Impact of molecular alterations and targeted therapy in appendiceal adenocarcinomas.
ABSTRACT: Appendiceal adenocarcinomas (AAs) are rare and this has limited their molecular understanding. The purpose of our study was to characterize the molecular profile of AA and explore the role of targeted therapy against cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).We performed a retrospective review of 607 patients with AA at a single institution. A total of 149 patients underwent molecular testing for at least one of the following: activating mutations in KRAS, BRAF, cKIT, EGFR, or PI3K; protein expression of c-KIT or COX-2; or microsatellite instability (MSI) status by immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier product limit method and log-rank test were used to estimate overall survival (OS) and to determine associations among OS, COX-2 expression, KRAS mutations, and other characteristics.Age, grade, stage, signet ring cells, mucinous histology, and completeness of cytoreduction score correlated with survival outcomes. COX-2 expression, KRAS, PI3K, and BRAF mutations were seen in 61%, 55%, 17%, and 4% of patients, respectively. High MSI was seen in 6% of patients. KRAS mutation was strongly associated with well differentiated or moderately differentiated AA (p < .01). COX-2 expression (p = .33) and the presence of KRAS mutation (p = .91) had no impact on OS. The use of celecoxib in patients whose tumors expressed COX-2 (p = .84) and the use of cetuximab or panitumumab in patients with KRAS wild-type tumors (p = .83) also had no impact on OS.In this cohort, we demonstrated that COX-2 expression and KRAS mutations were frequently seen in AA, although neither exhibited any prognostic significance. MSI was infrequent in AA. Targeted therapy against COX-2 and EGFR appeared to provide no clinical benefit. Well and moderately differentiated AA were molecularly distinct from poorly differentiated AA.
Project description:BRAF and KRAS mutations are well-established biomarkers in anti-EGFR therapy. However, the prognostic significance of these mutations is still being examined. We determined the prognostic value of BRAF and KRAS mutations in Korean colorectal cancer (CRC) patients.From July 2010 to September 2013, 1096 patients who underwent surgery for CRC at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital were included in the analysis. Resected specimens were examined for BRAF, KRAS, and microsatellite instability (MSI) status. All data were reviewed retrospectively.Among 1096 patients, 401 (36.7%) had KRAS mutations and 44 (4.0%) had BRAF mutations. Of 83 patients, 77 (92.8%) had microsatellite stable (MSS) or MSI low (MSI-L) status while 6 (7.2%) patients had MSI high (MSI-H) status. Patients with BRAF mutation demonstrated a worse disease-free survival (DFS, HR 1.990, CI 1.080-3.660, P = 0.02) and overall survival (OS, HR 3.470, CI 1.900-6.330, P < 0.0001). Regarding KRAS status, no significant difference was noted in DFS (P = 0.0548) or OS (P = 0.107). Comparing the MSS/MSI-L and MSI-H groups there were no significant differences in either DFS (P = 0.294) or OS (P = 0.557).BRAF mutation, rather than KRAS, was a significant prognostic factor in Korean CRC patients at both early and advanced stages. The subgroup analysis for MSI did not show significant differences in clinical outcome. BRAF should be included in future larger prospective biomarker studies on CRC.
Project description:The prognostic value of BRAF and KRAS mutations within microsatellite-unstable (MSI) and microsatellite-stable (MSS) subgroups of resected colon carcinoma patients remains controversial. We examined this question in prospectively collected biospecimens from stage III colon cancer with separate analysis of MSI and MSS tumors from patients receiving adjuvant FOLFOX +/- cetuximab in two adjuvant therapy trials.Three groups were defined: BRAF Mutant, KRAS Mutant, and double wild-type. The analytic strategy involved estimation of study-specific effects, assessment of homogeneity of results, and then analysis of pooled data as no differences in patient outcome were found between treatment arms in both trials. Associations of mutations with patient outcome were analyzed, and multivariable models were adjusted for treatment and relevant factors.Four thousand four hundred eleven tumors were evaluable for BRAF and KRAS mutations and mismatch repair status; 3934 were MSS and 477 were MSI. In MSS patients, all BRAF V600E mutations (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23 to 1.92, P < .001), KRAS codon 12 alterations, and p.G13D mutations (HR?=?1.60, 95% CI?=?1.40 to 1.83, P < .001) were associated with shorter time to recurrence (TTR) and shorter survival after relapse (SAR; HR?=?3.02 , 95% CI?=?2.32 to 3.93, P < .001, and HR?=?1.20, 95% CI?=?1.01 to 1.44, P = .04, respectively). Overall survival (OS) in MSS patients was poorer for BRAF-mutant patients (HR?=?2.01, 95% CI?=?1.56 to 2.57, P < .001) and KRAS-mutant patients (HR?=?1.62, 95% CI?=?1.38 to 1.91, P < .001) vs wild-type. No prognostic role of KRAS or BRAF mutations was seen in MSI patients. Furthermore, no interaction was found between treatment arm (with or without cetuximab) and KRAS and BRAF mutations for TTR or OS in MSS patients.In a pooled analysis of resected stage III colon cancer patients receiving adjuvant FOLFOX, BRAF or KRAS mutations are independently associated with shorter TTR, SAR, and OS in patients with MSS, but not MSI, tumors. Future clinical trials in the adjuvant setting should consider these mutations as important stratification factors.
