notably at Ser473, was greatly reduced in Mdm20-KD cells. These results demonstrate that Mdm20, the so-called auxiliary subunit of the translation-coupled protein N-acetylation complex, contributes to protein clearance and/or aggregate formation by affecting the phosphorylation level of Akt indepenently from the function of Nat5.
Project description:NatB is an N-terminal acetyltransferase consisting of a catalytic Nat5 subunit and an auxiliary Mdm20 subunit. In yeast, NatB acetylates N-terminal methionines of proteins during de novo protein synthesis and also regulates actin remodeling through N-terminal acetylation of tropomyosin (Trpm), which stabilizes the actin cytoskeleton by interacting with actin. However, in mammalian cells, the biological functions of the Mdm20 and Nat5 subunits are not well understood. In the present study, we show for the first time that Mdm20-knockdown (KD), but not Nat5-KD, in HEK293 and HeLa cells suppresses not only cell growth, but also cellular motility. Although stress fibers were formed in Mdm20-KD cells, and not in control or Nat5-KD cells, the localization of Trpm did not coincide with the formation of stress fibers in Mdm20-KD cells. Notably, knockdown of Mdm20 reduced the expression of Rictor, an mTORC2 complex component, through post-translational regulation. Additionally, PKC?S657 phosphorylation, which regulates the organization of the actin cytoskeleton, was also reduced in Mdm20-KD cells. Our data also suggest that FoxO1 phosphorylation is regulated by the Mdm20-mTORC2-Akt pathway in response to serum starvation and insulin stimulation. Taken together, the present findings suggest that Mdm20 acts as a novel regulator of Rictor, thereby controlling mTORC2 activity, and leading to the activation of PKC?S657 and FoxO1.
Project description:Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an essential metabolite participating in cellular redox chemistry and signaling, and the complex regulation of NAD+ metabolism is not yet fully understood. To investigate this, we established a NAD+-intermediate specific reporter system to identify factors required for salvage of metabolically linked nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinic acid (NA). Mutants lacking components of the NatB complex, NAT3 and MDM20, appeared as hits in this screen. NatB is an Nα-terminal acetyltransferase responsible for acetylation of the N terminus of specific Met-retained peptides. In NatB mutants, increased NA/NAM levels were concomitant with decreased NAD+ We identified the vacuolar pool of nicotinamide riboside (NR) as the source of this increased NA/NAM. This NR pool is increased by nitrogen starvation, suggesting NAD+ and related metabolites may be trafficked to the vacuole for recycling. Supporting this, increased NA/NAM release in NatB mutants was abolished by deleting the autophagy protein ATG14 We next examined Tpm1 (tropomyosin), whose function is regulated by NatB-mediated acetylation, and Tpm1 overexpression (TPM1-oe) was shown to restore some NatB mutant defects. Interestingly, although TPM1-oe largely suppressed NA/NAM release in NatB mutants, it did not restore NAD+ levels. We showed that decreased nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (Nma1/Nma2) levels probably caused the NAD+ defects, and NMA1-oe was sufficient to restore NAD+ NatB-mediated N-terminal acetylation of Nma1 and Nma2 appears essential for maintaining NAD+ levels. In summary, our results support a connection between NatB-mediated protein acetylation and NAD+ homeostasis. Our findings may contribute to understanding the molecular basis and regulation of NAD+ metabolism.
Project description:The evolutionarily conserved Mdm20 protein (Mdm20p) plays an important role in tropomyosin-F-actin interactions that generate actin filaments and cables in budding yeast. However, Mdm20p is not a structural component of actin filaments or cables, and its exact function in cable stability has remained a mystery. Here, we show that cells lacking Mdm20p fail to N-terminally acetylate Tpm1p, an abundant form of tropomyosin that binds and stabilizes actin filaments and cables. The F-actin-binding activity of unacetylated Tpm1p is reduced severely relative to the acetylated form. These results are complemented by the recent report that Mdm20p copurifies with one of three acetyltransferases in yeast, the NatB complex. We present genetic evidence that Mdm20p functions cooperatively with Nat3p, the catalytic subunit of the NatB acetyltransferase. These combined results strongly suggest that Mdm20p-dependent, N-terminal acetylation of Tpm1p by the NatB complex is required for Tpm1p association with, and stabilization of, actin filaments and cables.
