Evolutionary history of bovine endogenous retroviruses in the Bovidae family.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are genomic elements of retroviral origin that are present in the genomes of almost all vertebrates. In cattle, more than 13,000 elements related to ERVs have been detected, and based on the pol gene, 24 families or groups of bovine ERVs have been described. However, information about ERVs in other bovids and the presence of families of related bovine ERVs in different species of the Bovidae family is scarce. RESULTS: The 24 families of bovine ERVs previously detected in cattle (Bos taurus) were also detected in zebus (Bos indicus) and yaks (Bos grunniens). In addition, six new families, named BoERV25 to BoERV30, were detected in the three Bos species. Five more ruminant species were screened for related ERVs: 26 families were detected in these species, but four families (BoERV24, BoERV26, BoERV28 and BoERV29) were specific to cattle, zebus, yaks and buffalo. An analysis of the homology of the ERVs of cattle, zebus and yaks revealed that the level of LTR divergence was similar between ERVs from cattle and zebus but was less similar between with ERVs from cattle and yaks. In addition, purifying selection was detected in the genes and retroviral regions of clusters of ERVs of cattle, zebus and yaks. CONCLUSIONS: In this work, the 24 ERV families previously identified in cattle were also found in two other species in the Bos genus. In addition, six new bovine ERV families were detected. Based on LTR divergence, the most recently inserted families are from Class II. The divergence of the LTR, used as an indirect estimate of the ERV insertion time, seemed to be influenced by the differences in genome evolution since the divergence of the species. In addition, purifying selection could be acting on clusters of ERVs from different species.
Project description:Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are the proviral phase of exogenous retroviruses that become integrated into a host germ line. They can play an important role in the host genome. Bioinformatic tools have been used to detect ERVs in several vertebrates, primarily primates and rodents. Less information is available regarding ERVs in other mammalian groups, and the source of this information is basically experimental. We analyzed the genome of the cow (Bos taurus) using three different methods. A BLAST-based method detected 928 possible ERVs, LTR_STRUC detected 4,487 elements flanked by long terminal repeats (LTRs), and Retrotector detected 9,698 ERVs. The ERVs were not homogeneously distributed across chromosomes; the number of ERVs was positively correlated with chromosomal size and negatively correlated with chromosomal GC content. The bovine ERVs (BoERVs) were classified into 24 putative families, with 20 of them not previously described. One of these new families, BoERV1, was the most abundant family and appeared to be specific to ruminants. An analysis of representatives of ERV families from rodents, primates, and ruminants showed a phylogenetic relationship following their hosts' relationships. This study demonstrates the importance of using multiple methods when trying to identify new ERVs and shows that the number of bovine ERV families is not as limited as previously thought.
Project description:The aim of this study was to identify the endogenous retrovirus (ERV) sequences in a bovine genome. We subjected bovine genomic DNA to PCR with degenerate or ovine ERV (OERV) family-specific primers that aimed to amplify the retroviral pro/pol region. Sequence analysis of 113 clones obtained by PCR revealed that 69 were of retroviral origin. On the basis of the OERV classification system, these clones from degenerate PCR could be divided into the beta3, gamma4, and gamma9 families. PCR with OERV family-specific primers revealed an additional ERV that was classified into the bovine endogenous retrovirus (BERV) gamma7 family. In conclusion, here we report the results of a genome scale study of the BERV. Our study shows that the ERV family expansion in cattle may be somewhat limited, while more diverse family members of ERVs have been reported from other artiodactyls, such as pigs and sheep.
