Characterisation of the methylation pattern in the intragenic CpG island of the IGF2 gene in Bos taurus indicus cumulus cells during in vitro maturation.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterise the methylation pattern in a CpG island of the IGF2 gene in cumulus cells from 1-3 mm and ???8.0 mm follicles and to evaluate the effects of in vitro maturation on this pattern. METHODS: Genomic DNA was treatment with sodium bisulphite. Nested PCR using bisulphite-treated DNA was performed, and DNA methylation patterns have been characterised. RESULTS: There were no differences in the methylation pattern among groups (P?>?0.05). Cells of pre-IVM and post-IVM from small follicles showed methylation levels of 78.17?±?14.11 % and 82.93±5.86 %, respectively, and those from large follicles showed methylation levels of 81.81?±?10.40 % and 79.64?±?13.04 %, respectively. Evaluating only the effect of in vitro maturation, cells of pre-IVM and post-IVM COCs showed methylation levels of 80.17?±?12.01 % and 81.19?±?10.15 %. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the methylation levels of the cumulus cells of all groups were higher than that expected from the imprinted pattern of somatic cells. As the cumulus cells from the pre-IVM follicles were not subjected to any in vitro manipulation, the hypermethylated pattern that was observed may be the actual physiological methylation pattern for this particular locus in these cells. Due the importance of DNA methylation in oogenesis, and to be a non-invasive method for determining oocyte quality, the identification of new epigenetic markers in cumulus cells has great potential to be used to support reproductive biotechniques in humans and other mammals.
Project description:The administration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) prior to oocyte retrieval improves oocyte developmental competence. During bovine embryo production in vitro, however, oocytes are typically derived from FSH-unprimed animals. In the current study, we examined the effect of pre-in vitro maturation (IVM) with cAMP modulators, also known as the second messengers of FSH, on the developmental competence of oocytes derived from small antral follicles (2-4 mm) of FSH-unprimed animals. Pre-IVM with N6,2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclicmonophosphate (dbcAMP) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) for 2 h improved the blastocyst formation in oocytes stimulated by FSH or amphiregulin (AREG). Furthermore, pre-IVM enhanced the expression of the FSH- or AREG-stimulated extracellular matrix-related genes HAS2, TNFAIP6, and PTGS2, and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like peptide-related genes AREG and EREG. Additionally, pre-IVM with dbcAMP and IBMX enhanced the expression of EGFR, and also increased and prolonged cumulus cell-oocyte gap junctional communication. The improved oocyte development observed using the pre-IVM protocol was ablated by an EGF receptor phosphorylation inhibitor. These results indicate that pre-IVM with cAMP modulators could contribute to the acquisition of developmental competence by bovine oocytes from small antral follicles through the modulation of EGF receptor signaling and oocyte-cumulus/cumulus-cumulus gap junctional communication.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We investigated how pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) affects embryonic development during pre-in vitro maturation (pre-IVM) using porcine oocytes isolated from small follicles. METHODS:We divided the follicles into the experimental groups by size (SF, small follicles; MF, medium follicles) and treated with and without PACAP and cultured for 18 hours (Pre-SF[-]PACAP; without PACAP, Pre-SF[+]PACAP; with PACAP) before undergoing IVM. The gene expression related to extracellular matrix formation (amphiregulin, epiregulin, and hyaluronan synthase 2 [HAS2]) and apoptosis (Bcl-2-associated X [BAX], B-cell lymphoma 2, and cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3) was investigated after maturation. The impact on developmental competence was assessed by the cleavage and blastocyst rate and total cell number of blastocysts in embryos generated from parthenogenesis (PA) and in vitro fertilization (IVF). RESULTS:Cleavage rates in the Pre-SF(+)PACAP after PA were significantly higher than SF and Pre-SF(-)PACAP (p<0.05). The cleavage rates between MF and Pre- SF(+)PACAP groups yielded no notable differences after IVF. Pre-SF(+)PACAP displayed the higher rate of blastocyst formation and greater total cell number than SF and Pre-SF(-)PACAP (p<0.05). Cumulus cells showed significant upregulation of HAS2 mRNA in the Pre-SF(+)PACAP compared to the SF (p<0.05). In comparison to other groups, the Pre-SF(+)PACAP group displayed a downregulation in mRNA expression of BAX in matured oocytes (p<0.05). CONCLUSION:The PACAP treatment during pre-IVM improved the developmental potential of porcine oocytes derived from SF by regulating cumulus expansion and apoptosis of oocytes.