Orally active epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog attenuates kidney injury in hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rat.
ABSTRACT: Salt-sensitive hypertension leads to kidney injury. The Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rat (Dahl SS) is a model of salt-sensitive hypertension and progressive kidney injury. The current set of experimental studies evaluated the kidney protective potential of a novel epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog (EET-B) in Dahl SS hypertension. Dahl SS rats receiving high-salt diet were treated with EET-B (10 mg/kg per day) or vehicle in drinking water for 14 days. Urine, plasma, and tissue samples were collected at the end of the treatment protocol to assess kidney injury, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. EET-B treatment in Dahl SS rats markedly reduced urinary albumin and nephrin excretion by 60% to 75% along with 30% to 60% reductions in glomerular injury, intratubular cast formation, and kidney fibrosis without affecting blood pressure. In Dahl SS rats, EET-B treatment further caused marked reduction in oxidative stress with 25% to 30% decrease in kidney malondialdehyde content along with 42% increase of nitrate/nitrite and a 40% reduction of 8-isoprostane. EET-B treatment reduced urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 by 50% along with a 40% reduction in macrophage infiltration in the kidney. Treatment with EET-B markedly reduced renal endoplasmic reticulum stress in Dahl SS rats with reduction in the kidney mRNA expressions and immunoreactivity of glucose regulatory protein 78 and C/EBP homologous protein. In summary, these experimental findings reveal that EET-B provides kidney protection in Dahl SS rats by reducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and this protection was independent of reducing blood pressure.
Project description:Recent studies have revealed the biological effects of H2 in suppressing organ injuries due to acute inflammation and oxidative stress. Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats naturally develop elevated blood pressure (BP) and kidney injury with aging. The present study examined the effect of long-term supplementation of H2 in drinking water on age-related changes.Four-week-old male Dahl SS rats were fed 3 types of water (n?=?30 each) for up to 48 weeks: filtered water (FW), water with a high H2 content (492.5 ppb) obtained with water electrolysis (EW), or dehydrogenated EW (DW). Animals were subjected to histological analysis at 16, 24, and 48 weeks.The FW group showed progressive BP elevation and increases in albuminuria and cardiac remodeling during the course of treatment. Histologically, there were significant changes as a function of aging, i.e., glomerular sclerosis with tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the kidney, and increased cardiomyocyte diameter with interstitial fibrosis in the heart at 48 weeks. These changes were related to the enhanced inflammation and oxidative stress in the respective organs. However, there were no striking differences in BP among the groups, despite histological alterations in the EW group being significantly decreased when compared to FW and DW in both organs, with concurrently lower oxidative stress and inflammatory markers at 48 weeks.Long-term ad libitum consumption of H2-enriched electrolyzed water can ameliorate the processes of kidney injury and cardiac remodeling with aging in Dahl SS rats by suppressing, at least partly, elevated inflammation and oxidative stress.
