Protective effects of membrane-anchored and secreted DNA vaccines encoding fatty acid-binding protein and glutathione S-transferase against Schistosoma japonicum.
ABSTRACT: In order to explore the high performance bivalent DNA-based vaccine against schistosomes, SjFABP and Sj26GST were selected and used to construct a vaccine. Two strategies were used to construct the bivalent DNA vaccine. In the first strategy, a plasmid encoding antigen in the secreted form was used, while in the other, a plasmid encoding a truncated form of SjFABP and Sj26GST targeted to the cell surface was used. Various parameters, including antibody and cytokine response, proliferation, histopathological examination, and characterization of T cell subsets were used to evaluate the type of immune response and the level of protection against challenge infection. Injection with secreted pIRES-sjFABP-sj26GST significantly increased the levels of antibody, splenocyte proliferation, and production of IFN-?, compared with membrane-anchored groups. Analysis of splenic T cell subsets showed that the secreted vaccine significantly increased the percentage of CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells. Liver immunopathology (size of liver granulomas) was significantly reduced in the secreted group compared with the membrane-anchored groups. Moreover, challenge experiments showed that the worm and egg burdens were significantly reduced in animals immunized with recombinant vaccines. Most importantly, secreted Sj26GST-SjFABP markedly enhanced protection, by reducing worm and egg burdens by 31.8% and 24.78%, respectively, while the membrane-anchored group decreased worm and egg burdens by 24.80% and 18.80%, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that the secretory vaccine is more promising than the membrane-anchored vaccine, and provides support for the development and application of this vaccine.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Schitosomiasis japonica is still a significant public health problem in China. A protective vaccine for human or animal use represents an important strategy for long-term control of this disease. Due to the complex life cycle of schistosomes, different vaccine design approaches may be necessary, including polyvalent subunit vaccines. In this study, we constructed four chimeric proteins (designated SjGP-1~4) via fusion of Sj26GST and four individual paramyosin fragments. We tested these four proteins as vaccine candidates, and investigated the effect of deviating immune response on protection roles in mice. METHODS: The immunogencity and protection efficacy of chimeric proteins were evaluated in mice. Next, the chimeric protein SjGP-3 was selected and formulated in various adjuvants, including CFA, ISA 206, IMS 1312 and ISA 70M. The titers of antigen-specific IgG, IgE and IgG subclass were measured. The effect of adjuvant on cytokine production and percentages of CD3+CD8-IFN-gamma+ cells and CD3+CD8-IL-4+ cells were analyzed at different time points. Worm burdens and liver egg counts in different adjuvant groups were counted to evaluate the protection efficacy against cercarial challenge. RESULTS: Immunization of mice with chimeric proteins provided various levels of protection. Among the four proteins, SjGP-3 induced the highest level of protection, and showed enhanced protective efficacy compared with its individual component Sj26GST. Because of this, SjGP-3 was further formulated in various adjuvants to investigate the effect of adjuvant on immune deviation. The results revealed that SjGP-3 formulated in veterinary adjuvant ISA 70M induced a lasting polarized Th1 immune response, whereas the other adjuvants, including CFA, ISA 206 and IMS 1312, generated a moderate mixed Th1/Th2 response after immunization but all except for IMS 1312 shifted to Th2 response after onset of eggs. More importantly, the SjGP-3/70M formulation induced a significant reduction in liver egg deposition at 47.0-50.3% and the number of liver eggs per female at 34.5-37.2% but less effect on worm burdens at only 17.3-23.1%, whereas no effect of the formulations with other adjuvants on the number of liver eggs per female was observed. CONCLUSION: Construction of polyvalent subunit vaccine was capable to enhance immunogenicity and protection efficacy against schistosomiasis. There was correlation of the polarized Th1 response with reduction of liver egg burdens, supporting the immune deviation strategy for schistosomiasis japonica vaccine development.
Project description:Five exposures of baboons to the attenuated schistosome vaccine gave greater protection than three exposures, but this attenuation was not sustained when challenge was delayed. Within the scope of the data collected, fecal egg counts and circulating antigen levels did not accurately predict the observed worm burdens. Levels of immunoglobulin G at challenge correlated best with protection, but there was little evidence of a recall response.