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) is a patient-friendly reproductive technology but lower success rates than IVF have limited its uptake. Capacitation-IVM (CAPA-IVM) is an innovative new IVM system currently undergoing clinical evaluation. This study aimed to determine temporal effects of the pre-IVM phase of CAPA-IVM on cumulus function and oocyte developmental competence in mildly-stimulated mice.<h4>Methods</h4>Immature cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) derived from mildly stimulated (23 h PMSG) 28-day-old mice underwent pre-IVM for 0-24 h in medium containing c-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), E<sub>2</sub>, FSH and insulin, prior to IVM (CAPA-IVM). The effect of pre-IVM duration on cumulus cell function and embryo development post-CAPA-IVM/IVF was assessed.<h4>Results</h4>Day 6 blastocyst rate increased incrementally with increasing pre-IVM duration: 40.6 ± 2.0%, 45.8 ± 1.2%, 52.2 ± 3.5%, 53.3 ± 5.9%, and 59.9 ± 2.5% for 0, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h pre-IVM, respectively (P < 0.01). DNA content/COC, a measure of cumulus cell proliferation, was significantly higher with 24 h pre-IVM group compared to 0, 2, or 6 h pre-IVM (P < 0.001). Pre-IVM for 24 h significantly increased cumulus expansion and mRNA expression of matrix genes Has2 and Tnfaip6 and Areg relative to no pre-IVM control (P < 0.01). Cumulus-oocyte gap-junctional communication (GJC) was maintained throughout 24 h pre-IVM (P < 0.0001), and GJC loss was slowed during the subsequent IVM phase, whilst meiotic resumption was accelerated (P < 0.05). Pre-IVM increased COC ATP and ADP content (P < 0.05), but not AMP, ATP/ADP, and energy charge.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The pre-IVM phase of CAPA-IVM improves the quality of IVM oocytes in a temporally dependent manner and significantly influences cumulus cell function including increased cell proliferation, cumulus expansion, and prolonged cumulus-oocyte GJC.
Project description:Oocyte in vitro maturation can be improved by mimicking the intra-follicular environment. Oocyte, cumulus cells, granulosa cells, and circulating factors act as meiotic regulators in follicles and maintain oocyte in the meiotic phase until oocyte becomes competent and ready to be ovulated. In a randomized experimental design, an ovine model was used to optimize the standard in vitro maturation media by Granulosa secreted factors. At first, the development capacity of oocyte derived from medium (>4 to 6 mm) and small (2 to ?4 mm) size follicles was determined. Differential gene expression of granulosa secreted factors and their receptors were compared between the cumulus cells of the two groups. Then, the best time and concentration for arresting oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage by natriuretic peptide type C (CNP) were determined by nuclear staining in both groups. Oocyte quality was further confirmed by calcein uptake and gene expression. The developmental competence of cumulus oocyte complexes derived from small size follicles that were cultured in the presence of CNP in combination with amphiregulin (AREG) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) for 24 h was determined. Finally, embryo quality was specified by assessing expressions of NANOG, SOX2, CDX2, OCT4, and TET1. The cumulus oocyte complexes derived from small size follicles had a lower capacity to form blastocyst in comparison with cumulus oocyte complexes derived from medium size follicles. Prostaglandin E receptor 2 and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 had significantly lower expression in cumulus cells derived from small size follicles in comparison with cumulus cells derived from medium size follicles. Natriuretic peptide type C increased the percentage of cumulus oocyte complexes arresting at the germinal vesicle stage in both oocytes derived from medium and small follicles. Gap junction communication was also improved in the presence of natriuretic peptide type C. In oocytes derived from small size follicles; best blastocyst rates were achieved by sequential exposure of cumulus oocyte complexes in [TCM+CNP (6 h), then cultured in TCM+AREG+PGE2 (18h)] and [TCM+CNP (6 h), then cultured in conventional IVM supplements+AREG+PGE2 (18h)]. Increased SOX2 expression was observed in [TCM+CNP (6 h), then cultured in TCM+AREG+PGE2 (18h)], while decreased OCT4 expression was observed in [TCM+CNP (6 h), then cultured in conventional IVM supplements+AREG+PGE2 (18h)]. It seems that the natriuretic peptide type C modulates meiotic progression, and oocyte development is probably mediated by amphiregulin and prostaglandin E2. These results may provide an alternative IVM method to optimize in vitro embryo production in sheep and subsequently for humans.
