Arabidopsis SAG protein containing the MDN1 domain participates in seed germination and seedling development by negatively regulating ABI3 and ABI5.
ABSTRACT: Three proteins containing a midasin homologue 1 (MDN1) domain from the yeast Solanum chacoense and Arabidopsis thaliana have important functions in yeast survival, seed development, and female gametogenesis. In this study, a novel protein containing the MDN1 domain from Arabidopsis negatively regulated abscisic acid (ABA) signalling during seed germination. Seeds of a T-DNA insertion line of this gene exhibited increased sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and seedling development (named sag). By contrast, seeds with overexpressed AtSAG (OX2) were less sensitive to ABA. The seeds of the sag mutant showed similar sensitivity to high concentrations of mannitol and NaCl during these stages. AtSAG was also highly expressed in germinating seeds. However, ABA-induced AtSAG expression remained almost unchanged. ABA-responsive marker genes, including ABI3, ABI5, Em1, Em6, RD29A, and RAB18, were upregulated in sag mutants but were downregulated in OX2. Genetic analyses indicated that the function of AtSAG in ABA signalling depended on ABI3 and ABI5. The expression of some target genes of ABI3 and ABI5, such as seed storage protein and oleosin genes, was induced higher by ABA in sag mutants than in wild-type germinated seeds, even higher than in abi5 mutants. This finding indicated that other regulators similar to ABI3 or ABI5 played a role during these stages. Taken together, these results indicate that AtSAG is an important negative regulator of ABA signalling during seed germination and seedling development.
Project description:Seed germination and formation are the beginning and ending, respectively, of a plant life cycle. These two processes are under fine regulation by the internal genetic information. Previously, we demonstrated that Arabidopsis MIDASIN 1 (MDN1) is required for ribosome biogenesis, and its dysfunction leads to pleiotropic developmental phenotypes, including impaired embryogenesis and slow seed germination. In this study, we further found that the weak mutant of MDN1, mdn1-1, exhibits an increased seed size phenotype. Seed proteomic analysis reveals that a number of proteins involved in seed development and response to external environments are mis-regulated by the MDN1 dysfunction. Many 2S seed storage proteins (SSPs) and late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are over-accumulated in the dry seeds of mdn1-1. Further, some genes encoding seed storage reserves are also upregulated in mdn1-1 seedlings. More interestingly, abscisic acid-insensitive 5 (ABI5) is over-accumulated in mdn1-1 seeds, and the loss of its function partially rescues the low seed germination rate of mdn1-1. Together, this study further demonstrates that MDN1 is essential for establishing a normal seed proteome, and its mutation triggers ABI5-mediated repression of seed germination.
Project description:Seed dormancy and germination are regulated by complex mechanisms controlled by diverse hormones and environmental cues. Abscisic acid (ABA) promotes seed dormancy and inhibits seed germination and post-germination growth. Calmodulin (CaM) signals are involved with the inhibition of ABA during seed germination and seedling growth. In this study, we showed that Arabidopsis thaliana IQM4 could bind with calmodulin 5 (CaM5) both in vitro and in vivo, and that the interaction was the Ca2+-independent type. The IQM4 protein was localized in the chloroplast and the IQM4 gene was expressed in most tissues, especially the embryo and germinated seedlings. The T-DNA insertion mutants of IQM4 exhibited the reduced primary seed dormancy and lower ABA levels compared with wild type seeds. Moreover, IQM4 plays key roles in modulating the responses to ABA, salt, and osmotic stress during seed germination and post-germination growth. T-DNA insertion mutants exhibited ABA-insensitive and salt-hypersensitive phenotypes during seed germination and post-germination growth, whereas IQM4-overexpressing lines had ABA- and osmotic-hypersensitive, and salt-insensitive phenotypes. Gene expression analyses showed that mutation of IQM4 inhibited the expression of ABA biosynthetic genes NCED6 and NCED9, and seed maturation regulators LEC1, LEC2, ABI3, and ABI5 during the silique development, as well as promoted the expression of WRKY40 and inhibited that of ABI5 in ABA-regulated seed germination. These observations suggest that IQM4 is a novel Ca2+-independent CaM-binding protein, which is positively involved with seed dormancy and germination in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Plant survival depends on seed germination and progression through post-germinative developmental checkpoints. These processes are controlled by the stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA regulates the basic leucine zipper transcriptional factor ABI5, a central hub of growth repression, while the reactive nitrogen molecule nitric oxide (NO) counteracts ABA during seed germination. However, the molecular mechanisms by which seeds sense more favourable conditions and start germinating have remained elusive. Here we show that ABI5 promotes growth via NO, and that ABI5 accumulation is altered in genetic backgrounds with impaired NO homeostasis. S-nitrosylation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 facilitates its degradation through CULLIN4-based and KEEP ON GOING E3 ligases, and promotes seed germination. Conversely, mutation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 deregulates protein stability and inhibition of seed germination by NO depletion. These findings suggest an inverse molecular link between NO and ABA hormone signalling through distinct posttranslational modifications of ABI5 during early seedling development.