Project description:Non-ampullary duodenal adenocarcinoma (NADC) is extremely rare. Little is known about its clinicopathological and molecular features or its management. Herein we retrospectively analyzed the cases of 32 NADC patients, focusing on microsatellite instability (MSI), genetic mutations, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and immunostaining including mucin phenotype and PD-L1 expression. The incidence of MSI, KRAS/BRAF/GNAS mutations and CIMP was 51.6%, 34.4%/3.1%/6.5% and 28.1%, respectively. PD-L1 expression was seen in 34.4% of patients. No significant associations between clinicopathological features and KRAS/BRAF/GNAS genetic mutations or CIMP were found. Histologically non-well-differentiated-type NADCs and those in the 1st portion of the duodenum were significantly associated with later stages (stages III-IV) (P = 0.006 and P = 0.003, respectively). Gastric-phenotype NADCs were frequently observed in the 1st portion and in late-stage patients; their cancer cells more frequently expressed PD-L1. Histologically, the non-well-differentiated type was an independent predictor of PD-L1 expression in cancer cells (OR 25.05, P = 0.04) and immune cells (OR 44.14, P = 0.02). Only late-stage disease (HR 12.23, P = 0.01) was a prognostic factor for worse overall survival in a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Our observation of high proportions of MSI and PD-L1 expression may prompt the consideration of immune checkpoint inhibitors as a new treatment option for NADCs.
Project description:Little information is available on genetic and epigenetic changes in duodenal adenocarcinomas. The purpose was to identify possible subsets of duodenal adenocarcinomas based on microsatellite instability (MSI), DNA methylation, mutations in the KRAS and BRAF genes, clinicopathologic features, and prognosis.Demographics, tumor characteristics, and survival were available for 99 duodenal adenocarcinoma patients. Testing for KRAS and BRAF mutations, MSI, MLH1 methylation, and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status was conducted. A Cox proportional hazard model was built to predict survival.CIMP(+) was detected in 27 of 99 (27.3%) duodenal adenocarcinomas and was associated with MSI (P = 0.011) and MLH1 methylation (P < 0.001), but not with KRAS mutations (P = 0.114), as compared with CIMP(-) tumors. No BRAF V600E mutation was detected. Among the CIMP(+) tumors, 15 (55.6%) were CIMP(+)/MLH1-unmethylated (MLH1-U). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that tumors classified by CIMP, CIMP/MLH1 methylation status, or CIMP/MSI status could predict overall survival (OS; P = 0.047, 0.002, and 0.002, respectively), whereas CIMP/MLH1 methylation status could also predict time-to-recurrence (TTR; P = 0.016). In multivariate analysis, CIMP/MLH1 methylation status showed a significant prognostic value in both OS (P < 0.001) and TTR (P = 0.023). Patients with CIMP(+)/MLH1-U tumors had the worst OS and TTR.Our results showed existence of CIMP in duodenal adenocarcinomas. The combination of CIMP(+)/MLH1-U seems to be independently associated with poor prognosis in patients with duodenal adenocarcinomas. This study also suggests that BRAF mutations are not involved in duodenal tumorigenesis, MSI, or CIMP development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) still remains intractable disease with few therapeutic options. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), which is essential for immune evasion, is involved in the pathogenesis of ESCC and thus is a potential therapeutic target. PIK3CA, KRAS, and BRAF mutations, microsatellite instability (MSI) caused by deficient mismatch repair (dMMR), and human papillomavirus (HPV) can potentially upregulate PD-L1 expression, which might contribute to the clinical outcome of patients with ESCC. METHODS:We investigated the significance of the present druggable markers [PD-L1, PIK3CA, KRAS, and BRAF mutations, MSI caused by deficient dMMR, and HPV] in 64 curatively resected ESCCs, using immunohistochemistry (PD-L1 and MMR protein expression), direct sequencing (KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations), real-time PCR (HPV infection), and MSI using quasi-monomorphic markers. RESULTS:PD-L1 expression, PIK3CA mutation, and MSI/dMMR were detected in 35.9, 12.5, and 17.2% of ESCCs, respectively. HPV was rarely detected (1.6%) (high-risk HPV68), whereas KRAS and BRAF mutations were not detected in ESCCs. PD-L1-positive tumors were not correlated with PIK3CA mutation or MSI/dMMR (all P?>?0.05). PD-L1, PIK3CA mutation, and MSI/dMMR characterized the patients associated with light smoking, female and younger age, and younger age and well-differentiated tumors, respectively (all P?<?0.05). In multivariate analysis, only PD-L1-positivity was an independent favorable prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) (P?=?0.023, P?=?0.014). In the PD-L1-negative ESCCs, PIK3CA mutation had a poor prognostic impact on both OS and DFS (P?=?0.006, P?=?0.002). CONCLUSIONS:PIK3CA mutation may be an alternative prognostic biomarker in PD-L1-negative curatively resected ESCCs that can be optional to identify high-risk patients with worse clinical outcome who require more intensive therapy and follow-up.
