KSHV microRNAs mediate cellular transformation and tumorigenesis by redundantly targeting cell growth and survival pathways.
ABSTRACT: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is causally linked to several human cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease, malignancies commonly found in HIV-infected patients. While KSHV encodes diverse functional products, its mechanism of oncogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we determined the roles KSHV microRNAs (miRs) in cellular transformation and tumorigenesis using a recently developed KSHV-induced cellular transformation system of primary rat mesenchymal precursor cells. A mutant with a cluster of 10 precursor miRs (pre-miRs) deleted failed to transform primary cells, and instead, caused cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Remarkably, the oncogenicity of the mutant virus was fully restored by genetic complementation with the miR cluster or several individual pre-miRs, which rescued cell cycle progression and inhibited apoptosis in part by redundantly targeting I?B? and the NF-?B pathway. Genomic analysis identified common targets of KSHV miRs in diverse pathways with several cancer-related pathways preferentially targeted. These works define for the first time an essential viral determinant for KSHV-induced oncogenesis and identify NF-?B as a critical pathway targeted by the viral miRs. Our results illustrate a common theme of shared functions with hierarchical order among the KSHV miRs.
Project description:Discovered in 1994, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has been associated with four human malignancies including Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, a subset of multicentric Castleman's disease, and KSHV inflammatory cytokine syndrome. These malignancies mostly occur in immunocompromised patients including patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and often cause significant mortality because of the lack of effective therapies. Significant progresses have been made to understand the molecular basis of KSHV infection and KSHV-induced oncogenesis in the last two decades. This chapter provides an update on the recent advancements focusing on the molecular events of KSHV primary infection, the mechanisms regulating KSHV life cycle, innate and adaptive immunity, mechanism of KSHV-induced tumorigenesis and inflammation, and metabolic reprogramming in KSHV infection and KSHV-transformed cells.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is causally linked to several acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related malignancies, including Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and a subset of multicentric Castleman's disease. Control of viral lytic replication is essential for KSHV latency, evasion of the host immune system and induction of tumours. Here, we show that deletion of a 14 microRNA (miRNA) cluster from the KSHV genome significantly enhances viral lytic replication as a result of reduced NF-kappaB activity. The miRNA cluster regulates the NF-kappaB pathway by reducing expression of IkappaBalpha protein, an inhibitor of NF-kappaB complexes. Computational and miRNA seed mutagenesis analyses were used to identify KSHV miR-K1, which directly regulates the IkappaBalpha protein level by targeting the 3'UTR of its transcript. Expression of miR-K1 is sufficient to rescue NF-kappaB activity and inhibit viral lytic replication, whereas inhibition of miR-K1 in KSHV-infected PEL cells has the opposite effect. Thus, KSHV encodes an miRNA to control viral replication by activating the NF-kappaB pathway. These results demonstrate an important role for KSHV miRNAs in regulating viral latency and lytic replication by manipulating the host survival pathway.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of three human malignancies, the endothelial cell cancer Kaposi's sarcoma, and two B cell cancers, Primary Effusion Lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. KSHV has latent and lytic phases of the viral life cycle, and while both contribute to viral pathogenesis, lytic proteins contribute to KSHV-mediated oncogenesis. Reactivation from latency is driven by the KSHV lytic gene transactivator RTA, and RTA transcription is controlled by epigenetic modifications. To identify host chromatin-modifying proteins that are involved in the latent to lytic transition, we screened a panel of inhibitors that target epigenetic regulatory proteins for their ability to stimulate KSHV reactivation. We found several novel regulators of viral reactivation: an inhibitor of Bmi1, PTC-209, two additional histone deacetylase inhibitors, Romidepsin and Panobinostat, and the bromodomain inhibitor (+)-JQ1. All of these compounds stimulate lytic gene expression, viral genome replication, and release of infectious virions. Treatment with Romidepsin, Panobinostat, and PTC-209 induces histone modifications at the RTA promoter, and results in nucleosome depletion at this locus. Finally, silencing Bmi1 induces KSHV reactivation, indicating that Bmi1, a member of the Polycomb repressive complex 1, is critical for maintaining KSHV latency.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) can efficiently infect and transform primary rat mesenchymal precursor (MM) cells. Regulation of cell cycle progression and apoptosis by KSHV-encoded microRNAs is required for KSHV-induced cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. To determine the roles of KSHV miRs in growth deregulation, we infected MM cells with the KSHV miR cluster deletion mutant and monitored infection by examining green fluorescence protein expression from a cassette inserted in the KSHV genome.