Project description:Studies using Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats identified specific quantitative trait loci that predispose animals to hypertension-associated albuminuria and kidney injury. We explored the hypothesis that kidney-specific expression of the transcription factor Ets-1, located within one of these loci on chromosome 8, mediates glomerular injury in SS hypertension. During the first week on a high-salt diet, SS rats and SS rats with only one functioning Ets-1 gene (ES rats) demonstrated similar increases in BP. However, serum creatinine concentration, albuminuria, and glomerular expression of ETS-1 and two ETS-1 targets, MCP-1 and MMP2, did not increase as substantially in ES rats as in SS rats. Mean BP subsequently increased further in SS rats and remained higher than that of ES rats for the rest of the study. After 4 weeks of high-salt intake, ES rats still showed a lower mean serum creatinine concentration and less albuminuria, as well as less histologic evidence of glomerular injury and kidney fibrosis, than SS rats did. To investigate the specific contribution of renal Ets-1, we transplanted kidneys from ES or SS rats into salt-resistant SS-Chr 13BN/McwiCrl (SS-13BN) rats. Within 10 days on a high-salt diet, BP increased similarly in ES and SS allograft recipients, becoming significantly higher than the BP of control isograft recipients. However, mean serum creatinine concentration and albuminuria remained lower in ES allograft recipients than in SS allograft recipients at 2 weeks, and ES allografts showed less glomerular injury and interstitial fibrosis. In conclusion, reduced renal expression of ETS-1 prevented hypertension-associated kidney injury in SS rats.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) is a major proinflammatory cytokine and its level is elevated in hypertensive states. Inflammation occurs in the kidneys during the development of hypertension. We hypothesized that TNFα specifically in the kidney contributes to the development of hypertension and renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats, a widely used model of human salt-sensitive hypertension and renal injury. SS rats were chronically instrumented for renal interstitial infusion and blood pressure measurement in conscious, freely moving state. Gene expression was measured using real-time PCR and renal injury assessed with histological analysis. The abundance of TNFα in the renal medulla of SS rats, but not the salt-insensitive congenic SS.13(BN26) rats, was significantly increased when rats had been fed a high-salt diet for 7 days (n = 6 or 9, p < 0.01). The abundance of TNFα receptors in the renal medulla was significantly higher in SS rats than SS.13(BN26) rats. Renal interstitial administration of Etanercept, an inhibitor of TNFα, significantly attenuated the development of hypertension in SS rats on a high-salt diet (n = 7-8, p < 0.05). Glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis were also significantly ameliorated. These findings indicate intrarenal TNFα contributes to the development of hypertension and renal injury in SS rats.
Project description:This study reports the consequences of knocking out NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 4 (Nox4) on the development of hypertension and kidney injury in the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat. Zinc finger nuclease injection of single-cell SS embryos was used to create an 8 base-pair frame-shift deletion of Nox4, resulting in a loss of the ?68 kDa band in Western blot analysis of renal cortical tissue of the knock out of Nox4 in the SS rat (SS(Nox4-/-)) rats. SS(Nox4-/-) rats exhibited a significant reduction of salt-induced hypertension compared with SS rats after 21 days of 4.0% NaCl diet (134±5 versus 151±3 mm Hg in SS) and a significant reduction of albuminuria, tubular casts, and glomerular injury. Optical fluorescence 3-dimensional cryoimaging revealed significantly higher redox ratios (NADH/FAD [reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/flavin adenine dinucleotide]) in the kidneys of SS(Nox4-/-) rats even when fed the 0.4% NaCl diet, indicating greater levels of mitochondrial electron transport chain metabolic activity and reduced oxidative stress compared with SS rats. Before the development of hypertension, RNA expression levels of Nox subunits Nox2, p67(phox), and p22(phox) were found to be significantly lower (P<0.05) in SS(Nox4-/-) compared with SS rats in the renal cortex. Thus, the mutation of Nox4 seems to modify transcription of several genes in ways that contribute to the protective effects observed in the SS(Nox4-/-) rats. We conclude that the reduced renal injury and attenuated blood pressure response to high salt in the SS(Nox4-/-) rat could be the result of multiple pathways, including gene transcription, mitochondrial energetics, oxidative stress, and protein matrix production impacted by the knock out of Nox4.