Project description:Schistosomiasis is the most important human helminth infection due to its impact on public health. The clinical manifestations are chronic and significantly decrease an individual's quality of life. Infected individuals suffer from long-term organ pathologies including fibrosis which eventually leads to organ failure. The development of a vaccine against this parasitic disease would contribute to a long-lasting decrease in disease spectrum and transmission.Our group has chosen Schistosoma mansoni (Sm) cathepsin B, a peptidase involved in parasite feeding, as a prospective vaccine candidate. Our experimental formulation consisted of recombinant Sm-cathepsin B formulated in Montanide ISA 720 VG, a squalene based adjuvant containing a mannide mono-oleate emulsifier. Parasitological burden was assessed by determining adult worm, hepatic egg, and intestinal egg numbers in each mouse. Serum was used in ELISAs to evaluate production of antigen-specific antibodies, and isolated splenocytes were stimulated with the antigen for the analysis of cytokine secretion levels.The Sm-cathepsin B and Montanide formulation conferred protection against a challenge infection by significantly reducing all forms of parasitological burdens. Worm burden, hepatic egg burden and intestinal egg burden were decreased by 60%, 6%, and 56%, respectively in immunized animals compared to controls (P = 0.0002, P < 0.0001, P = 0.0009, respectively). Immunizations with the vaccine elicited robust production of Sm-cathepsin B specific antibodies (endpoint titers = 122,880). Both antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2c titers were observed, with the former having more elevated titers. Furthermore, splenocytes isolated from the immunized animals, compared to control animals, secreted higher levels of key Th1 cytokines, IFN-?, IL-12, and TNF-?, as well as the Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-4 when stimulated with recombinant Sm-cathepsin B. The Th17 cytokine IL-17, the chemokine CCL5, and the growth factor GM-CSF were also significantly increased in the immunized animals compared to the controls.The formulation tested in this study was able to significantly reduce all forms of parasite burden, stimulate robust production of antigen-specific antibodies, and induce a mixed Th1/Th2 response. These results highlight the potential of Sm-cathepsin B/Montanide ISA 720 VG as a vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Gastrointestinal nematode infections, such as Haemonchus contortus and Mecistocirrus digitatus, are ranked in the top twenty diseases affecting small-holder farmers' livestock, yet research into M. digitatus, which infects cattle and buffalo in Asia is limited. Intestine-derived native protein vaccines are effective against Haemonchus, yet the protective efficacy of intestine-derived M. digitatus proteins has yet to be determined.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>A simplified protein extraction protocol (A) is described and compared to an established method (B) for protein extraction from H. contortus. Proteomic analysis of the H. contortus and M. digitatus protein extracts identified putative vaccine antigens including aminopeptidases (H11), zinc metallopeptidases, glutamate dehydrogenase, and apical gut membrane polyproteins. A vaccine trial compared the ability of the M. digitatus extract and two different H. contortus extracts to protect sheep against H. contortus challenge. Both Haemonchus fractions (A and B) were highly effective, reducing cumulative Faecal Egg Counts (FEC) by 99.19% and 99.89% and total worm burdens by 87.28% and 93.64% respectively, compared to the unvaccinated controls. There was no effect on H. contortus worm burdens following vaccination with the M. digitatus extract and the 28.2% reduction in cumulative FEC was not statistically significant. However, FEC were consistently lower in the M. digitatus extract vaccinates compared to the un-vaccinated controls from 25 days post-infection.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Similar, antigenically cross-reactive proteins are found in H. contortus and M. digitatus; this is the first step towards developing a multivalent native vaccine against Haemonchus species and M. digitatus. The simplified protein extraction method could form the basis for a locally produced vaccine against H. contortus and, possibly M. digitatus, in regions where effective cold chains for vaccine distribution are limited. The application of such a vaccine in these regions would reduce the need for anthelmintic treatment and the resultant selection for anthelmintic resistant parasites.
Project description:A vaccine against schistosomiasis would contribute significantly to reducing the 3-70 million disability-adjusted life years lost annually to the disease. Towards this end, inoculation with the large extracellular loop (EC-2) of Schistosoma mansoni tetraspanin-2 protein (Sm-TSP-2) has proved effective in reducing worm and egg burdens in S. mansoni-infected mice. The EC-2 loop of Schistosoma japonicum TSP-2, however, has been found to be highly polymorphic, perhaps diminishing the likelihood that this antigen can be used for vaccination against this species. Here, we examine polymorphism of the EC-2 of Sm-TSP-2 in genetically unique worms derived from six individuals from Kisumu, Kenya.
Project description:The present study describes the development of DNA vaccines using the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) genes from AF2240 Newcastle disease virus strain, namely pIRES/HN, pIRES/F and pIRES-F/HN. Transient expression analysis of the constructs in Vero cells revealed the successful expression of gene inserts in vitro. Moreover, in vivo experiments showed that single vaccination with the constructed plasmid DNA (pDNA) followed by a boost with inactivated vaccine induced a significant difference in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody levels (p < 0.05) elicited by either pIRES/F, pIRES/F+ pIRES/HN or pIRES-F/HN at one week after the booster in specific pathogen free chickens when compared with the inactivated vaccine alone. Taken together, these results indicated that recombinant pDNA could be used to increase the efficacy of the inactivated vaccine immunization procedure.
