MicroRNA-494 within an oncogenic microRNA megacluster regulates G1/S transition in liver tumorigenesis through suppression of mutated in colorectal cancer.
ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with poor survival for patients and few effective treatment options, raising the need for novel therapeutic strategies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in tumor development and show deregulated patterns of expression in HCC. Because of the liver's unique affinity for small nucleic acids, miRNA-based therapy has been proposed in the treatment of liver disease. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify and characterize aberrantly expressed miRNAs in HCC. In our study, we profiled miRNA expression changes in de novo liver tumors driven by MYC and/or RAS, two canonical oncogenes activated in a majority of human HCCs. We identified an up-regulated miRNA megacluster comprised of 53 miRNAs on mouse chromosome 12qF1 (human homolog 14q32). This miRNA megacluster is up-regulated in all three transgenic liver models and in a subset of human HCCs. An unbiased functional analysis of all miRNAs within this cluster was performed. We found that miR-494 is overexpressed in human HCC and aids in transformation by regulating the G1 /S cell cycle transition through targeting of the Mutated in Colorectal Cancer tumor suppressor. miR-494 inhibition in human HCC cell lines decreases cellular transformation, and anti-miR-494 treatment of primary MYC-driven liver tumor formation significantly diminishes tumor size.Our findings identify a new therapeutic target (miR-494) for the treatment of HCC.
Project description:Lung cancer is the leading cause of tumor-related death worldwide and more efforts are needed to elucidate lung carcinogenesis. Here we investigated the expression of 641 miRNAs in lung tumorigenesis in a K-Ras(+/LSLG12Vgeo);RERTn(ert/ert) mouse model and 113 human tumors. The conserved miRNA cluster on chromosome 12qF1 was significantly and progressively upregulated during murine lung carcinogenesis. In particular, miR-494-3p expression was correlated with lung cancer progression in mice and with worse survival in lung cancer patients. Mechanistically, ectopic expression of miR-494-3p in A549 lung cancer cells boosted the tumor-initiating population, enhanced cancer cell motility, and increased the expression of stem cell-related genes. Importantly, miR-494-3p improved the ability of A549 cells to grow and metastasize in vivo, modulating NOTCH1 and PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling.Overall, these data identify miR-494-3p as a key factor in lung cancer onset and progression and possible therapeutic target.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the second cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and is associated with poor prognosis, especially in patients not amenable for curative treatments. The multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib represents the first-line treatment option for advanced HCC; nevertheless, its effectiveness is limited due to tumor heterogeneity as well as innate or acquired drug resistance, raising the need for new therapeutic strategies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) involvement in treatment response as well as their safety and efficacy in preclinical models and clinical trials have been widely documented in the oncologic field, including HCC. Here, we identified miR-494 upregulation in a subgroup of human and rat HCCs with stem cell-like characteristics, as well as multiple epigenetic mechanisms involved in its aberrant expression in HCC cell lines and patients. Moreover, we identified p27, puma and pten among miR-494 targets, contributing to speed up cell cycle progression, enhance survival potential in stressful conditions and increase invasive and clonogenic capabilities. MiR-494 overexpression increased sorafenib resistance via mTOR pathway activation in HCC cell lines and, in line, high miR-494 levels associated with decreased sorafenib response in two HCC animal models. A sorafenib-combined anti-miR-494-based strategy revealed an enhanced anti-tumor potential with respect to sorafenib-only treatment in our HCC rat model. In conclusion, our findings suggested miR-494 as a possible therapeutic target as well as a candidate biomarker for patient stratification in advanced HCC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal cancer, mainly attributing to its high tendency to metastasis. Vascular invasion provides a direct path for solid tumor metastasis. Mounting evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are related to human cancer onset and progression including invasion and metastasis. METHODS:In search of invasion-metastasis-associated miRNAs in HCC, microarray dataset GSE67140 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) were obtained by R software package and the potential target genes were predicted by miRTarBase. The database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery (DAVID) was introduced to perform functional annotation and pathway enrichment analysis for these potential targets of DE-miRNAs. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was established by STRING database and visualized by Cytoscape software. The effects of the miR-494-3p and miR-126-3p on migration and invasion of HCC cell lines were evaluated by conducting wound healing assay and transwell assay. RESULTS:A total of 138 DE-miRNAs were screened out, including 57 upregulated miRNAs and 81 downregulated miRNAs in human HCC tumors with vascular invasion compared with human HCC tumors without vascular invasion. 762 target genes of the top three upregulated and downregulated miRNAs were predicted, and they were involved in HCC-related pathways, such as pathway in cancer, focal adhesion and MAPK signaling pathway. In the PPI network, the top 10 hub nodes with higher degrees were identified as hub genes, such as TP53 and MYC. Through constructing the miRNA-hub gene network, we found that most of hub genes could be potentially modulated by miR-494-3p and miR-126-3p. Of note, miR-494-3p and miR-126-3p was markedly upregulated and downregulated in HCC cell lines and tissues, respectively. In addition, overexpression of miR-494-3p could significantly promote HCC migration and invasion whereas overexpression of miR-126-3p exerted an opposite effect. CONCLUSIONS:Targeting miR-494-3p and miR-126-3p may provide effective and promising approaches to suppress invasion and metastasis of HCC.