Project description:Bats are increasingly recognized as reservoir species for a variety of zoonotic viruses that pose severe threats to human health. While many RNA viruses have been identified in bats, little is known about bat retroviruses. Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) represent genomic fossils of past retroviral infections and, thus, can inform us on the diversity and history of retroviruses that have infected a species lineage. Here, we took advantage of the availability of a high-quality genome assembly for the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus, to systematically identify and analyze ERVs in this species. We mined an initial set of 362 potentially complete proviruses from the three main classes of ERVs, which were further resolved into 13 major families and 86 subfamilies by phylogenetic analysis. Consensus or representative sequences for each of the 86 subfamilies were then merged to the Repbase collection of known ERV/long terminal repeat (LTR) elements to annotate the retroviral complement of the bat genome. The results show that nearly 5% of the genome assembly is occupied by ERV-derived sequences, a quantity comparable to findings for other eutherian mammals. About one-fourth of these sequences belong to subfamilies newly identified in this study. Using two independent methods, intraelement LTR divergence and analysis of orthologous loci in two other bat species, we found that the vast majority of the potentially complete proviruses identified in M. lucifugus were integrated in the last ~25 million years. All three major ERV classes include recently integrated proviruses, suggesting that a wide diversity of retroviruses is still circulating in Myotis bats.
Project description:About 8% of the human genome is made up of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Though most human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are thought to be irrelevant to our biology notable exceptions include members of the HERV-H family that are necessary for the correct functioning of stem cells. ERVs are commonly found in two forms, the full-length proviral form, and the more numerous solo-LTR form, thought to result from homologous recombination events. Here we introduce a phylogenetic framework to study ERV insertion and solo-LTR formation. We then apply the framework to site patterns sampled from a set of long alignments covering six primate genomes. Studying six categories of ERVs we quantitatively recapitulate patterns of insertional activity that are usually described in qualitative terms in the literature. A slowdown in most ERV groups is observed but we suggest that HERV-K activity may have increased in humans since they diverged from chimpanzees. We find that the rate of solo-LTR formation decreases rapidly as a function of ERV age and that an age dependent model of solo-LTR formation describes the history of ERVs more accurately than the commonly used exponential decay model. We also demonstrate that HERV-H loci are markedly less likely to form solo-LTRs than ERVs from other families. We conclude that the slower dynamics of HERV-H suggest a host role for the internal regions of these exapted elements and posit that in future it will be possible to use the relationship between full-length proviruses and solo-LTRs to help identify large scale co-options in distant vertebrate genomes.
Project description:Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have been identified at different copy numbers in various organisms. The long terminal repeat (LTR) element of an ERV has the capacity to exert regulatory influence as both a promoter and enhancer of cellular genes. Here, we describe olive flounder (OF)-ERV9, derived from chromosome 9 of the olive flounder. OF-ERV9-LTR provide binding sites for various transcription factors and showed enhancer activity. The OF-ERV9-LTR demonstrates high sequence similarity with the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of various genes that also contain seed sequences (TGTTTTG) that bind the LTR-derived microRNA(miRNA), OF-miRNA-307. Additionally, OF-miRNA-307 collaborates with transcription factors located in OF-ERV9-LTR to regulate gene expression. Taken together, our data facilitates a greater understanding of the molecular function of OF-ERV families and suggests that OF-miRNA-307 may act as a super-enhancer miRNA regulating gene activity.