Project description:Hypertensive cerebropathy is a pathological condition associated with cerebral edema and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. However, the molecular pathways leading to this condition remains obscure. We hypothesize that MMP-9 inhibition can help reducing blood pressure and endothelial disruption associated with hypertensive cerebropathy. Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl/SS) and Lewis rats were fed with high-salt diet for 6 weeks and then treated without and with GM6001 (MMP inhibitor). Treatment of GM6001 (1.2 mg/kg body weight) was administered through intraperitoneal injections on alternate days for 4 weeks. GM6001 non-administered groups were given vehicle (0.9% NaCl in water) treatment as control. Blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff method. The brain tissues were analyzed for oxidative/nitrosative stress, vascular MMP-9 expression, and tight junction proteins (TJPs). GM6001 treatment significantly reduced mean blood pressure in Dahl/SS rats which was significantly higher in vehicle-treated Dahl/SS rats. MMP-9 expression and activity was also considerably reduced in GM6001-treated Dahl/SS rats, which was otherwise notably increased in vehicle-treated Dahl/SS rats. Similarly MMP-9 expression in cerebral vessels of GM6001-treated Dahl/SS rats was also alleviated, as devised by immunohistochemistry analysis. Oxidative/nitrosative stress was significantly higher in vehicle-treated Dahl/SS rats as determined by biochemical estimations of malondialdehyde, nitrite, reactive oxygen species, and glutathione levels. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis further confirmed considerable alterations of TJPs in hypertensive rats. Interestingly, GM6001 treatment significantly ameliorated oxidative/nitrosative stress and TJPs, which suggest restoration of vascular integrity in Dahl/SS rats. These findings determined that pharmacological inhibition of MMP-9 in hypertensive Dahl-SS rats attenuate high blood pressure and hypertension-associated cerebrovascular pathology.
Project description:The goal of the present study was to explore the protective effects of mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) inhibition by rapamycin on salt-induced hypertension and kidney injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. We have previously demonstrated that H2O2 is elevated in the kidneys of SS rats. The present study showed a significant upregulation of renal mTORC1 activity in the SS rats fed a 4.0% NaCl for 3 days. In addition, renal interstitial infusion of H2O2 into salt-resistant Sprague Dawley rats for 3 days was also found to stimulate mTORC1 activity independent of a rise of arterial blood pressure. Together, these data indicate that the salt-induced increases of renal H2O2 in SS rats activated the mTORC1 pathway. Daily administration of rapamycin (IP, 1.5 mg/kg per day) for 21 days reduced salt-induced hypertension from 176.0±9.0 to 153.0±12.0 mm Hg in SS rats but had no effect on blood pressure salt sensitivity in Sprague Dawley treated rats. Compared with vehicle, rapamycin reduced albumin excretion rate in SS rats from 190.0±35.0 to 37.0±5.0 mg/d and reduced the renal infiltration of T lymphocytes (CD3+) and macrophages (ED1+) in the cortex and medulla. Renal hypertrophy and cell proliferation were also reduced in rapamycin-treated SS rats. We conclude that enhancement of intrarenal H2O2 with a 4.0% NaCl diet stimulates the mTORC1 pathway that is necessary for the full development of the salt-induced hypertension and kidney injury in the SS rat.
Project description:The Dahl salt-sensitive rat is a widely used model of human salt-sensitive forms of hypertension. The kidney plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain a subject of intensive investigation. Gene expression profiling studies suggested that 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 might be dysregulated in the renal medulla of Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Additional analysis confirmed that renal medullary expression of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 was downregulated by a high-salt diet in SS-13BN rats, a consomic rat strain with reduced blood pressure salt sensitivity, but not in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. 11 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 is known to convert inactive 11-dehydrocorticosterone to active corticosterone. The urinary corticosterone/11-dehydrocorticosterone ratio as well as urinary excretion of corticosterone was higher in Dahl salt-sensitive rats than in SS-13BN rats. Knockdown of renal medullary 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 with small-interfering RNA attenuated the early phase of salt-induced hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive rats and reduced urinary excretion of corticosterone. Knockdown of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 did not affect blood pressure in SS-13BN rats. Long-term attenuation of salt-induced hypertension was achieved with small hairpin RNA targeting renal medullary 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1. In summary, we have demonstrated that suppression of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression in the renal medulla attenuates salt-induced hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.