Project description:Abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction during Arabidopsis seed development and germination requires a Group A bZIP transcription factor encoded by ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5). In addition to the basic leucine zipper DNA binding domain, Group A bZIPs are characterized by three N-terminal conserved regions (C1, C2 and C3) and one C-terminal conserved region (C4). These conserved regions are considered to play roles in ABI5 functions; however, except for the phosphorylation site, the importance of the highly conserved amino acids is unclear. Here, we report a novel abi5 recessive allele (abi5-9) that encodes an intact ABI5 protein with one amino acid substitution (A214G) in the C3 domain. The abi5-9 plants showed ABA insensitivity during germination and could germinate on medium containing 175 mM NaCl or 500 mM mannitol. Em1 and Em6--both encoding late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins and directly targeted by ABI5 regulation--were expressed at very low levels in abi5-9 plants compared with the wild type. In yeast, the abi5-9 protein exhibited greatly reduced interaction with ABI3 compared with ABI5. These data suggest that Ala214 in ABI5 contributes to the function of ABI5 via its interaction with ABI3.
Project description:The N-end rule pathway targets protein degradation through the identity of the amino-terminal residue of specific protein substrates. Two components of this pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana, PROTEOLYSIS6 (PRT6) and arginyl-tRNA:protein arginyltransferase (ATE), were shown to regulate seed after-ripening, seedling sugar sensitivity, seedling lipid breakdown, and abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity of germination. Sensitivity of prt6 mutant seeds to ABA inhibition of endosperm rupture reduced with after-ripening time, suggesting that seeds display a previously undescribed window of sensitivity to ABA. Reduced root growth of prt6 alleles and the ate1 ate2 double mutant was rescued by exogenous sucrose, and the breakdown of lipid bodies and seed-derived triacylglycerol was impaired in mutant seedlings, implicating the N-end rule pathway in control of seed oil mobilization. Epistasis analysis indicated that PRT6 control of germination and establishment, as exemplified by ABA and sugar sensitivity, as well as storage oil mobilization, occurs at least in part via transcription factors ABI3 and ABI5. The N-end rule pathway of protein turnover is therefore postulated to inactivate as-yet unidentified key component(s) of ABA signaling to influence the seed-to-seedling transition.
Project description:Abscisic acid (ABA) is a crucial phytohormone for the regulation of seed germination. The ABA content of seeds is regulated by synthesis and catabolic pathways. Coumarin, an important plant allelochemical, can inhibit seed germination effectively, although whether it is involved in the regulation of ABA content during seed germination has not been elucidated. For the study reported herein, we show that coumarin effectively inhibits rice seed germination and vivipary. We found that the ABA content gradually decreased in water-imbibed rice seeds and that the content and activity of the Oryza sativa 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases (OsNCEDs), which are ABA synthases, decreased during seed germination. At the transcription level, the expression of OsNCED1-3 appeared to decrease, whereas the expression of the ABA 8'-hydroxylase 2 and 3 genes (OsABA8'ox2/3) first appeared to increase and then decrease. Samples of rice seeds were also imbibed in water containing coumarin, which increased their ABA content but did not significantly increase the activity or content of their OsNCEDs or OsNCED1-3 transcription. Interestingly, coumarin imbibition remarkably reduced OsABA8'ox2/3 expression in rice embryos, which partially explained how coumarin increased the ABA content of germinating rice embryos. Coumarin also inhibited the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rice embryos and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase, which are indispensable for seed germination. These results indicate that coumarin delays seed germination by inhibiting ABA catabolism, particularly by decreasing the expression of OsABA8'ox2/3 rather than by increasing ABA synthesis. Moreover, coumarin increases the ABA content while decreasing the ROS content in rice embryos. Our results enhance our understanding of the regulation of ABA and ROS during seed germination and provide theoretical support for application of coumarin to prevent sprouting before crop harvesting.
