Low-molecular-mass penicillin binding protein 6b (DacD) is required for efficient GOB-18 metallo-?-lactamase biogenesis in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT: Metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) are Zn(2+)-containing secretory enzymes of clinical relevance, whose final folding and metal ion assembly steps in Gram-negative bacteria occur after secretion of the apo form to the periplasmic space. In the search of periplasmic factors assisting MBL biogenesis, we found that dacD null (?dacD) mutants of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli expressing the pre-GOB-18 MBL gene from plasmids showed significantly reduced resistance to cefotaxime and concomitant lower accumulation of GOB-18 in the periplasm. This reduced accumulation of GOB-18 resulted from increased accessibility to proteolytic attack in the periplasm, suggesting that the lack of DacD negatively affects the stability of secreted apo MBL forms. Moreover, ?dacD mutants of S. enterica and E. coli showed an altered ability to develop biofilm growth. DacD is a widely distributed low-molecular-mass (LMM) penicillin binding protein (PBP6b) endowed with low dd-carboxypeptidase activity whose functions are still obscure. Our results indicate roles for DacD in assisting biogenesis of particular secretory macromolecules in Gram-negative bacteria and represent to our knowledge the first reported phenotypes for bacterial mutants lacking this LMM PBP.
Project description:Metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) are broad-spectrum, Zn(II)-dependent lactamases able to confer resistance to virtually every ?-lactam antibiotic currently available. The large diversity of active-site structures and metal content among MBLs from different sources has limited the design of a pan-MBL inhibitor. GOB-18 is a divergent MBL from subclass B3 that is expressed by the opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen Elizabethkingia meningoseptica This MBL is atypical, since several residues conserved in B3 enzymes (such as a metal ligand His) are substituted in GOB enzymes. Here, we report the crystal structure of the periplasmic di-Zn(II) form of GOB-18. This enzyme displays a unique active-site structure, with residue Gln116 coordinating the Zn1 ion through its terminal amide moiety, replacing a ubiquitous His residue. This situation contrasts with that of B2 MBLs, where an equivalent His116Asn substitution leads to a di-Zn(II) inactive species. Instead, both the mono- and di-Zn(II) forms of GOB-18 are active against penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. In silico docking and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that residue Met221 is not involved in substrate binding, in contrast to Ser221, which otherwise is conserved in most B3 enzymes. These distinctive features are conserved in recently reported GOB orthologues in environmental bacteria. These findings provide valuable information for inhibitor design and also posit that GOB enzymes have alternative functions.
Project description:The lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) utilizes an alternating access symport mechanism with multiple conformational intermediates, but only inward (cytoplasmic)- or outward (periplasmic)-open structures have been characterized by X-ray crystallography. It is demonstrated here with sugar-binding studies that cross-linking paired-Cys replacements across the closed cytoplasmic cavity stabilize an occluded conformer with an inaccessible sugar-binding site. In addition, a nanobody (Nb) that stabilizes a periplasmic-open conformer with an easily accessible sugar-binding site in WT LacY fails to cause the cytoplasmic cross-linked mutants to become accessible to galactoside, showing that the periplasmic cavity is closed. These results are consistent with tight association of the periplasmic ends in two pairs of helices containing clusters of small residues in the packing interface between N- and C-terminal six-helix bundles of the symporter. However, after reduction of the disulfide bond, the Nb markedly increases the rate of galactoside binding, indicating unrestricted access to the Nb epitope and the galactoside-binding site from the periplasm. The findings indicate that the cross-linked cytoplasmic double-Cys mutants resemble an occluded apo-intermediate in the transport cycle.