Project description:Hypertension and renal damage in Dahl SS rats are associated with increased infiltrating immune cells in the kidney. To examine the role of infiltrating immune cells in this disease process, a zinc finger nuclease targeting bases 672-706 of recombination-activating gene 1 (Rag1) was injected into the pronucleus of Dahl SS (SS/JrHsdMcwi) strain embryos and implanted in pseudopregnant females. This strategy yielded a rat strain with a 13-base frame-shift mutation in the target region of Rag1 and a deletion of immunoreactive Rag1 protein in the thymus. Flow cytometry demonstrated that the Rag1-null mutant rats have a significant reduction in T and B lymphocytes in the circulation and spleen. Studies were performed on SS and Rag1-null rats fed a 4.0% NaCl diet for 3 wk. The infiltration of T cells into the kidney following high-salt intake was significantly blunted in the Rag1-null rats (1.7 ± 0.6 × 10(5) cells/kidney) compared with the Dahl SS (5.6 ± 0.9 × 10(5) cells/kidney). Accompanying the reduction in infiltration of immune cells in the kidney, mean arterial blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion rate were significantly lower in Rag1-null mutants (158 ± 3 mmHg and 60 ± 16 mg/day, respectively) than in SS rats (180 ± 11 mmHg and 251 ± 37 mg/day). Finally, a histological analysis revealed that the glomerular and tubular damage in the kidneys of the SS rats fed a high-salt diet was also attenuated in the Rag1 mutants. These studies demonstrate the importance of renal infiltration of immune cells in the pathogenesis of hypertension and renal damage in Dahl SS rats.
Project description:MicroRNAs are endogenous repressors of gene expression. We examined microRNAs in the renal medulla of Dahl salt-sensitive rats and consomic SS-13(BN) rats. Salt-induced hypertension and renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive rats, particularly medullary interstitial fibrosis, have been shown previously to be substantially attenuated in SS-13(BN) rats. Of 377 microRNAs examined, 5 were found to be differentially expressed between Dahl salt-sensitive rats and consomic SS-13(BN) rats receiving a high-salt diet. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that high-salt diets induced substantial upregulation of miR-29b in the renal medulla of SS-13(BN) rats but not in SS rats. miR-29b was predicted to regulate 20 collagen genes, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2), integrin beta1 (Itgb1), and other genes related to the extracellular matrix. Expression of 9 collagen genes and Mmp2 was upregulated by a high-salt diet in the renal medulla of SS rats, but not in SS-13(BN) rats, an expression pattern opposite to miR-29b. Knockdown of miR-29b in the kidneys of SS-13(BN) rats resulted in upregulation of several collagen genes. miR-29b reduced expression levels of several collagen genes and Itgb1 in cultured rat renal medullary epithelial cells. Moreover, miR-29b suppressed the activity of luciferase when the reporter gene was linked to a 3'-untranslated segment of collagen genes Col1a1, Col3a1, Col4a1, Col5a1, Col5a2, Col5a3, Col7a1, Col8a1, Mmp2, or Itgb1 but not Col12a1. The result demonstrated broad effects of miR-29b on a large number of collagens and genes related to the extracellular matrix and suggested involvement of miR-29b in the protection from renal medullary injury in SS-13(BN) rats.
Project description:To evaluate changes during the development of proteinuria, podocyte morphology and protein expression were evaluated in spontaneously proteinuric, Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl SS) rats. Dahl SS rats on a low-salt diet were compared with spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at age 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks. Blood pressure, urinary protein excretion, urinary albumin excretion, and podocyte morphology were evaluated. In addition, the expression of 11 podocyte-related proteins was determined by analyzing protein and mRNA levels. In Dahl SS rats, proteinuria became evident around week 5, increasing thereafter. SHR rats remained non-proteinuric. Dahl SS rats showed widespread foot process effacement at 10 weeks. At < or =8 weeks, expression and distribution of the podocyte proteins was similar between the two strains, except for the protein podoplanin. At 4 weeks, podoplanin began decreasing in the glomeruli of Dahl SS rats in a focal and segmental fashion. Podoplanin loss increased progressively and correlated with albuminuria (r = 0.8, P < 0.001). Double labeling experiments revealed increased expression of the podocyte stress marker desmin in glomerular areas where podoplanin was lost. Dahl SS rats did not show podoplanin gene mutations or decreased mRNA expression. Thus, podocyte morphology and the expression and distribution of most podocyte-specific proteins were normal in young Dahl SS rats, despite marked proteinuria. Our study suggests that decreased expression of podoplanin plays a role in the decrease of glomerular permselectivity.