Project description:Approximately 12% of all human cancers worldwide are caused by infections with oncogenic viruses. Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 (KSHV/HHV8) is one of the oncogenic viruses responsible for human cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL), and the lymphoproliferative disorder multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). Chronic inflammation mediated by KSHV infection plays a decisive role in the development and survival of these cancers. NF-?B, a family of transcription factors regulating inflammation, cell survival, and proliferation, is persistently activated in KSHV-infected cells. The KSHV latent and lytic expressing oncogenes involved in NF-?B activation are vFLIP/K13 and vGPCR, respectively. However, the mechanisms by which NF-?B is activated by vFLIP and vGPCR are poorly understood. In this study, we have found that a host molecule, Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (CADM1), is robustly upregulated in KSHV-infected PBMCs and KSHV-associated PEL cells. Further investigation determined that both vFLIP and vGPCR interacted with CADM1. The PDZ binding motif localized at the carboxyl terminus of CADM1 is essential for both vGPCR and vFLIP to maintain chronic NF-?B activation. Membrane lipid raft associated CADM1 interaction with vFLIP is critical for the initiation of IKK kinase complex and NF-?B activation in the PEL cells. In addition, CADM1 played essential roles in the survival of KSHV-associated PEL cells. These data indicate that CADM1 plays key roles in the activation of NF-?B pathways during latent and lytic phases of the KSHV life cycle and the survival of KSHV-infected cells.
Project description:Infections by viruses are associated with approximately 12% of human cancer. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is causally linked to several malignancies commonly found in AIDS patients. The mechanism of KSHV-induced oncogenesis remains elusive, due in part to the lack of an adequate experimental system for cellular transformation of primary cells. Here, we report efficient infection and cellular transformation of primary rat embryonic metanephric mesenchymal precursor cells (MM cells) by KSHV. Cellular transformation occurred at as early as day 4 after infection and in nearly all infected cells. Transformed cells expressed hallmark vascular endothelial, lymphatic endothelial, and mesenchymal markers and efficiently induced tumors in nude mice. KSHV established latent infection in MM cells, and lytic induction resulted in low levels of detectable infectious virions despite robust expression of lytic genes. Most KSHV-induced tumor cells were in a latent state, although a few showed heterogeneous expression of lytic genes. This efficient system for KSHV cellular transformation of primary cells might facilitate the study of growth deregulation mechanisms resulting from KSHV infections.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is a gamma-2 herpesvirus present in all cases of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and some cases of multicentric Castleman's disease. Viral FLICE inhibitory protein (vFLIP) is a latently expressed gene that has been shown to be essential for survival of latently infected PEL cells by activating the NF?B pathway. Inhibitors of either vFLIP expression or the NF?B pathway result in enhanced lytic reactivation and apoptosis. We have observed a decrease in vFLIP protein levels and of NF?B activation in the presence of the KSHV lytic switch protein RTA. Whereas vFLIP alone induced expression of the NF?B responsive genes ICAM1 and TNF?, inclusion of RTA decreased vFLIP induced ICAM1 and TNF? expression in both co-transfected 293T cells and in doxycycline induced TREx BCBL1 cells. RTA expression resulted in proteasome dependent destabilization of vFLIP. Neither RTA ubiquitin E3 ligase domain mutants nor a dominant-negative RAUL mutant abrogated this effect, while RTA truncation mutants did, suggesting that RTA recruits a novel cellular ubiquitin E3 ligase to target vFLIP for proteasomal degradation, allowing for inhibition of NF?B responsive gene expression early during lytic reactivation.