Project description:Pyoverdine (PVDI) has been reported to act both as a siderophore for scavenging iron (a key nutrient) and a signaling molecule for the expression of virulence factors. This compound is itself part of a core set of virulence factors produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa during infections. Once secreted into the bacterial environment and having scavenged ferric iron, PVDI-Fe3+ is taken back into the P. aeruginosa periplasm via the outer membrane transporters FpvAI and FpvB. Iron release from PVDI in the bacterial periplasm involves numerous proteins encoded by the fpvGHJKCDEF genes and a mechanism of iron reduction. Here, we investigated the global interacting network between these various proteins using systematic bacterial two-hybrid screening. We deciphered a network of five interacting proteins composed of two inner-membrane proteins, FpvG (iron reductase) and FpvH (unknown function), and three periplasmic proteins, FpvJ (unknown function), FpvF (periplasmic PVDI-binding protein), and FpvC (iron periplasmic-binding protein). This interacting network strongly suggests the existence of a large protein machinery composed of these five proteins, all playing a role in iron acquisition by PVDI. Furthermore, we discovered an interaction between the periplasmic siderophore binding protein FpvF and the PvdRT-OpmQ efflux pump, also suggesting a role for FpvF in apo-PVDI recycling and secretion after iron delivery. These results highlight a multi-protein complex that drives iron release from PVDI in the periplasm of P. aeruginosa.
Project description:Metallo-?-lactamases (M?Ls) represent one of the main mechanisms of bacterial resistance against ?-lactam antibiotics. The elucidation of their mechanism has been limited mostly by the structural diversity among their active sites. All M?Ls structurally characterized so far present a Cys or a Ser residue at position 221, which is critical for catalysis. GOB lactamases stand as an exception within this picture, possessing a Met residue in this location. We studied different mutants in this position, and we show that Met221 is essential for protein stability, most likely due to its involvement in a hydrophobic core. In contrast to other known M?Ls, residue 221 is not involved in metal binding or in catalysis in GOB enzymes, further highlighting the structural diversity of M?Ls. We also demonstrate the usefulness of protein periplasmic profiles to assess the contribution of protein stability to antibiotic resistance.
Project description:Molecular chaperones and protein folding factors of bacterial periplasmic space play important roles in assisting disulfide bond formation and proper protein folding. In this study, effects of disulfide bond protein (Dsb) families were investigated on assembly of 3F3 Fab, an antibody inhibitor targeting matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14). By optimizing DsbA/C co-expression, promoter for 3F3 Fab, host strains, and culture media and conditions, a high yield of 30-mg purified 3F3 Fab per liter culture was achieved. Produced 3F3 Fab exhibited binding affinity of 34 nM and inhibition potency of 970 nM. This established method of DsbA/C co-expression can be applied to produce other important disulfide bond-dependent recombinant proteins in E. coli periplasm.
Project description:Shiga toxin (STx) belongs to the AB(5) toxin family and is transiently localized in the periplasm before secretion into the extracellular milieu. While producing outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) containing only A subunit of the toxin (STxA), we created specific STx1B- and STx2B-deficient mutants of E. coli O157:H7. Surprisingly, STxA subunit was absent in the OMVs and periplasm of the STxB-deficient mutants. In parallel, the A subunit of heat-labile toxin (LT) of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) was absent in the periplasm of the LT-B-deficient mutant, suggesting that instability of toxin A subunit in the absence of the B subunit is a common phenomenon in the AB(5) bacterial toxins. Moreover, STx2A was barely detectable in the periplasm of E. coli JM109 when stx2A was overexpressed alone, while it was stably present when stxB was co-expressed. Compared with STx2 holotoxin, purified STx2A was degraded rapidly by periplasmic proteases when assessed for in vitro proteolytic susceptibility, suggesting that the B subunit contributes to stability of the toxin A subunit in the periplasm. We propose a novel role for toxin B subunits of AB(5) toxins in protection of the A subunit from proteolysis during holotoxin assembly in the periplasm.