Project description:Infectious Bronchitis (IB) is an economically important avian disease that considerably threatens the global poultry industry. This is partly, as a result of its negative consequences on egg production, weight gain as well as mortality rate.The disease is caused by a constantly evolving avian infectious bronchitis virus whose isolates are classified into several serotypes and genotypes that demonstrate little or no cross protection. In order to curb the menace of the disease therefore, broad based vaccines are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to develop a recombinant DNA vaccine candidate for improved protection of avian infectious bronchitis in poultry. Using bioinformatics and molecular cloning procedures, sets of monovalent and bivalent DNA vaccine constructs were developed based on the S1 glycoprotein from classical and variants IBV strains namely, M41 and CR88 respectively. The candidate vaccine was then encapsulated with a chitosan and saponin formulated nanoparticle for enhanced immunogenicity and protective capacity. RT-PCR assay and IFAT were used to confirm the transcriptional and translational expression of the encoded proteins respectively, while ELISA and Flow-cytometry were used to evaluate the immunogenicity of the candidate vaccine following immunization of various SPF chicken groups (A-F). Furthermore, histopathological changes and virus shedding were determined by quantitative realtime PCR assay and lesion scoring procedure respectively following challenge of various subgroups with respective wild-type IBV viruses. Results obtained from this study showed that, groups vaccinated with a bivalent DNA vaccine construct (pBudCR88-S1/M41-S1) had a significant increase in anti-IBV antibodies, CD3+ and CD8+ T-cells responses as compared to non-vaccinated groups. Likewise, the bivalent vaccine candidate significantly decreased the oropharyngeal and cloacal virus shedding (p < 0.05) compared to non-vaccinated control. Chickens immunized with the bivalent vaccine also exhibited milder clinical signs as well as low tracheal and kidney lesion scores following virus challenge when compared to control groups. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that bivalent DNA vaccine co-expressing dual S1 glycoprotein induced strong immune responses capable of protecting chickens against infection with both M41 and CR88 IBV strains. Moreso, it was evident that encapsulation of the vaccine with chitosan-saponin nanoparticle further enhanced immune responses and abrogates the need for multiple booster administration of vaccine. Therefore, the bivalent DNA vaccine could serve as efficient and effective alternative strategy for the control of IB in poultry.
Project description:Despite the enormous morbidity attributed to schistosomiasis, there is still no vaccine to combat the disease for the hundreds of millions of infected people. The anthelmintic drug, praziquantel, is the mainstay treatment option, although its molecular mechanism of action remains poorly defined. Praziquantel treatment damages the outermost surface of the parasite, the tegument, liberating surface antigens from dying worms that invoke a robust immune response which in some subjects results in immunologic resistance to reinfection. Herein we term this phenomenon Drug-Induced Vaccination (DIV). To identify the antigenic targets of DIV antibodies in urogenital schistosomiasis, we constructed a recombinant proteome array consisting of approximately 1,000 proteins informed by various secretome datasets including validated proteomes and bioinformatic predictions. Arrays were screened with sera from human subjects treated with praziquantel and shown 18 months later to be either reinfected (chronically infected subjects, CI) or resistant to reinfection (DIV). IgG responses to numerous antigens were significantly elevated in DIV compared to CI subjects, and indeed IgG responses to some antigens were completely undetectable in CI subjects but robustly recognized by DIV subjects. One antigen in particular, a cystatin cysteine protease inhibitor stood out as a unique target of DIV IgG, so recombinant cystatin was produced, and its vaccine efficacy assessed in a heterologous <i>Schistosoma mansoni</i> mouse challenge model. While there was no significant impact of vaccination with adjuvanted cystatin on adult worm numbers, highly significant reductions in liver egg burdens (45-55%, <i>P</i><0.0001) and intestinal egg burdens (50-54%, <i>P</i><0.0003) were achieved in mice vaccinated with cystatin in two independent trials. This study has revealed numerous antigens that are targets of DIV antibodies in urogenital schistosomiasis and offer promise as subunit vaccine targets for a drug-linked vaccination approach to controlling schistosomiasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Oral immunization with vaccines may be an effective strategy for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). However, application of previously developed vaccines for preventing CDI has been limited due to various reasons. Here, we developed a recombinant Lactococcus lactis oral vaccine and evaluated its effect on a