Project description:Objective: In addition to the most common somatic lung cancer mutations (i. e., KRAS and EGFR mutations), other genes may harbor mutations that could be relevant for lung cancer. We defined BRAF, c-MET, DDR2, HER2, MAP2K1, NRAS, PIK3CA, and RET mutations as "niche" mutations and analyzed. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to assess the differences in the overall survival (OS) of patients with lung adenocarcinoma harboring niche somatic mutations. Results: Data were gathered for 252 patients. Mutations were observed in all genes studied, except c-MET, DDR2, MAP2K1, and RET. The multivariable analysis showed that 1) niche mutations had a higher mortality than EGFR mutations (HR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.2-4.4; p = 0.009); 2) KRAS mutations had a higher mortality than EGFR mutations (HR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.4-4.5; p = 0.003); 3) niche mutations presented a similar mortality to KRAS mutations (HR = 0.9; 95% CI = 0.6-1.5; p = 0.797). Methods: Three cohorts of mutations were selected from patients with lung adenocarcinoma and their OS was compared. Mutations that were searched for, were 1) BRAF, c-MET, DDR2, HER2, MAP2K1, NRAS, PIK3CA, and RET; 2) K-RAS; and 3) EGFR. Differences in OS between these three cohorts were assessed by means of a multivariable Cox model that adjusted for age, sex, smoking habits, clinical stages, and treatments. Conclusions: Niche mutations exhibited an increased risk of death when compared with EGFR mutations and a similar risk of death when compared with KRAS mutations.
Project description:In colorectal cancer (CRC) oncogenic mutations such as KRAS alterations, are considered standard molecular biomarkers that predict the clinical benefit for targeted intervention with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. In addition, these mutations are associated with specific anatomical area in colon tumor development, as BRAF mutations with the microsatellite instability (MSI). In this translational study, we aimed to assess the mutation frequencies of the EGFR (hotspot area and polyadenine deletions A13_del), KRAS, BRAF(V600E), and PIK3CA oncogenes in a series of 280 CRC patients. MSI phenotypes are also considered in this series. All patients' clinicopathological data were assessed for statistical analysis and its associations were validated. We verified multiple associations between oncogenic mutations and determined clinicopathological tumor features (1) EGFR A13_deletions are associated with right colon carcinoma (P<0.005), mucinous histotype (P=0.042), G3 grading (P=0.024), and MSI status (P<0.005); (2) PIK3CA mutations are related mucinous histotype (P=0.021); (3) KRAS(G12) and KRAS(G13) mutations are correlated, respectively, with the left and right colon cancer development (P<0.005), and finally (4) MSI is associated with right colon tumors (P<0.005). Mostly, we verified a higher frequency rate of the KRAS(G13) and EGFR A13_del oncogene mutations in right colon cancer; whereas KRAS(G12) codon mutation occurs more frequently in left colon cancers. In particular, we assessed that right vs left colon cancer are associated with specific molecular characteristics. These evidences, in association with clinicopathological data, can delineate novel approaches for the CRC classification and targeted intervention.