Project description:Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are the remnants of ancient retroviral infections of germ cells. Previous work identified one of the youngest feline ERV groups, ERV-DC, and reported that two ERV-DC loci, ERV-DC10 and ERV-DC18 (ERV-DC10/DC18), can replicate in cultured cells. Here, we identified another replication-competent provirus, ERV-DC14, on chromosome C1q32. ERV-DC14 differs from ERV-DC10/DC18 in its phylogeny, receptor usage, and, most notably, transcriptional activities; although ERV-DC14 can replicate in cultured cells, it cannot establish a persistent infection owing to its low transcriptional activity. Furthermore, we examined ERV-DC transcription and its regulation in feline tissues. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) detected extremely low ERV-DC10 expression levels in feline tissues, and bisulfite sequencing showed that 5' long terminal repeats (LTRs) of ERV-DC10/DC18 are significantly hypermethylated in feline blood cells. Reporter assays found that the 5'-LTR promoter activities of ERV-DC10/DC18 are high, whereas that of ERV-DC14 is low. This difference in promoter activity is due to a single substitution from A to T in the LTR, and reverse mutation at this nucleotide in ERV-DC14 enhanced its replication and enabled it to persistently infect cultured cells. Therefore, ERV-DC LTRs can be divided into two types based on this nucleotide, the A type or T type, which have strong or attenuated promoter activity, respectively. Notably, ERV-DCs with T-type LTRs, such as ERV-DC14, have expanded in the cat genome significantly more than A-type ERV-DCs, despite their low promoter activities. Our results provide insights into how the host controls potentially infectious ERVs and, conversely, how ERVs adapt to and invade the host genome.The domestic cat genome contains many endogenous retroviruses, including ERV-DCs. These ERV-DCs have been acquired through germ cell infections with exogenous retroviruses. Some of these ERV-DCs are still capable of producing infectious virions. Hosts must tightly control these ERVs because replication-competent viruses in the genome pose a risk to the host. Here, we investigated how ERV-DCs are adapted by their hosts. Replication-competent viruses with strong promoter activity, such as ERV-DC10 and ERV-DC18, were suppressed by promoter methylation in LTRs. On the other hand, replication-competent viruses with weak promoter activity, such as ERV-DC14, seemed to escape strict control via promoter methylation by the host. Interestingly, ERV-DCs with weak promoter activity, such as ERV-DC14, have expanded in the cat genome significantly more than ERV-DCs with strong promoter activity. Our results improve the understanding of the host-virus conflict and how ERVs adapt in their hosts over time.
Project description:Transposon reactivation is an inherent danger in cells that lose epigenetic silencing during developmental reprogramming. In the mouse, long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons, or endogenous retroviruses (ERV), account for most novel insertions and are expressed in the absence of histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation in preimplantation stem cells. We found abundant 18 nt tRNA-derived small RNA (tRF) in these cells and ubiquitously expressed 22 nt tRFs that include the 3' terminal CCA of mature tRNAs and target the tRNA primer binding site (PBS) essential for ERV reverse transcription. We show that the two most active ERV families, IAP and MusD/ETn, are major targets and are strongly inhibited by tRFs in retrotransposition assays. 22 nt tRFs post-transcriptionally silence coding-competent ERVs, while 18 nt tRFs specifically interfere with reverse transcription and retrotransposon mobility. The PBS offers a unique target to specifically inhibit LTR-retrotransposons, and tRF-targeting is a potentially highly conserved mechanism of small RNA-mediated transposon control.
Project description:Copy number variations (CNVs) have been demonstrated as crucial substrates for evolution, adaptation and breed formation. Chinese indigenous cattle breeds exhibit a broad geographical distribution and diverse environmental adaptability. Here, we analyzed the population structure and adaptation to high altitude of Chinese indigenous cattle based on genome-wide CNVs derived from the high-density BovineHD SNP array. We successfully detected the genome-wide CNVs of 318 individuals from 24 Chinese indigenous cattle breeds and 37 yaks as outgroups. A total of 5,818 autosomal CNV regions (683 bp - 4,477,860 bp in size), covering ~14.34% of the bovine genome (UMD3.1), were identified, showing abundant CNV resources. Neighbor-joining clustering, principal component analysis (PCA), and population admixture analysis