The transcriptional regulators Id2 and Id3 control the formation of distinct memory CD8+ T cell subsets.
ABSTRACT: During infection, naive CD8(+) T cells differentiate into effector cells, which are armed to eliminate pathogens, and memory cells, which are poised to protect against reinfection. The transcriptional program that regulates terminal differentiation into short-lived effector-memory versus long-lived memory cells is not clearly defined. Through the use of mice expressing reporters for the DNA-binding inhibitors Id2 and Id3, we identified Id3(hi) precursors of long-lived memory cells before the peak of T cell population expansion or upregulation of cell-surface receptors that indicate memory potential. Deficiency in Id2 or Id3 resulted in loss of distinct CD8(+) effector and memory populations, which demonstrated unique roles for these inhibitors of E-protein transcription factors. Furthermore, cytokines altered the expression of Id2 and Id3 differently, which provides insight into how external cues influence gene expression.
Project description:CD8(+) T cells play a crucial role in the clearance of intracellular pathogens through the generation of cytotoxic effector cells that eliminate infected cells and long-lived memory cells that provide enhanced protection against reinfection. We have previously shown that the inhibitor of E protein transcription factors, Id2, is necessary for accumulation of effector and memory CD8(+) T cells during infection. In this study, we show that CD8(+) T cells lacking Id2 did not generate a robust terminally differentiated killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1)(hi) effector population, but displayed a cell-surface phenotype and cytokine profile consistent with memory precursors, raising the question as to whether loss of Id2 impairs the differentiation and/or survival of effector memory cells. We found that deletion of Bim rescued Id2-deficient CD8(+) cell survival during infection. However, the dramatic reduction in KLRG1(hi) cells caused by loss of Id2 remained in the absence of Bim, such that Id2/Bim double-deficient cells form an exclusively KLRG1(lo)CD127(hi) memory precursor population. Thus, we describe a role for Id2 in both the survival and differentiation of normal CD8(+) effector and memory populations.
Project description:During an immune response, CD8 T cells fall along a gradient of memory potential, but the regulators of these fate decsisions are not well understood. We utlized Id3-GFP and Id2-YFP reporter mice to elucidate the role of Id3 and Id2 during early CD8 T cell differentiation by gene expression. Id3-GFP hi Id2-YFP int or Id3-GFP lo Id2-YFP hi OT-I cells were sorted into trizol at day 6 of VSV-OVA infection and analyzed by microarray
Project description:During an immune response, CD8 T cells fall along a gradient of memory potential, but the regulators of these fate decsisions are not well understood. We utlized Id3-GFP and Id2-YFP reporter mice to elucidate the role of Id3 and Id2 during early CD8 T cell differentiation by gene expression. Overall design: Id3-GFP hi Id2-YFP int or Id3-GFP lo Id2-YFP hi OT-I cells were sorted into trizol at day 6 of VSV-OVA infection and analyzed by microarray
Project description:CD8+ T cells play a crucial role in the clearance of intracellular pathogens through the generation of cytotoxic effector cells that eliminate infected cells and long-lived memory cells that provide enhanced protection against reinfection. We have previously shown that the inhibitor of E protein transcription factors, Id2, is necessary for accumulation of effector and memory CD8+ T cells during infection. Here we show that CD8+ T cells lacking Id2 did not generate a robust terminally-differentiated KLRG1hi effector population, but displayed a cell-surface phenotype and cytokine profile consistent with memory precursors, raising the question as to whether loss of Id2 impairs the differentiation and/or survival of effector-memory cells. We found that deletion of Bim rescued Id2-deficient CD8+ cell survival during infection. However, the dramatic reduction in KLRG1hi cells caused by loss of Id2 remained in the absence of Bim, such that Id2/Bim double-deficient cells form an exclusively KLRG1loCD127hi memory precursor population. Thus we describe a role for Id2 in both the survival and differentation of normal CD8+ effector and memory populations. Gene-expression analysis of Wild-type, Id2KO, Id2KOBimKO and BimKO effector CD8+ cells on day 6 of Listeria infection. 2 or more replicates per sample were analyzed.
Project description:The transcription factor inhibitor of DNA binding (Id)2 modulates T cell fate decisions, but the molecular mechanism underpinning this regulation is unclear. In this study we show that loss of Id2 cripples effector differentiation and instead programs CD8(+) T cells to adopt a memory fate with increased Eomesodermin and Tcf7 expression. We demonstrate that Id2 restrains CD8(+) T cell memory differentiation by inhibiting E2A-mediated direct activation of Tcf7 and that Id2 expression level mirrors T cell memory recall capacity. As a result of the defective effector differentiation, Id2-deficient CD8(+) T cells fail to induce sufficient Tbx21 expression to generate short-lived effector CD8(+) T cells. Our findings reveal that the Id2/E2A axis orchestrates T cell differentiation through the induction or repression of downstream transcription factors essential for effector and memory T cell differentiation.
