ABSTRACT: Magnetoelectric materials which simultaneously exhibit electric polarization and magnetism have attracted more and more attention due to their novel physical properties and promising applications for next-generation devices. Exploring new materials with outstanding magnetoelectric performance, especially the manipulation of magnetization by electric field, is of great importance. Here, we demonstrate the cross-coupling between magnetic and electric orders in polycrystalline Co4Nb2O9, in which not only magnetic-field-induced electric polarization but also electric field control of magnetism is observed. These results reveal rich physical phenomenon and potential applications in this compound.
Project description:Giant magnetoelectric coupling is a very rare phenomenon that has gained much attention in the past few decades due to fundamental interest as well as practical applications. Here, we have successfully achieved giant magnetoelectric coupling in PbTi1-x V x O3 (x = 0-1) using a series of generalized gradient-corrected GGA (generalized gradient approximation), including on-site Coulomb repulsion (U)-corrected spin-polarized calculations based on accurate density functional theory. Our total energy calculations show that PbTi1-x V x O3 stabilizes in C-type antiferromagnetic ground state for x > 0.123. With the substitution of V into PbTiO3, the tetragonal distortion is highly enhanced accompanied by a linear increase in polarization. In addition, our band structure analysis shows that for lower x values, the tendency to form two-dimensional magnetism of PbTi1-x V x O3 decreases. The orbital magnetic polarization was calculated with self-consistent field method by including orbital polarization correction in the calculation as well as from the computed X-ray magnetic dichroism spectra. A nonmagnetic metallic ground state is observed for the paraelectric phase for V concentration (x) = 1 competing with a volume change of 10% showing a large magnetovolume effect. Our orbital-projected density of states as well as orbital ordering analysis suggest that the orbital ordering plays a major role in the magnetic-to-nonmagnetic transition when going from ferroelectric to paraelectric phase. The calculated magnetic anisotropic energy shows that the direction  is the easy axis of magnetization for x = 1 composition. The partial polarization analysis shows that the Ti/V-O hybridization majorly contributes to the total electrical polarization. The present study adds a new series of compounds to the magnetoelectric family with rarely existing giant coupling between electric- and magnetic-order parameters. These results show that such kind of materials can be used for novel practical applications where one can change the magnetic properties drastically (magnetic to nonmagnetic, as shown here) with external electric field and vice versa.
Project description:Multiferroic heterostructures combining ferromagnetic and ferroelectric layers are promising for applications in novel spintronic devices, such as memories with electrical writing and magnetic reading, assuming their magnetoelectric coupling (MEC) is strong enough. For conventional magnetic metal/ferroelectric heterostructures, however, the change of interfacial magnetic moment upon reversal of the electric polarization is often very weak. Here, by using first principles calculations, we demonstrate a new pathway towards a strong MEC at the interface between the semi-hydrogenated graphene (also called graphone) and ferroelectric PbTiO3. By reversing the polarization of PbTiO3, the magnetization of graphone can be electrically switched on and off through the change of carbon-oxygen bonding at the interface. Furthermore, a ferroelectric polarization can be preserved down to ultrathin PbTiO3 layers less than one nanometer due to an enhancement of the polarization at the interface. The predicted strong magnetoelectric effect in the ultimately thin graphone/ferroelectric layers opens a new opportunity for the electric control of magnetism in high-density devices.
Project description:Although the magnetoelectric effects - the mutual control of electric polarization by magnetic fields and magnetism by electric fields, have been intensively studied in a large number of inorganic compounds and heterostructures, they have been rarely observed in organic materials. Here we demonstrate magnetoelectric coupling in a metal-organic framework [(CH3)2NH2]Mn(HCOO)3 which exhibits an order-disorder type of ferroelectricity below 185 K. The magnetic susceptibility starts to deviate from the Curie-Weiss law at the paraelectric-ferroelectric transition temperature, suggesting an enhancement of short-range magnetic correlation in the ferroelectric state. Electron spin resonance study further confirms that the magnetic state indeed changes following the ferroelectric phase transition. Inversely, the ferroelectric polarization can be improved by applying high magnetic fields. We interpret the magnetoelectric coupling in the paramagnetic state in the metal-organic framework as a consequence of the magnetoelastic effect that modifies both the superexchange interaction and the hydrogen bonding.
Project description:Strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling are expected in ultra-thin ferromagnetic/ferroelectric multiferroic heterostructures, which could lead to significantly enhanced magnetoelectric coupling. It is however challenging to observe the combined strain charge mediated magnetoelectric coupling, and difficult in quantitatively distinguish these two magnetoelectric coupling mechanisms. We demonstrated in this work, the quantification of the coexistence of strain and surface charge mediated magnetoelectric coupling on ultra-thin Ni0.79Fe0.21/PMN-PT interface by using a Ni0.79Fe0.21/Cu/PMN-PT heterostructure with only strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling as a control. The NiFe/PMN-PT heterostructure exhibited a high voltage induced effective magnetic field change of 375 Oe enhanced by the surface charge at the PMN-PT interface. Without the enhancement of the charge-mediated magnetoelectric effect by inserting a Cu layer at the PMN-PT interface, the electric field modification of effective magnetic field was 202 Oe. By distinguishing the magnetoelectric coupling mechanisms, a pure surface charge modification of magnetism shows a strong correlation to polarization of PMN-PT. A non-volatile effective magnetic field change of 104 Oe was observed at zero electric field originates from the different remnant polarization state of PMN-PT. The strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in ultra-thin magnetic/ferroelectric heterostructures could lead to power efficient and non-volatile magnetoelectric devices with enhanced magnetoelectric coupling.