Project description:EndMT has an important effect on metastasis and progression of tumor. This work will elucidate the effect of miR-494 on EndMT and development of HCC. Therefore, the differential miRNA expression among non-tumorous, para-tumorous and tumorous tissues was analyzed. Moreover, luciferase activities of SIRT3 3'UTR treated with miR-494 were determined. Then human hepatoma cell lines were dealt with mimics or inhibitors of miR-494, migration and proliferation ability were assessed. The expression of SIRT3 and markers of mesenchymal cell were analyzed. The influences of miR-494 on development of HCC through inducing EndMT by targeting SIRT3 and TGF-β/SMAD signaling pathways in hepatoma cell lines were investigated. Xenograft mice were used to explore the potential roles of miR-494 on EndMT and development of HCC in vivo. Our results showed that, compared with non-tumorous tissues, 17 miRNAs were upregulated and 3 miRNAs were down-regulated in tumor tissues. In tumor tissues, the miR-494 expression level was much more than the expression of para-tumorous and non-tumorous tissues. MiR-494 suppressed SIRT3 expression, additionally enhanced expression of mesenchymal cell markers, while exerted effects on cell proliferation and migration of hepatoma cell lines. Moreover, the antagomir of miR-494 could protect against development process in xenogarft murine model. In conclusions, our work demonstrated that miR-494 targeted to SIRT3, and was a crucial mediator of EndMT and development of HCC through regulating SIRT3/TGF-β/SMAD signaling pathway. It suggested that aim at SIRT3/TGF-β/SMAD signaling pathway through suppressing the miR-494 expression level, was a feasible therapy strategy for HCC.
Project description:To explore functionally crucial tumor-suppressive (TS)-miRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we performed integrative function- and expression-based screenings of TS-miRNAs in six HCC cell lines. The screenings identified seven miRNAs, which showed growth-suppressive activities through the overexpression of each miRNA and were endogenously downregulated in HCC cell lines. Further expression analyses using a large panel of HCC cell lines and primary tumors demonstrated four miRNAs, miR-101, -195, -378 and -497, as candidate TS-miRNAs frequently silenced in HCCs. Among them, two clustered miRNAs miR-195 and miR-497 showed significant growth-suppressive activity with induction of G1 arrest. Comprehensive exploration of their targets using Argonute2-immunoprecipitation-deep-sequencing (Ago2-IP-seq) and genome-wide expression profiling after their overexpression, successfully identified a set of cell-cycle regulators, including CCNE1, CDC25A, CCND3, CDK4, and BTRC. Our results suggest the molecular pathway regulating cell cycle progression to be integrally altered by downregulation of miR-195 and miR-497 expression, leading to aberrant cell proliferation in hepatocarcinogenesis. Screening of frequently downregulated miRNAs by comparing endgeneous expression status of miRNAs in 6 HCC cell lines with 2 normal livers Expression analysis using total RNAs extracted from standard medium conditioned 6 HCC cell lines, and 2 normal livers derived from patients with hepatectomy due to metastatic liver tumor
Project description:Comparison of microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in the noncancerous liver tissues adjacent to hepatocelluar carcinomas (HCCs) was a strategy to identify postoperative prognostic predictors in this study. Expression profiles of 270 miRNAs were determined in the paraneoplastic liver tissues of 12 HCC patients with known postoperative prognosis. A panel of candidate miRNA predictors was identified. The prognostic predictive value of these candidate miRNAs was then verified in 216 postoperative HCC patients. Univariate analysis identified 8 and 3 miRNA predictors for recurrence-free (RFS) and overall (OS) survivals, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed high expression levels of miR-155 (HR, 2.002 [1.324-3.027]; P?=?.001), miR-15a (HR, 0.478 [0.248-0.920]; P?=?.027), miR-432 (HR, 1.816 [1.203-2.740]; P?=?.015), miR-486-3p (HR, 0.543 [0.330-0.893]; P?=?.016), miR-15b (HR, 1.074 [1.002-1.152]; P?=?.043) and miR-30b (HR, 1.102 [1.025-1.185]; P?=?.009) were significantly associated with RFS. When clinicopathological predictors were included, multivariate analysis revealed that tumor number and miR-432, miR-486-3p, and miR-30b expression levels remained significant as independent predictors for RFS. Additionally, expression knockdown of miR-155 in J7 and Mahlavu hepatoma cells resulted in decreased cell growth and enhanced cell death in xenograft tumors, suggesting an oncogenic effect of miR-155. In conclusion, significant prognostic miRNA predictors were identified through examination of miRNA expression levels in paraneoplastic liver tissues. Functional analysis of a miRNA predictor, miR-155, suggested that the prognostic miRNA predictors identified under this strategy could serve as potential molecular targets for anticancer therapy.