Project description:Successful execution of germination program greatly depends on the seeds' oxidative homeostasis. We recently identified new roles for the H2O2-reducing enzyme ascorbate peroxidase 6 (APX6) in germination control and seeds' stress tolerance. APX6 replaces APX1 as the dominant APX in dry seeds, and its loss-of-function results in reduced germination due to over accumulation of ROS and oxidative damage. Metabolic analyses in dry apx6 seeds, revealed altered homeostasis of primary metabolites including accumulation of TCA cycle metabolites, ABA and auxin, supporting a novel role for APX6 in regulating cellular metabolism. Increased sensitivity of apx6 mutants to ABA or IAA in germination assays indicated impaired perception of these signals. Relative suppression of ABI3 and ABI5 expression, and induction of ABI4, suggested the activation of a signaling route inhibiting germination in apx6 seeds that is independent of ABI3. Here we provide additional evidence linking ABI4 with ABA- and auxin-controlled inhibition of germination and suggest a hypothetical model for the role of APX6 in the regulation of the crosstalk between these hormones and ROS.
Project description:The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) controls many aspects of plant growth and development under a diverse range of environmental conditions. To identify genes functioning in ABA signaling, we have carried out a screen for mutants that takes advantage of the ability of wild-type Arabidopsis seeds to respond to (-)-(R)-ABA, an enantiomer of the natural (+)-(S)-ABA. The premise of the screen was to identify mutations that preferentially alter their germination response in the presence of one stereoisomer vs. the other. Twenty-six mutants were identified and genetic analysis on 23 lines defines two new loci, designated CHOTTO1 and CHOTTO2, and a collection of new mutant alleles of the ABA-insensitive genes, ABI3, ABI4, and ABI5. The abi5 alleles are less sensitive to (+)-ABA than to (-)-ABA. In contrast, the abi3 alleles exhibit a variety of differences in response to the ABA isomers. Genetic and molecular analysis of these alleles suggests that the ABI3 transcription factor may perceive multiple ABA signals.
Project description:P-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE (HPPD) is the first committed enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of vitamin E, and is characterized by catalyzing the conversion of p-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate (HPP) to homogentisic acid (HGA). Here, an HPPD gene was cloned from Medicago sativa L. and designated MsHPPD, which was expressed at high levels in alfalfa leaves. PEG 6000 (polyethylene glycol), NaCl, abscisic acid and salicylic acid were shown to significantly induce MsHPPD expression, especially in the cotyledons and root tissues. Overexpression of MsHPPD was found to significantly increase the level of β-tocotrienol and the total vitamin E content in Arabidopsis seeds. Furthermore, these transgenic Arabidopsis seeds exhibited an accelerated germination time, compared with wild-type seeds under normal conditions, as well as under NaCl and ABA treatments. Meanwhile, the expression level of several genes associated with ABA biosynthesis (NCED3, NCED5 and NCED9) and the ABA signaling pathway (RAB18, ABI3 and ABI5) were significantly down-regulated in MsHPPD-overexpressing transgenic lines, as well as the total free ABA content. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MsHPPD functions not only in the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway, but also plays a critical role in seed germination via affecting ABA biosynthesis and signaling.
Project description:The Arg/N-end rule pathway of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis has multiple functions throughout plant development, notably in the transition from dormant seed to photoautotrophic seedling. PROTEOLYSIS6 (PRT6), an N-recognin E3 ligase of the Arg/N-end rule regulates the degradation of transcription factor substrates belonging to Group VII of the Ethylene Response Factor superfamily (ERFVIIs). It is not known whether ERFVIIs are associated with all known functions of the Arg/N-end rule, and the downstream pathways influenced by ERFVIIs are not fully defined. Here, we examined the relationship between PRT6 function, ERFVIIs and ABA signalling in Arabidopsis seedling establishment. Physiological analysis of seedlings revealed that N-end rule-regulated stabilisation of three of the five ERFVIIs, RAP2.12, RAP2.2 and RAP2.3, controls sugar sensitivity of seedling establishment and oil body breakdown following germination. ABA signalling components ABA INSENSITIVE (ABI)4 as well as ABI3 and ABI5 were found to enhance ABA sensitivity of germination and sugar sensitivity of establishment in a background containing stabilised ERFVIIs. However, N-end rule regulation of oil bodies was not dependent on canonical ABA signalling. We propose that the N-end rule serves to control multiple aspects of the seed to seedling transition by regulation of ERFVII activity, involving both ABA-dependent and independent signalling pathways.