SIRT1/PARP1 crosstalk: connecting DNA damage and metabolism.
ABSTRACT: An intricate network regulates the activities of SIRT1 and PARP1 proteins and continues to be uncovered. Both SIRT1 and PARP1 share a common co-factor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and several common substrates, including regulators of DNA damage response and circadian rhythms. We review this complex network using an interactive Molecular Interaction Map (MIM) to explore the interplay between these two proteins. Here we discuss how NAD?+?competition and post-transcriptional/translational feedback mechanisms create a regulatory network sensitive to environmental cues, such as genotoxic stress and metabolic states, and examine the role of those interactions in DNA repair and ultimately, cell fate decisions.
Project description:The molecular mechanism underlying autophagy impairment in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is not yet clear. Based on the causative role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) in RPE necrosis, this study examined whether PARP1 is involved in the autophagy impairment observed during dry AMD pathogenesis. We found that autophagy was downregulated following H2O2-induced PARP1 activation in ARPE-19 cells and olaparib, PARP1 inhibitor, preserved the autophagy process upon H2O2 exposure in ARPE-19 cells. These findings imply that PARP1 participates in the autophagy impairment upon oxidative stress in ARPE-19 cells. Furthermore, PARP1 inhibited autolysosome formation but did not affect autophagosome formation in H2O2-exposed ARPE-19 cells, demonstrating that PARP1 is responsible for impairment of late-stage autophagy in particular. Because PARP1 consumes NAD+ while exerting its catalytic activity, we investigated whether PARP1 impedes autophagy mediated by sirtuin1 (SIRT1), which uses NAD+ as its cofactor. A NAD+ precursor restored autophagy and protected mitochondria in ARPE-19 cells by preserving SIRT1 activity upon H2O2. Moreover, olaparib failed to restore autophagy in SIRT1-depleted ARPE-19 cells, indicating that PARP1 inhibits autophagy through SIRT1 inhibition. Next, we further examined whether PARP1-induced autophagy impairment occurs in the retinas of dry AMD model mice. Histological analyses revealed that olaparib treatment protected mouse retinas against sodium iodate (SI) insult, but not in retinas cotreated with SI and wortmannin, an autophagy inhibitor. Collectively, our data demonstrate that PARP1-dependent inhibition of SIRT1 activity impedes autophagic survival of RPE cells, leading to retinal degeneration during dry AMD pathogenesis.
Project description:Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a critical molecule involved in various biological functions. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) affect cellular NAD+ levels and play essential roles in regulating metabolism. However, there has been little research on the effects of PARP1 and SIRT1 crosstalk during senescence.We isolated endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from human umbilical cord blood and treated them with a PARP1 inhibitor (PJ34).Using a stress-induced premature aging model built by H2O2, transfection with adenoviral vectors, and Western blot analysis, we observed that PJ34 treatment preserved intracellular NAD+ levels, increased SIRT1 activity, decreased p53 acetylation, and improved the function of stress-induced premature aging EPCs.Our results suggest that PJ34 improves the function of aging-induced EPCs and may contribute to cellular therapies for atherosclerosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), recognized as a representative of damage-associated molecular patterns, is released during cell injury/death, triggering the inflammatory response and ultimately resulting in tissue damage. Dozens of studies have shown that HMGB1 is involved in certain diseases, but the details on how injured hepatocytes release HMGB1 need to be elicited. AIM:To reveal HMGB1 release mechanism in hepatocytes undergoing oxidative stress. METHODS:C57BL6/J male mice were fed a high-fat diet for 12 wk plus a single binge of ethanol to induce severe steatohepatitis. Hepatocytes treated with H2O2 were used to establish an in vitro model. Serum alanine aminotransferase, liver H2O2 content and catalase activity, lactate dehydrogenase and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine content, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels, and Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) activity were detected by spectrophotometry. HMGB1 release was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. HMGB1 translocation was observed by immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence or Western blot. Relative mRNA levels were assayed by qPCR and protein expression was detected by Western blot. Acetylated HMGB1 and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (Parp1) were analyzed by Immunoprecipitation. RESULTS:When hepatocytes were damaged, HMGB1 translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm because of its hyperacetylation and was passively released outside both in vivo and in vitro. After treatment with Sirt1-siRNA or Sirt1 inhibitor (EX527), the hyperacetylated HMGB1 in hepatocytes increased, and Sirt1 activity inhibited by H2O2 could be reversed by Parp1 inhibitor (DIQ). Parp1 and Sirt1 are two NAD+-dependent enzymes which play major roles in the decision of a cell to live or die in the context of stress . We showed that NAD+ depletion attributed to Parp1 activation after DNA damage was caused by oxidative stress in hepatocytes and resulted in Sirt1 activity inhibition. On the contrary, Sirt1 suppressed Parp1 by negatively regulating its gene expression and deacetylation. CONCLUSION:The functional inhibition between Parp1 and Sirt1 leads to HMGB1 hyperacetylation, which leads to its translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and finally outside the cell.