Project description:The elaboration of a quality oocyte is integrally linked to the correct developmental progression of cumulus cell phenotype. In humans and non-human primates, oocyte quality is diminished with in vitro maturation. To determine the changes in gene expression in rhesus monkey cumulus cells (CC) that occur during the final day prior to oocyte maturation and how these changes differ between in vitro and in vivo maturation (IVM and VVM), we completed a detailed comparison of transcriptomes using the Affymetrix gene array. We observe a large number of genes differing in expression when comparing IVM-CC and VVM-CC directly, but a much larger number of differences comparing the transitions from the pre-oocyte maturation to post- IVM and post-VVM state. We observe a truncation or delay in the normal pattern of gene regulation, but also remarkable compensatory changes in gene expression during IVM. Among the genes affected in cumulus cells by IVM are those that contribute to productive cell-cell interactions between cumulus cell and oocyte and between cumulus cells. Numerous genes involved in lipid metabolism are incorrectly regulated during IVM, and the synthesis of sex hormones appears not suppressed during IVM. We identify a panel of 24 marker genes, the expression of which should provide the foundation for understanding how IVM can be improved, for monitoring IVM conditions, and for diagnosing oocyte quality. Overall design: We compared transcriptomes of cumulus cells isolated from in vitro matured cumulus-oocyte complexes COCs (IVM-CC) and from in vivo matured COCs (VVM-CC) to identify potential cumulus cell markers of oocyte quality. The global gene expression profile of pre-maturation cumulus cells (PM-CC) was used to developmental transitions between IVM and VVM.
Project description:The elaboration of a quality oocyte is integrally linked to the correct developmental progression of cumulus cell phenotype. In humans and non-human primates, oocyte quality is diminished with in vitro maturation. To determine the changes in gene expression in rhesus monkey cumulus cells (CC) that occur during the final day prior to oocyte maturation and how these changes differ between in vitro and in vivo maturation (IVM and VVM), we completed a detailed comparison of transcriptomes using the Affymetrix gene array. We observe a large number of genes differing in expression when comparing IVM-CC and VVM-CC directly, but a much larger number of differences comparing the transitions from the pre-oocyte maturation to post- IVM and post-VVM state. We observe a truncation or delay in the normal pattern of gene regulation, but also remarkable compensatory changes in gene expression during IVM. Among the genes affected in cumulus cells by IVM are those that contribute to productive cell-cell interactions between cumulus cell and oocyte and between cumulus cells. Numerous genes involved in lipid metabolism are incorrectly regulated during IVM, and the synthesis of sex hormones appears not suppressed during IVM. We identify a panel of 24 marker genes, the expression of which should provide the foundation for understanding how IVM can be improved, for monitoring IVM conditions, and for diagnosing oocyte quality. We compared transcriptomes of cumulus cells isolated from in vitro matured cumulus-oocyte complexes COCs (IVM-CC) and from in vivo matured COCs (VVM-CC) to identify potential cumulus cell markers of oocyte quality. The global gene expression profile of pre-maturation cumulus cells (PM-CC) was used to developmental transitions between IVM and VVM.
Project description:Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) is thought to reflect the growth of follicles and the ovarian function. However, the role of AMH in culture medium during in vitro maturation (IVM) on oocyte quality and subsequent development potential is unclear. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of recombinant human AMH (rh-AMH) supplemented into IVM medium on oocyte quality. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were obtained from ICR mice and cultured in vitro with the different concentrations (0-1,000 ng/ml) of rh-AMH. Following 16-18 h of culture, quantitative PCR and ELISA were performed to analyze GDF9 and BMP15 mRNA expression and protein production from the oocytes. Subsequently, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and early embryonic development were employed to further evaluate the quality of in vitro matured oocytes. The results showed that AMH was only expressed in cumulus cells but not in the oocytes. However, AMH most specific receptor, AMHR-II, was expressed in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The levels of GDF9 and BMP15 expression and blastocyst formation rate were significantly increased (p<0.05) when the IVM medium was supplemented with 100 ng/ml of rh-AMH. With AdH1-SiRNA/AMH for knocking down of AMH expression during IVM significantly reduced (p<0.05) the levels of GDF9 and BMP15 expression and blastocysts formation rate. These results suggest that AHM improves oocytes quality by up-regulating GDF9 and BMP15 expressions during IVM.