Project description:The N-terminal acetyltransferase NatB in Saccharomyces cerevisiae consists of the catalytic subunit Nat3p and the associated subunit Mdm20p. We here extend our present knowledge about the physiological role of NatB by a combined proteomics and phenomics approach. We found that strains deleted for either NAT3 or MDM20 displayed different growth rates and morphologies in specific stress conditions, demonstrating that the two NatB subunits have partly individual functions. Earlier reported phenotypes of the nat3Delta strain have been associated with altered functionality of actin cables. However, we found that point mutants of tropomyosin that suppress the actin cable defect observed in nat3Delta only partially restores wild-type growth and morphology, indicating the existence of functionally important acetylations unrelated to actin cable function. Predicted NatB substrates were dramatically overrepresented in a distinct set of biological processes, mainly related to DNA processing and cell cycle progression. Three of these proteins, Cac2p, Pac10p, and Swc7p, were identified as true NatB substrates. To identify N-terminal acetylations potentially important for protein function, we performed a large-scale comparative phenotypic analysis including nat3Delta and strains deleted for the putative NatB substrates involved in cell cycle regulation and DNA processing. By this procedure we predicted functional importance of the N-terminal acetylation for 31 proteins.
Project description:N-terminal acetylation is a major posttranslational modification in eukaryotes catalyzed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), NatA through NatF. Although N-terminal acetylation modulates diverse protein functions, little is known about its roles in virus replication. We found that NatB, which comprises NAA20 and NAA25, is involved in the shutoff activity of influenza virus PA-X. The shutoff activity of PA-X was suppressed in NatB-deficient cells, and PA-X mutants that are not acetylated by NatB showed reduced shutoff activities. We also evaluated the importance of N-terminal acetylation of PA, because PA-X shares its N-terminal sequence with PA. Viral polymerase activity was reduced in NatB-deficient cells. Moreover, mutant PAs that are not acetylated by NatB lost their function in the viral polymerase complex. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that N-terminal acetylation is required for the shutoff activity of PA-X and for viral polymerase activity.
Project description:Two conserved ubiquitin ligases, Hrd1 and Doa10, mediate most endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) in yeast. Degradation signals (degrons) recognized by these ubiquitin ligases remain poorly characterized. Doa10 recognizes the Deg1 degron from the MAT?2 transcription factor. We previously found that deletion of the gene (NAT3) encoding the catalytic subunit of the NatB N-terminal acetyltransferase weakly stabilized a Deg1-fusion protein. By contrast, a recent analysis of several MAT?2 derivatives suggested that N-terminal acetylation of these proteins by NatB was crucial for recognition by Doa10. We now analyze endogenous MAT?2 degradation in cells lacking NatB and observe minimal perturbation relative to wild-type cells. However, NatB mutation strongly impairs degradation of ER-luminal Hrd1 substrates. This unexpected defect derives from a failure of Der1, a Hrd1 complex subunit, to be N-terminally acetylated in NatB mutant yeast. We retargeted Der1 to another acetyltransferase to show that it is the only ERAD factor requiring N-terminal acetylation. Preventing Der1 acetylation stimulates its proteolysis via the Hrd1 pathway, at least partially accounting for the ERAD defect observed in the absence of NatB. These results reveal an important role for N-terminal acetylation in controlling Hrd1 ligase activity toward a specific class of ERAD substrates.