Project description:Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature in neurodegeneration and aging. We identify mitochondrial dysfunction in xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA), a nucleotide excision DNA repair disorder with severe neurodegeneration, in silico and in vivo. XPA deficient cells show defective mitophagy with excessive cleavage of PINK1 and increased mitochondrial membrane potential. The mitochondrial abnormalities appear to be caused by decreased activation of the NAD+-SIRT1-PGC-1α axis triggered by hyperactivation of the DNA damage sensor PARP1. This phenotype is rescued by PARP1 inhibition or by supplementation with NAD+ precursors that also rescue the lifespan defect in xpa-1 nematodes. Importantly, this pathogenesis appears common to ataxia-telangiectasia and Cockayne syndrome, two other DNA repair disorders with neurodegeneration, but absent in XPC, a DNA repair disorder without neurodegeneration. Our findings reveal a novel nuclear-mitochondrial cross-talk that is critical for the maintenance of mitochondrial health. Overall design: Four replicates of XPA-deficient (GM04312C) and the matched complemented (GM15876A) control cells as well as primary fibroblasts, transfected with either the shRNA to XPA or a scrambled version of the shRNA, as a control, were grown and total RNA was extracted. The RNA was labeled using the standard Illumina protocol and hybed overnight to Human-HT12 arrays. The arrays were scanned using the Beadstation 500 X from Illumina.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a complex and reversible posttranslational modification catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerases (PARPs), which orchestrates protein function and subcellular localization. The function of PARP1 in genotoxic stress response upon induction of oxidative DNA lesions and strand breaks is firmly established, but its role in the response to chemical-induced, bulky DNA adducts is understood incompletely. To address the role of PARP1 in the response to bulky DNA adducts, we treated human cancer cells with benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), which represents the active metabolite of the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene [B(a)P], in nanomolar to low micromolar concentrations. Using a highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method, we revealed that BPDE induces cellular PAR formation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Consistently, PARP1 activity significantly contributed to BPDE-induced genotoxic stress response. On one hand, PARP1 ablation rescued BPDE-induced NAD+ depletion and protected cells from BPDE-induced short-term toxicity. On the other hand, strong sensitization effects of PARP inhibition and PARP1 ablation were observed in long-term clonogenic survival assays. Furthermore, PARP1 ablation significantly affected BPDE-induced S- and G2-phase transitions. Together, these results point towards unresolved BPDE-DNA lesions triggering replicative stress. In line with this, BPDE exposure resulted in enhanced formation and persistence of DNA double-strand breaks in PARP1-deficient cells as evaluated by microscopic co-localization studies of 53BP1 and ?H2A.X foci. Consistently, an HPRT mutation assay revealed that PARP inhibition potentiated the mutagenicity of BPDE. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a profound role of PARylation in BPDE-induced genotoxic stress response with significant functional consequences and potential relevance with regard to B[a]P-induced cancer risks.
Project description:The circadian clock is a set of regulatory steps that oscillate with a period of approximately 24 hours influencing many biological processes. These oscillations are robust to external stresses, and in the case of genotoxic stress (i.e. DNA damage), the circadian clock responds through phase shifting with primarily phase advancements. The effect of DNA damage on the circadian clock and the mechanism through which this effect operates remains to be thoroughly investigated. Here we build an in silico model to examine damage-induced circadian phase shifts by investigating a possible mechanism linking circadian rhythms to metabolism. The proposed model involves two DNA damage response proteins, SIRT1 and PARP1, that are each consumers of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a metabolite involved in oxidation-reduction reactions and in ATP synthesis. This model builds on two key findings: 1) that SIRT1 (a protein deacetylase) is involved in both the positive (i.e. transcriptional activation) and negative (i.e. transcriptional repression) arms of the circadian regulation and 2) that PARP1 is a major consumer of NAD during the DNA damage response. In our simulations, we observe that increased PARP1 activity may be able to trigger SIRT1-induced circadian phase advancements by decreasing SIRT1 activity through competition for NAD supplies. We show how this competitive inhibition may operate through protein acetylation in conjunction with phosphorylation, consistent with reported observations. These findings suggest a possible mechanism through which multiple perturbations, each dominant during different points of the circadian cycle, may result in the phase advancement of the circadian clock seen during DNA damage.