Project description:All innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) require the small helix-loop-helix transcription factor ID2, but the functions of ID2 are not well understood in these cells. We show that mature natural killer (NK) cells, the prototypic ILCs, developed in mice lacking ID2 but remained as precursor CD27+CD11b- cells that failed to differentiate into CD27-CD11b+ cytotoxic effectors. We show that ID2 limited chromatin accessibility at E protein binding sites near naïve T lymphocyte-associated genes including multiple chemokine receptors, cytokine receptors, and signaling molecules and altered the NK cell response to inflammatory cytokines. In the absence of ID2, CD27+CD11b- NK cells expressed ID3, a helix-loop-helix protein associated with naïve T cells, and they transitioned from a CD8 memory precursor-like to a naïve-like chromatin accessibility state. We demonstrate that ID3 was required for the development of ID2-deficient NK cells, indicating that completely unfettered E protein function is incompatible with NK cell development. These data solidify the roles of ID2 and ID3 as mediators of effector and naïve gene programs, respectively, and revealed a critical role for ID2 in promoting a chromatin state and transcriptional program in CD27+CD11b- NK cells that supports cytotoxic effector differentiation and cytokine responses.
Project description:Regulatory T (Treg) cells suppress the development of inflammatory disease, but our knowledge of transcriptional regulators that control this function remains incomplete. Here we show that expression of Id2 and Id3 in Treg cells was required to suppress development of fatal inflammatory disease. We found that T cell antigen receptor (TCR)-driven signaling initially decreased the abundance of Id3, which led to the activation of a follicular regulatory T (TFR) cell-specific transcription signature. However, sustained lower abundance of Id2 and Id3 interfered with proper development of TFR cells. Depletion of Id2 and Id3 expression in Treg cells resulted in compromised maintenance and localization of the Treg cell population. Thus, Id2 and Id3 enforce TFR cell checkpoints and control the maintenance and homing of Treg cells.
Project description:The transcriptional repressor Blimp-1 promotes the differentiation of CD8(+) T cells into short-lived effector cells (SLECs) that express the lectin-like receptor KLRG-1, but how it operates remains poorly defined. Here we show that Blimp-1 bound to and repressed the promoter of the gene encoding the DNA-binding inhibitor Id3 in SLECs. Repression of Id3 by Blimp-1 was dispensable for SLEC development but limited the ability of SLECs to persist as memory cells. Enforced expression of Id3 was sufficient to restore SLEC survival and enhanced recall responses. Id3 function was mediated in part through inhibition of the transcriptional activity of E2A and induction of genes regulating genome stability. Our findings identify the Blimp-1-Id3-E2A axis as a key molecular switch that determines whether effector CD8(+) T cells are programmed to die or enter the memory pool.
Project description:The invariant NKT (iNKT) cells represent a unique group of ?? T cells that have been classified based on their exclusive usage of the invariant V?14J?18 TCR?-chain and their innate-like effector function. Thus far, the transcriptional programs that control V?14J?18 TCR? rearrangements and the population size of iNKT cells are still incompletely defined. E protein transcription factors have been shown to play necessary roles in the development of multiple T cell lineages, including iNKT cells. In this study, we examined E protein functions in T cell development through combined deletion of genes encoding E protein inhibitors Id2 and Id3. Deletion of Id2 and Id3 in T cell progenitors resulted in a partial block at the pre-TCR selection checkpoint and a dramatic increase in numbers of iNKT cells. The increase in iNKT cells is accompanied with a biased rearrangement involving V?14 to J?18 recombination at the double-positive stage and enhanced proliferation of iNKT cells. We further demonstrate that a 50% reduction of E proteins can cause a dramatic switch from iNKT to innate-like ?? T cell fate in Id2- and Id3-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that Id2- and Id3-mediated inhibition of E proteins controls iNKT development by restricting lineage choice and population expansion.
Project description:Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id) proteins, including Id1-4, are transcriptional regulators involved in promoting cell proliferation and survival in various cell types. Although upregulation of Id proteins is associated with a broad spectrum of tumors, recent studies have identified that Id3 plays a tumor-suppressor role in the development of Burkitt's lymphoma in humans and hepatosplenic T cell lymphomas in mice. In this article, we report rapid lymphoma development in Id2/Id3 double-knockout mice that is caused by unchecked expansion of invariant NKT (iNKT) cells or a unique subset of innate-like CD1d-independent T cells. These populations began to expand in neonatal mice and, upon malignant transformation, resulted in mortality between 3 and 11 mo of age. The malignant cells also gave rise to lymphomas upon transfer to Rag-deficient and wild-type hosts, reaffirming their inherent tumorigenic potential. Microarray analysis revealed a significantly modified program in these neonatal iNKT cells that ultimately led to their malignant transformation. The lymphoma cells demonstrated chromosome instability along with upregulation of several signaling pathways, including the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway, which can promote their expansion and migration. Dysregulation of genes with reported driver mutations and the NF-?B pathway were found to be shared between Id2/Id3 double-knockout lymphomas and human NKT tumors. Our work identifies a distinct premalignant state and multiple tumorigenic pathways caused by loss of function of Id2 and Id3. Thus, conditional deletion of Id2 and Id3 in developing T cells establishes a unique animal model for iNKT and relevant innate-like lymphomas.