Project description:Protein acetylation is a widespread modification that is mediated by site-selective acetyltransferases. KATs (lysine N(epsilon)-acetyltransferases), modify the side chain of specific lysines on histones and other proteins, a central process in regulating gene expression. N(alpha)-terminal acetylation occurs on the ribosome where the alpha amino group of nascent polypeptides is acetylated by NATs (N-terminal acetyltransferase). In yeast, three different NAT complexes were identified NatA, NatB, and NatC. NatA is composed of two main subunits, the catalytic subunit Naa10p (Ard1p) and Naa15p (Nat1p). Naa50p (Nat5) is physically associated with NatA. In man, hNaa50p was shown to have acetyltransferase activity and to be important for chromosome segregation. In this study, we used purified recombinant hNaa50p and multiple oligopeptide substrates to identify and characterize an N(alpha)-acetyltransferase activity of hNaa50p. As the preferred substrate this activity acetylates oligopeptides with N termini Met-Leu-Xxx-Pro. Furthermore, hNaa50p autoacetylates lysines 34, 37, and 140 in vitro, modulating hNaa50p substrate specificity. In addition, histone 4 was detected as a hNaa50p KAT substrate in vitro. Our findings thus provide the first experimental evidence of an enzyme having both KAT and NAT activities.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer in men, and the global burden of the disease is rising. The majority of PCa deaths are due to metastasis that are highly resistant to current hormonal treatments; this state is called castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In this study, we focused on the role of the lipid catabolism enzyme CPT1A in supporting CRPC growth in an androgen-dependent manner. We found that androgen withdrawal promoted the growth of CPT1A over-expressing (OE) tumors while it decreased the growth of CPT1A under-expressing (KD) tumors, increasing their sensitivity to enzalutamide. Mechanistically, we found that CPT1A-OE cells burned more lipid and showed increased histone acetylation changes that were partially reversed with a p300 specific inhibitor. Conversely, CPT1A-KD cells showed less histone acetylation when grown in androgen-deprived conditions. Our results suggest that CPT1A supports CRPC by supplying acetyl groups for histone acetylation, promoting growth and antiandrogen resistance.
Project description:N-terminal acetylation of the first two amino acids on proteins is a prevalent cotranslational modification. Despite its abundance, the biological processes associated with this modification are not well understood. Here, we mapped the pattern of protein N-terminal acetylation in Caenorhabditis elegans, uncovering a conserved set of rules for this protein modification and identifying substrates for the N-terminal acetyltransferase B (NatB) complex. We observed an enrichment for global protein N-terminal acetylation and also specifically for NatB substrates in the nucleus, supporting the importance of this modification for regulating biological functions within this cellular compartment. Peptide profiling analysis provides evidence of cross-talk between N-terminal acetylation and internal modifications in a NAT substrate-specific manner. In vivo studies indicate that N-terminal acetylation is critical for meiosis, as it regulates the assembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC), a proteinaceous structure ubiquitously present during meiosis from yeast to humans. Specifically, N-terminal acetylation of NatB substrate SYP-1, an SC structural component, is critical for SC assembly. These findings provide novel insights into the biological functions of N-terminal acetylation and its essential role during meiosis.
Project description:Protein N(alpha)-terminal acetylation is one of the most common protein modifications in eukaryotic cells. In yeast, three major complexes, NatA, NatB, and NatC, catalyze nearly all N-terminal acetylation, acetylating specific subsets of protein N termini. In human cells, only the NatA and NatB complexes have been described. We here identify and characterize the human NatC (hNatC) complex, containing the catalytic subunit hMak3 and the auxiliary subunits hMak10 and hMak31. This complex associates with ribosomes, and hMak3 acetylates Met-Leu protein N termini in vitro, suggesting a model in which the human NatC complex functions in cotranslational N-terminal acetylation. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of NatC subunits results in p53-dependent cell death and reduced growth of human cell lines. As a consequence of hMAK3 knockdown, p53 is stabilized and phosphorylated and there is a significant transcriptional activation of proapoptotic genes downstream of p53. Knockdown of hMAK3 alters the subcellular localization of the Arf-like GTPase hArl8b, supporting that hArl8b is a hMak3 substrate in vivo. Taken together, hNatC-mediated N-terminal acetylation is important for maintenance of protein function and cell viability in human cells.