Project description:The present study has evaluated the association of growth differentiation factor9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein15 (BMP15) mRNA expression in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) of buffalo ovary during in vitro maturation (IVM). GDF9 and BMP15 are expressed specifically in mammalian oocytes and also participate in cumulus-oocyte crosstalk. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) technique was applied to investigate the relative abundance (RA) of GDF9 and BMP15 mRNA transcripts throughout the IVM process. Relative mRNA expression pattern of these specific genes were assessed in oocytes and cumulus cells at 0, 6, 12 and 24 h of in vitro culture. Our results revealed that RA of GDF9 during different hours of IVM showed significant reduction between 0 h and 24 h of maturation in oocytes and BMP15 transcript increased significantly (P<0.05) between 6 h and 12 h and decreased again between 12 h and 24. In cumulus cells, GDF9 remained stable during IVM upto 12 h of maturation and decreased significantly between 12 h and 24 h of maturation. Conversely, significant reduction of BMP15 was observed between 0 h and 6 h, stayed stable upto 12 h and became undetectable at 24 h of maturation. In conclusion, these two genes were differentially expressed during the period of oocyte maturation process and notably, BMP15 expression pattern is associated specifically with the period of cumulus cell expansion.
Project description:In vitro maturation (IVM) of the oocytes is a routine method in bovine embryo production. The competence of bovine oocytes to develop into embryo after IVM and in vitro fertilization (IVF) is lower as compared to in vivo preovulatory oocytes. Cumulus cells (CC) that enclose an oocyte are involved in the acquisition of oocyte quality during maturation. Using transcriptomic approach we compared cumulus cells gene expression during IVM with that in vivo preovulatory period. Global transcriptional profiling was performed using cumulus cells collected from mature bovine oocytes (metaphase-II stage) after maturation performed either in vivo or in vitro. In vivo matured cumulus cells were collected from ovulatory follicles of Montbeliard adult cows by ovum pick-up in vivo (OPU, n=4). In vitro matured cumulus cells were recovered from the oocytes after 22h of in vitro culture of cumulus-oocyte complexes (50 COC per experiment) from 2-6 mm ovarian follicles of adult cows (MIV, n=4). Gene expression analysis was carried out between in vivo and in vitro matured cumulus representing a total of 8 slides (dye swap protocol)
Project description:In vitro embryo production success in juvenile animals is compromised due to their intrinsic lower oocyte quality. Conventional in vitro maturation (IVM) impairs oocyte competence by inducing spontaneous meiotic resumption. A series of experiments were performed to determine if maintaining meiotic arrest during a pre-maturation culture phase (pre-IVM) prior to conventional IVM improves oocyte competence of juvenile-goat (2 months old) cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). In experiment 1, COCs were cultured with C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP; 0, 50, 100, 200 nM) for 6 and 8 h. Nuclear stage was assessed, revealing no differences in the incidence of germinal vesicle (GV) breakdown. In experiment 2, the same CNP concentrations were assessed plus 10 nM estradiol, the known upstream agonist activating expression of NPR2, the exclusive receptor of CNP. CNP (200 nM) plus estradiol increased the rate of oocytes at GV stage at 6 h compared to control group (74.7% vs 28.3%; P<0.05) with predominantly condensed chromatin configuration. In experiment 3, relative mRNA quantification revealed NPR2 expression was down-regulated after pre-IVM (6 h). In experiment 4, analysis of transzonal projections indicated that pre-IVM maintained cumulus-oocyte communication after oocyte recovery. For experiments 5 and 6, biphasic IVM (6 h pre-IVM with CNP and estradiol, plus 24 h IVM) and control IVM (24 h) were compared. Biphasic IVM increased intra-oocyte glutathione and decreased ROS, up-regulated DNA-methyltransferase 1 and pentraxin 3 expression and led to an increase in rate of blastocyst development compared to control group (30.2% vs 17.2%; P<0.05). In conclusion, a biphasic IVM, including a pre-IVM with CNP, maintains oocyte meiotic arrest for 6 h and enhances the embryo developmental competence of oocytes from juvenile goats.