Project description:It is still difficult to predict the probability of tumor recurrence after resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we set out to identify specific microRNA (miRNA) in microdissected hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC tissue from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples which might be used in predicting early recurrence after HCC resection. Taqman low density arrays were used to detect the 667 miRNA profiles in both the microdissected tumorous and adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues from 20 HCC patients (discovery set) including 10 patients with early tumor recurrence and 10 without early tumor recurrence and to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs related to HCC recurrence. Then quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to verify the findings in 106 patients (training set), and to develop a predictive assay. The identified miRNAs were further validated in an independent cohort of 112 patients (validation set). Thirty seven miRNAs were identified from 20 HCC patients and validated in 106 HCC patients using qRT-PCR. A significant association was found between miR-29a-5p level in HCC tissues and early tumor recurrence (P = 0.0002). This association was further confirmed in the independent validation set of 112 patients (P = 0.0154). MiR-29a-5p level was significantly associated with both time to tumor recurrence (TTR) (P = 0.0015) and overall survival (OS) (P = 0.0079) in validation set. In the multivariate analyses, miR-29a-5p was identified as an independent factor for TTR, particularly for those patients with early stage of HCC. The sensitivity and specificity of miR-29a-5p for the prediction of early HCC recurrence of BCLC 0/A stage HCC were 74.2% and 68.2%, respectively. These suggest that miR-29a-5p might be a useful marker for the prediction of early tumor recurrence after HCC resection, especially in BCLC 0/A stage HCCs.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver cancer and second leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. Most HCCs occur in a damaged cirrhotic background and it may be difficult to discriminate between regenerative nodules and early HCCs. No dependable molecular biomarker exists for the early detection of HCC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted attention as potential blood-based biomarkers. To identify circulating miRNAs with diagnostic potential in HCC, we performed preliminary RNAseq studies on plasma samples from a small set of HCC patients, cirrhotic patients and healthy controls. Then, out of the identified miRNAs, we investigated miR-101-3p, miR-106b-3p, miR-1246 and miR-411-5p in plasma of independent HCC patients' cohorts. The use of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) confirmed the aberrant levels of these miRNAs. The diagnostic performances of each miRNA and their combinations were measured using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analyses: a classifier consisting of miR-101-3p, miR-1246 and miR-106b-3p produced the best diagnostic precision in plasma of HCC vs. cirrhotic patients (AUC = 0.99). A similar performance was found when the levels of miRNAs of HCC patients were compared to healthy controls (AUC = 1.00). We extended the analyses of the same miRNAs to serum samples. In serum of HCC vs. cirrhotic patients, the combination of miR-101-3p and miR-106b-3p exhibited the best diagnostic accuracy with an AUC = 0.96. Thus, circulating miR-101-3p, miR-106b-3p and miR-1246, either individually or in combination, exhibit a considerable potential value as diagnostic biomarkers of HCC.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in crucial biological processes, and it is now evident that miRNA alterations are involved in the progression of human cancers. Recent studies on miRNA profiling performed with cloning suggest that sequencing is useful for the detection of novel miRNAs, modifications, and precise compositions and that miRNA expression levels calculated by clone count are reproducible. Here we focus on sequencing of miRNA to obtain a comprehensive profile and characterization of these transcriptomes as they relate to human liver. Sequencing using 454 sequencing and conventional cloning from 22 pair of HCC and adjacent normal liver (ANL) and 3 HCC cell lines identified reliable reads of more than 314000 miRNAs from HCC and more than 268000 from ANL for registered human miRNAs. Computational bioinformatics identified 7 novel miRNAs with high conservation, 15 novel opposite miRNAs, and 3 novel antisense miRNAs. Moreover sequencing can detect miRNA modifications including adenosine-to-inosine editing in miR-376 families. Expression profiling using clone count analysis was used to identify miRNAs that are expressed aberrantly in liver cancer including miR-122, miR-21, and miR-34a. Furthermore, sequencing-based miRNA clustering, but not individual miRNA, detects high risk patients who have high potentials for early tumor recurrence after liver surgery (P = 0.006), and which is the only significant variable among pathological and clinical and variables (P = 0,022). We believe that the combination of sequencing and bioinformatics will accelerate the discovery of novel miRNAs and biomarkers involved in human liver cancer.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Prognosis is poor, and therapeutic options are limited. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as potential therapeutic molecules against cancer. Here, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of miR-199a-3p, an miRNA highly expressed in normal liver and downregulated in virtually all HCCs. The therapeutic value of miR-199a-3p mimic molecules was assayed in the TG221 mouse, a transgenic model highly predisposed to the development of liver cancer. Administration of miR-199a-3p mimics in the TG221 transgenic mouse showing liver cancer led to a significant reduction of number and size of tumor nodules compared to control animals. In vivo delivery confirmed protein downregulation of the miR-199a-3p direct targets, mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) and p21 activated kinase 4 (PAK4), ultimately leading to the repression of FOXM1. Remarkably, the anti-tumor activity of miR-199a-3p mimics was comparable to that obtained with sorafenib. These results suggested that miR-199a-3p may be considered a promising HCC therapeutic option.