C. difficile-infected animal model established in golden hamsters in attempt to provide an alternative strategy for CDI prevention. METHODS: Recombinant L. lactis vaccine was developed using the pTRKH2 plasmid, a high-copy-number Escherichia coli-L. shuttle vector: 1) L. lactis expressing secreted proteins was constructed with recombinant pTRKH2 (secreted-protein plasmid) carrying the Usp45 signal peptide (SPUsp45), nontoxic adjuvanted tetanus toxin fragment C (TETC), and 14 of the 38 C-terminal repeats (14CDTA) of nontoxic C. difficile toxin A (TcdA); and 2) L. lactis expressing secreted and membrane proteins was constructed with recombinant pTRKH2 (membrane-anchored plasmid) carrying SPUsp45, TETC, 14CDTA, and the cell wall-anchored sequence of protein M6 (cwaM6). Then, 32 male Syrian golden hamsters were randomly divided into 4 groups (n?=?8 each) for gavage of normal saline (blank control) and L. lactis carrying the empty shuttle vector, secreted-protein plasmid, and membrane-anchored plasmid, respectively. After 1-week gavage of clindamycin, the animals were administered with C. difficile spore suspension. General symptoms and intestinal pathological changes of the animals were examined by naked eye and microscopy, respectively. Protein levels of anti-TcdA IgG/IgA antibodies in intestinal tissue and fluid were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay was done by TcdA treatment with or without anti-TcdA serum pre-incubation or treatment. Apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells was examined by flow cytometry (FL) assay. Expression of mucosal inflammatory cytokines in the animals was detected by polymer chain reaction (PCR) assay. RESULTS: After the C. difficile challenge, the animals of control group had severe diarrhea symptoms on day 1 and all died on day 4, indicating that the CDI animal model was established in hamster. Of the 3 immunization groups, secreted-protein and membrane-anchored plasmid groups had significantly lower mortalities, body weight decreases, and pathological scores, with higher survival rate/time than the empty plasmid group (P?<?0.05). The tilter of IgG antibody directed against TcdA was significantly higher in serum and intestinal fluid of secreted-protein and membrane-anchored plasmid groups than in the empty plasmid group (P?<?0.05) while the corresponding titer of IgA antibody directed against TcdA had no substantial differences (P?>?0.05). The anti-TcdA serum of membrane-anchored plasmid group neutralized the cytotoxicity of 200 ng/ml TcdA with the best protective effect achieved by anti-TcdA serum pre-incubation. The incidences of TcdA-induced death and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells were significantly reduced by cell pre-incubation or treatment with anti-TcdA serum of membrane-anchored plasmid group (P?<?0.05). MCP-1, ICAM-1, IL-6, and Gro-1 mRNA expression levels were the lowest in cecum tissue of the membrane-anchored groups compared to the other groups. CONCLUSION: Recombinant L. lactis live vaccine is effective for preventing CDI in the hamster model, thus providing an alternative for immunization of C. difficile-associated diseases.
Project description:Approximately 0.4 billion individuals worldwide are infected with hookworm. An effective vaccine is needed to not only improve the health of those affected and at high risk, but also to improve economic growth in disease-endemic areas. An ideal anti-hookworm therapeutic strategy for mass administration is a stable and orally administered vaccine. Oral vaccines are advantageous as they negate the need for trained medical staff for administration and do not require strict sterility conditions. Vaccination, therefore, can be carried out at a significantly reduced cost. One of the most promising current antigenic targets for hookworm vaccine development is the aspartic protease digestive enzyme (APR-1). Antibody-mediated neutralization of APR-1 deprives the worm of nourishment, leading to reduced worm burdens in vaccinated hosts. Previously, we demonstrated that, when incorporated into vaccine delivery systems, the APR-1-derived p3 epitope (TSLIAGPKAQVEAIQKYIGAEL) was able to greatly reduce worm burdens (≥90%) in BALB/c mice; however, multiple, large doses of the vaccine were required. Here, we investigated a variety of p3-antigen conjugates to optimize antigen delivery and establish immune response/protective efficacy relationships. We synthesized, purified, and characterized four p3 peptide-based vaccine candidates with: (a) lipidic (lipid core peptide (LCP)); (b) classical polymeric (polymethylacrylate (PMA)); and (c) novel polymeric (polyleucine in a branched or linear arrangement, BL<sub>10</sub> or LL<sub>10</sub>, respectively) groups as self-adjuvanting moieties. BL<sub>10</sub> and LL<sub>10</sub> induced the highest serum anti-p3 and anti-APR-1 IgG titers. Upon challenge with rodent hookworms, the highest significant reduction in worm burden was observed in mice immunized with LL<sub>10</sub>. APR-1-specific serum IgG titers correlated with worm burden reduction. Thus, we provide the first vaccine-triggered immune response-protection relationship for hookworm infection.