based on these CNVs support that most Chinese cattle breeds are hybrids of Bos taurus taurus (hereinafter to be referred as Bos taurus) and Bos taurus indicus (Bos indicus). The distribution patterns of the CNVs could to some extent be related to the geographical backgrounds of the habitat of the breeds, and admixture among cattle breeds from different districts. We analyzed the selective signatures of CNVs positively involved in high-altitude adaptation using pairwise Fst analysis within breeds with a strong Bos taurus background (taurine-type breeds) and within Bos taurus×Bos indicus hybrids, respectively. CNV-overlapping genes with strong selection signatures (at top 0.5% of Fst value), including LETM1 (Fst = 0.490), TXNRD2 (Fst=0.440) and STUB1 (Fst=0.420) within taurine-type breeds, and NOXA1 (Fst = 0.233), RUVBL1 (Fst=0.222) and SLC4A3 (Fst=0.154) within hybrids, were potentially involved in the adaptation to hypoxia. Thus, we provide a new profile of population structure from the CNV aspects of Chinese indigenous cattle and new insights into high-altitude adaptation in cattle. Overall design: We initially genotyped 375 individuals representing 25 Chinese indigenous cattle breeds, as well as 39 individuals representing two yak breeds as outgroups. After quality control filtering for chip data, a total of 355 individuals including 318 Chinese indigenous cattle and 37 yaks (outgroups in our study) were retained and used for further analyses. We detected their genome-wide CNVs, and analyzed their population structure based on these CNVs. We used the pairwise Fst method to explore the selection signatures of CNVs positively involved in high-altitude adaptation, by comparing cattle breeds native to high-altitude plateau with those native to low-altitude land within taurine-type breeds and within Bos taurus×Bos indicus hybrids, respectively.
Project description:Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) in mammals are closely related to infectious retroviruses and utilize host tRNAs as a primer for reverse transcription and replication, a hallmark of long terminal repeat (LTR) retroelements. Their dependency on tRNA makes these elements vulnerable to targeting by small RNAs derived from the 3'-end of mature tRNAs (3'-tRFs), which are highly expressed during epigenetic reprogramming and potentially protect many tissues in eukaryotes. Here, we review some key functions of ERV reprogramming during mouse and human development and discuss how small RNA-mediated silencing maintains genome stability when ERVs are temporarily released from heterochromatin repression. In particular, we take a closer look at the tRNA primer binding sites (PBS) of two highly active ERV families in mice and their sequence variation that is shaped by the conflict of successful tRNA priming for replication versus evasion of silencing by 3'-tRFs.
Project description:Copy number variations (CNVs) have been demonstrated as crucial substrates for evolution, adaptation and breed formation. Chinese indigenous cattle breeds exhibit a broad geographical distribution and diverse environmental adaptability. Here, we analyzed the population structure and adaptation to high altitude of Chinese indigenous cattle based on genome-wide CNVs derived from the high-density BovineHD SNP array. We successfully detected the genome-wide CNVs of 318 individuals from 24 Chinese indigenous cattle breeds and 37 yaks as outgroups. A total of 5,818 autosomal CNV regions (683 bp-4,477,860 bp in size), covering ~14.34% of the bovine genome (UMD3.1), were identified, showing abundant CNV resources. Neighbor-joining clustering, principal component analysis (PCA), and population admixture analysis based on these CNVs support that most Chinese cattle breeds are hybrids of Bos taurus taurus (hereinafter to be referred as Bos taurus) and Bos taurus indicus (Bos indicus). The distribution patterns of the CNVs could to some extent be related to the geographical backgrounds of the habitat of the breeds, and admixture among cattle breeds from different districts. We analyzed the selective signatures of CNVs positively involved in high-altitude adaptation using pairwise Fst analysis within breeds with a strong Bos taurus background (taurine-type breeds) and within Bos taurus×Bos indicus hybrids, respectively. CNV-overlapping genes with strong selection signatures (at top 0.5% of Fst value), including LETM1 (Fst = 0.490), TXNRD2 (Fst = 0.440), and STUB1 (Fst = 0.420) within taurine-type breeds, and NOXA1 (Fst = 0.233), RUVBL1 (Fst = 0.222), and SLC4A3 (Fst=0.154) within hybrids, were potentially involved in the adaptation to hypoxia. Thus, we provide a new profile of population structure from the CNV aspects of Chinese indigenous cattle and new insights into high-altitude adaptation in cattle.