Project description:Due to the demand of controlling magnetism by electric fields for future storage devices, materials with magnetoelectric coupling are of great interests. Based on first-principles calculations, we study the electronic and magnetic properties of a double perovskite Sr2CoMoO6 (SCMO) in a hybrid heterostructure combined with BaTiO3 (BTO) in different polarization states. The calculations show that by introducing ferroelectric state in BTO, SCMO transforms from an antiferromagnetic semiconductor to a half-metal. Specially, altering the polarization direction not only controls the interfacial magnetic moment, but also changes the orbital occupancy of the Co-3d state. This novel multiple magnetoelectric coupling opens possibilities for designing new type of spintronic and microelectronic devices with controllable degree of freedom of interfacial electrons in the heterostructures.
Project description:Tuning of magnetization or electrical polarization using external fields other than their corresponding conjugate fields (i.e., magnetic field for the former or electric field for the latter response) attracts renewed interest due to its potential for applications. The magnetoelectric effect in multiferroic 1-3 composite composed of alternating magnetic and ferroelectric layers operating in linear regime consequent to external biasing fields is simulated and analysed theoretically. Two-scale homogenization procedure to arrive at the equilibrium overall physical properties of magnetoelectric multiferroic composite is formulated using variational analysis. This procedure is extended to quantify the underlying local (microscopic) electric, magnetic and elastic fields and thereby compute local distribution of stresses and strains, electrical and magnetic potentials, the electric and magnetic fields as well as the equivalent von Mises stresses. The computational model is implemented by modifying the software POSTMAT (material postprocessing). Computed local stress/strain profiles and the von Mises stresses consequent to biasing electrical and magnetic fields provide insightful information related to the magnetostriction and the ensuing electrical and magnetic polarization. Average polarization and magnetization against magnetic and electric fields respectively are computed and found to be in reasonable limits of the experimental results on similar composite systems. The homogenization model covers multiferroics and its composites regardless of crystallographic symmetry (with the caveat of assuming an ideal and semi-coherent interface connecting the constituent phases) and offer computational efficiency besides unveiling the nature of the underlying microscopic field characteristics.
Project description:Multiferroic (MF)-magnetoelectric (ME) composites, which integrate magnetic and ferroelectric materials, exhibit a higher operational temperature (above room temperature) and superior (several orders of magnitude) ME coupling when compared to single-phase multiferroic materials. Room temperature control and the switching of magnetic properties via an electric field and electrical properties by a magnetic field has motivated research towards the goal of realizing ultralow power and multifunctional nano (micro) electronic devices. Here, some of the leading applications for magnetoelectric composites are reviewed, and the mechanisms and nature of ME coupling in artificial composite systems are discussed. Ways to enhance the ME coupling and other physical properties are also demonstrated. Finally, emphasis is given to the important open questions and future directions in this field, where new breakthroughs could have a significant impact in transforming scientific discoveries to practical device applications, which can be well-controlled both magnetically and electrically.
Project description:The Magnetoelectric (ME) effect in solids is a prominent cross correlation phenomenon, in which the electric field (E) controls the magnetization (M) and the magnetic field (H) controls the electric polarization (P). A rich variety of ME effects and their potential in practical applications have been investigated so far within the transition-metal compounds. Here, we report a possible way to realize the ME effect in organic molecular solids, in which two molecules build a dimer unit aligned on a lattice site. The linear ME effect is predicted in a long-range ordered state of spins and electric dipoles, as well as in a disordered state. One key of the ME effect is a hidden ferroic order of the spin-charge composite object. We provide a new guiding principle of the ME effect in materials without transition-metal elements, which may lead to flexible and lightweight multifunctional materials.
Project description:The magnetoelectric effects in multiferroic materials enable the mutual control of electric polarization by a magnetic field and magnetization by an electric field. Nonvolatile electric-field control of magnetization is extremely important for information storage applications, but has been rarely realized in single-phase multiferroic materials. Here we demonstrate the prominent direct and converse magnetoelectric effects in the Y-type hexaferrite BaSrCoZnFe11AlO22 single crystal. The electric polarization due to conical magnetic structure can be totally reversed by a small magnetic field, giving rise to large magnetoelectric coefficients of 6000 and 4000 ps/m at 100 and 200 K, respectively. The ab-plane magnetization can be controlled by electric fields with a large hysteresis, leading to nonvolatile change of magnetization. In addition, the reversal of magnetization by electric fields is also realized at 200 K. These diverse magnetoelectric effects with large coefficients highlight the promise of hexaferrites as potential multiferroic materials.
Project description:The ability to tune both magnetic and electric properties in magnetoelectric (ME) composite heterostructures is crucial for multiple transduction applications including energy harvesting or magnetic field sensing, or other transduction devices. While large ME coupling achieved through interfacial strain-induced rotation of magnetic anisotropy in magnetostrictive/piezoelectric multiferroic heterostructures has been demonstrated, there are presently certain restrictions for achieving a full control of magnetism in an extensive operational dynamic range, limiting practical realization of this effect. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of generating substantial reversible anisotropy changes through induced interfacial strains driven by applied electric fields in magnetostrictive thin films deposited on (0 1 1)-oriented domain-engineered ternary relaxor ferroelectric single crystals with extended temperature and voltage ranges as compared to binary relaxors. We show, through a combination of angular magnetization and magneto-optical domain imaging measurements, that a 90° in-plane rotation of the magnetic anisotropy and propagation of magnetic domains with low applied electric fields under zero electric field bias are realized. To our knowledge, the present value attained for converse magnetoelectric coupling coefficient is the highest achieved in the linear piezoelectric regime and expected to be stable for a wide temperature range, thus representing a step towards practical ME transduction devices.