Project description:Mutations in multiple oncogenes including KRAS, CTNNB1, PIK3CA and FGFR2 have been identified in endometrial cancer. The aim of this study was to provide insight into the clinicopathological features associated with patterns of mutation in these genes, a necessary step in planning targeted therapies for endometrial cancer. 466 endometrioid endometrial tumors were tested for mutations in FGFR2, KRAS, CTNNB1, and PIK3CA. The relationships between mutation status, tumor microsatellite instability (MSI) and clinicopathological features including overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard models. Mutations were identified in FGFR2 (48/466); KRAS (87/464); CTNNB1 (88/454) and PIK3CA (104/464). KRAS and FGFR2 mutations were significantly more common, and CTNNB1 mutations less common, in MSI positive tumors. KRAS and FGFR2 occurred in a near mutually exclusive pattern (p = 0.05) and, surprisingly, mutations in KRAS and CTNNB1 also occurred in a near mutually exclusive pattern (p = 0.0002). Multivariate analysis revealed that mutation in KRAS and FGFR2 showed a trend (p = 0.06) towards longer and shorter DFS, respectively. In the 386 patients with early stage disease (stage I and II), FGFR2 mutation was significantly associated with shorter DFS (HR = 3.24; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.35-7.77; p = 0.008) and OS (HR = 2.00; 95% CI 1.09-3.65; p = 0.025) and KRAS was associated with longer DFS (HR = 0.23; 95% CI 0.05-0.97; p = 0.045). In conclusion, although KRAS and FGFR2 mutations share similar activation of the MAPK pathway, our data suggest very different roles in tumor biology. This has implications for the implementation of anti-FGFR or anti-MEK biologic therapies.
Project description:On the basis of our recent findings of oncogenic KRAS-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) overexpression in non-small cell lung cancer, we assessed the clinicopathological and prognostic significances of IL-8 expression and its relationship to KRAS mutations in lung adenocarcinomas.IL-8 expression was examined by quantitative RT-PCR using 136 of surgical specimens from lung adenocarcinoma patients. The association between IL-8 expression, clinicopathological features, KRAS or EGFR mutation status and survival was analysed.IL-8 was highly expressed in tumours from elderly patients or smokers and in tumours with pleural involvement or vascular invasion. In a non-smokers' subgroup, IL-8 level positively correlated with age. IL-8 was highly expressed in tumours with KRAS mutations compared with those with EGFR mutations or wild-type EGFR/KRAS. Lung adenocarcinoma patients with high IL-8 showed significantly shorter disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) than those with low IL8. DFS and OS were significantly shorter in the patients with mutant KRAS/high IL-8 than in those with wild-type KRAS/low IL-8. Cox regression analyses demonstrated that elevated IL-8 expression correlated with unfavourable prognosis.Our findings suggest that IL-8 expression is associated with certain clinicopathological features including age and is a potent prognostic marker in lung adenocarcinoma, especially in oncogenic KRAS-driven adenocarcinoma.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/RAS/RAF/MEK/MAPK pathway is an important pathway in the carcinogenesis, invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancers (CRCs). We conducted a retrospective study to determine the prognostic values of EGFR expression and KRAS mutation in patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) based on synchronous or metachronous status.<h4>Methods</h4>From October 2002 to March 2012, 205 patients with mCRC were retrospectively analyzed; 98 were found to have metachronous mCRC while 107 were found to have synchronous mCRC. The EGFR expressions were determinate by IHC (immunohistochemistry) analysis and categorized 1+ (weak intensity), 2+ (moderate intensity), and 3+ (strong intensity). Genomic DNA was isolated from frozen primary CRC tissues and direct sequencing of KRAS was performed. The clinicopathological features of these mCRC patients were retrospectively investigated according to EGFR expression and KRAS mutation status. Moreover, we analyzed the prognostic values of EGFR expression and KRAS mutation among these patients.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 205 patients with mCRC, EGFR expression was analyzed in 167 patients, and positive EGFR expression was noted in 140 of those patients (83.8%). KRAS mutation was investigated in 205 patients and mutations were noted in 88 of those patients (42.9%). In patients with metachronous mCRC, positive EGFR expression was significantly correlated with well-and moderately-differentiated tumors (P=0.028), poorer disease-free survival (DFS) (P<0.001), and overall survival (OS) (P<0.001). Furthermore, positive EGFR expression was a significant independent prognostic factor of DFS (P=0.006, HR: 4.012, 95% CI: 1.130-8.445) and OS (P=0.028, HR: 3.090, 95% CI: 1.477-10.900) in metachronous mCRC patients. KRAS mutation status was not significantly related to DFS and OS of patients with metachronous mCRC; likewise, KRAS mutation status was not significantly different in the progression-free survival (PFS) and OS of patients with synchronous mCRC (all P>0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The present study demonstrated that EGFR expression has prognostic value only for patients with metachronous mCRC. However, KRAS mutation did not have prognostic value in patients with metachronous or synchronous mCRC.