Project description:Cockayne syndrome (CS) is an accelerated aging disorder characterized by progressive neurodegeneration caused by mutations in genes encoding the DNA repair proteins CS group A or B (CSA or CSB). Since dietary interventions can alter neurodegenerative processes, Csb(m/m) mice were given a high-fat, caloric-restricted, or resveratrol-supplemented diet. High-fat feeding rescued the metabolic, transcriptomic, and behavioral phenotypes of Csb(m/m) mice. Furthermore, premature aging in CS mice, nematodes, and human cells results from aberrant PARP activation due to deficient DNA repair leading to decreased SIRT1 activity and mitochondrial dysfunction. Notably, ?-hydroxybutyrate levels are increased by the high-fat diet, and ?-hydroxybutyrate, PARP inhibition, or NAD(+) supplementation can activate SIRT1 and rescue CS-associated phenotypes. Mechanistically, CSB can displace activated PARP1 from damaged DNA to limit its activity. This study connects two emerging longevity metabolites, ?-hydroxybutyrate and NAD(+), through the deacetylase SIRT1 and suggests possible interventions for CS.
Project description:Creating access to DNA double-strand break (DSB) sites in the chromatin context is an essential step during the repair process, but much remains to be determined about its regulatory mechanisms. Here, using a novel reporter cassette for simultaneous detection of homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) at the same chromosomal site, we report that the efficiency of HR but not NHEJ negatively correlates with nucleosome density. We demonstrate that PARP1 is required for HR by modulating nucleosome density at damage sites. Mechanistic studies indicate that the ATPase domain of BRG1 and the ZnF domain of SIRT1 interact with poly-ADP ribose (PAR) in response to DNA damage, and are responsible for bringing the two factors to broken DNA ends. At DNA damage sites, BRG1 and SIRT1 physically interact, whereupon SIRT1 deacetylates BRG1 at lysine residues 1029 and 1033, stimulating its ATPase activity to remodel chromatin and promote HR.
Project description:SIRT1 is a NAD+ dependent protein deacetylase known to increase longevity in model organisms. SIRT1 regulates cellular response to oxidative and/or genotoxic stress by regulating proteins such as p53 and FOXO. The eukaryotic initiation factor-2, eIF2, plays a critical role in the integrated stress response pathway. Under cellular stress, phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eIF2 is essential for immediate shut-off of translation and activation of stress response genes. Here we demonstrate that SIRT1 interacts with eIF2α. Loss of SIRT1 results in increased phosphorylation of eIF2α. However, the downstream stress induced signaling pathway is compromised in SIRT1-deficient cells, indicated by delayed expression of the downstream target genes CHOP and GADD34 and a slower post-stress translation recovery. Finally, SIRT1 co-immunoprecipitates with mediators of eIF2α dephosphorylation, GADD34 and CreP, suggesting a role for SIRT1 in the negative feedback regulation of eIF2α phosphorylation.
Project description:The ARF tumour suppressor protein, the gene of which is frequently mutated in many human cancers, plays an important role in the cellular stress response by orchestrating up-regulation of p53 protein and consequently promoting cell-cycle delay. Although p53 protein function has been clearly linked to the cellular DNA damage response, the role of ARF protein in this process is unclear. Here, we report that arf gene transcription is induced by DNA strand breaks (SBs) and that ARF protein accumulates in response to persistent DNA damage. We discovered that poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis catalysed by PARP1 at the sites of unrepaired SBs activates ARF transcription through a protein signalling cascade, including the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 and the transcription factor E2F1. Our data suggest that poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis at the sites of SBs initiates DNA damage signal transduction by reducing the cellular concentration of NAD(+), thus down-regulating SIRT1 activity and consequently activating E2F1-dependent ARF transcription. Our findings suggest a vital role for ARF in DNA damage signalling, and furthermore explain the critical requirement for ARF inactivation in cancer cells, which are frequently deficient in DNA repair and accumulate DNA damage.