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of human Kaposi's sarcoma, a tumor that arises from endothelial cells, as well as two B cell lymphoproliferative diseases, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. KSHV utilizes a variety of mechanisms to evade host immune responses and promote cellular transformation and growth in order to persist for the life of the host. A viral homolog of human interleukin-6 (hIL-6) named viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6) is encoded by KSHV and expressed in KSHV-associated cancers. Similar to hIL-6, vIL-6 is secreted, but the majority of vIL-6 is retained within the endoplasmic reticulum, where it can initiate functional signaling through part of the interleukin-6 receptor complex. We sought to determine how intracellular vIL-6 modulates the host endothelial cell environment by analyzing vIL-6's impact on the endothelial cell transcriptome. vIL-6 significantly altered the expression of many cellular genes associated with cell migration. In particular, vIL-6 upregulated the host factor carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) at the protein and message levels. CEACAM1 has been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis and promotes migration and vascular remodeling in endothelial cells. We report that vIL-6 upregulates CEACAM1 by a STAT3-dependent mechanism and that CEACAM1 promotes vIL-6-mediated migration. Furthermore, latent and de novo KSHV infections of endothelial cells also induce CEACAM1 expression. Collectively, our data suggest that vIL-6 modulates endothelial cell migration by upregulating the expression of cellular factors, including CEACAM1. IMPORTANCE:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is linked with the development of three human malignancies, Kaposi's sarcoma, multicentric Castleman's disease, and primary effusion lymphoma. KSHV expresses many factors that enable the virus to manipulate the host environment in order to persist and induce disease. The viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6) produced by KSHV is structurally and functionally homologous to the human cytokine interleukin-6, except that vIL-6 is secreted slowly and functions primarily from inside the host cell. To investigate the unique intracellular role of vIL-6, we analyzed the impact of vIL-6 on endothelial cell gene expression. We report that vIL-6 significantly alters the expression of genes associated with cell movement, including that for CEACAM1. The gene for CEACAM1 was upregulated by vIL-6 and by latent and primary KSHV infection and promotes vIL-6-mediated endothelial cell migration. This work advances the field's understanding of vIL-6 function and its contribution to KSHV pathogenesis.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). KSHV's lytic replication cycle is critical for the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated diseases. Despite recent progress in the development of treatments for KSHV associated malignancies, these therapies are not completely efficacious and cause side effects. Therefore, more effective therapies with antiviral agents against KSHV are urgently needed. In this study, we identified celecoxib as an antiviral agent against KSHV. Our data suggest that celecoxib inhibits the lytic activation of KSHV through the down-regulation of the expression of the lytic switch protein, replication and transcription activator (RTA), by inhibiting the activation of p38 MAPK. Therefore, celecoxib may provide a candidate inhibitor for the therapeutic research of KSHV-related malignancies.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease. Most KS tumor cells are latently infected with KSHV and are of endothelial origin. While PEL-derived cell lines maintain KSHV indefinitely, all KS tumor-derived cells to date have lost viral genomes upon ex vivo cultivation. To study KSHV latency and tumorigenesis in endothelial cells, we generated telomerase-immortalized human umbilical vein endothelial (TIVE) cells. TIVE cells express all KSHV latent genes 48 h postinfection, and productive lytic replication could be induced by RTA/Orf50. Similar to prior models, infected cultures gradually lost viral episomes. However, we also obtained, for the first time, two endothelial cell lines in which KSHV episomes were maintained indefinitely in the absence of selection. Long-term KSHV maintenance correlated with loss of reactivation in response to RTA/Orf50 and complete oncogenic transformation. Long-term-infected TIVE cells (LTC) grew in soft agar and proliferated under reduced-serum conditions. LTC, but not parental TIVE cells, formed tumors in nude mice. These tumors expressed high levels of the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) and expressed lymphatic endothelial specific antigens as found in KS (LYVE-1). Furthermore, host genes, like those encoding interleukin 6, vascular endothelial growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor, known to be highly expressed in KS lesions were also induced in LTC-derived tumors. KSHV-infected LTCs represent the first xenograft model for KS and should be of use to study KS pathogenesis and for the validation of anti-KS drug candidates.