Project description:Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, a Gram-negative rod widely distributed in the environment, is resistant to most β-lactam antibiotics. Three bla genes have been identified in E. meningoseptica, coding for the extended-spectrum serine-β-lactamase CME (class D) and two unrelated wide-spectrum metallo-β-lactamases, BlaB (subclass B1) and GOB (subclass B3). E. meningoseptica is singular in being the only reported microorganism possessing two chromosomally encoded MBL genes. Real-time PCR and biochemical analysis demonstrate that the three bla genes are actively expressed in vivo as functional β-lactamases. However, while CME elicits cephalosporin resistance, BlaB is the only β-lactamase responsible for E. meningoseptica resistance to imipenem, as GOB activity is masked by higher cellular levels of BlaB. On the other hand, we demonstrate that bla(BlaB) expression is higher in the stationary phase or under conditions that mimic the nutrient-limiting cerebrospinal fluid colonized by E. meningoseptica in human meningitis.
Project description:We recently demonstrated that incorporation of 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose (l-Ara4N) to the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is required for transport of LPS to the outer membrane and viability of the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia. ArnT is a membrane protein catalyzing the transfer of l-Ara4N to the LPS molecule at the periplasmic face of the inner membrane, but its topology and mechanism of action are not well characterized. Here, we elucidate the topology of ArnT and identify key amino acids that likely contribute to its enzymatic function. PEGylation assays using a cysteineless version of ArnT support a model of 13 transmembrane helices and a large C-terminal region exposed to the periplasm. The same topological configuration is proposed for the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ArnT. Four highly conserved periplasmic residues in B. cenocepacia ArnT, tyrosine-43, lysine-69, arginine-254 and glutamic acid-493, were required for activity. Tyrosine-43 and lysine-69 span two highly conserved motifs, (42)RYA(44) and (66)YFEKP(70), that are found in ArnT homologues from other species. The same residues in S. enterica ArnT are also needed for function. We propose these aromatic and charged amino acids participate in either undecaprenyl phosphate-l-Ara4N substrate recognition or transfer of l-Ara4N to the LPS.
Project description:Strains of Escherichia coli containing mutations in the cydDC genes are defective for synthesis of the heme proteins cytochrome bd and c-type cytochromes. The cydDC genes encode a putative heterodimeric ATP-binding cassette transporter that has been proposed to act as an exporter of heme to the periplasm. To more fully understand the role of this transporter (and other factors) in heme protein biosynthesis, we developed plasmids that produce various heme proteins (e.g., cytochrome b5, cytochrome b562, and hemoglobin) in the periplasm of E. coli. By using these reporters, it was shown that the steady-state levels of polypeptides of heme proteins known to be stable without heme (e.g., cytochrome b5 and hemoglobin apoprotein) are significantly reduced in a cydC mutant. Exogenous addition of hemin to the cydC mutant still resulted in < 10% of wild-type steady-state levels of apohemoglobin in the periplasm. Since the results of heme reporter studies are not consistent with lower heme availability (i.e., heme export) in a cydC mutant, we analyzed other properties of the periplasm in cydC mutants and compared them with those of the periplasm in cydAB (encoding cytochrome bd) mutants and wild-type cells. Our results led us to favor a hypothesis whereby cydDC mutants are defective in the reduction environment within the periplasmic space. Such an imbalance could lead to defects in the synthesis of heme-liganded proteins. The heme reporters were also used to analyze strains of E. coli with a defect in genes encoding homologs of a different ABC transporter (helABC). The helABC genes have previously been shown to be required for the assembly of c-type cytochromes in Rhodobacter capsulatus (R. G. Kranz, J. Bacteriol. 171:456-464, 1989; D. L. Beckman, D. R. Trawick, and R. G. Kranz, Genes Dev. 6:268-283, 1992). This locus was shown to be essential in E. coli for endogenous cytochrome c biogenesis but not cytochrome b562 synthesis. Consistent with these and previous results, it is proposed that the HelABC transporter is specifically involved in heme export for ligation (hel). This class of periplasmic cytochromes is proposed to require heme liganding before undergoing correct folding.
Project description:Bacteria acquire phosphate (Pi) by maintaining a periplasmic concentration below environmental levels. We recently described an extracellular Pi buffer which appears to counteract the gradient required for Pi diffusion. Here, we demonstrate that various treatments to outer membrane (OM) constituents do not affect the buffered Pi because bacteria accumulate Pi in the periplasm, from which it can be removed hypo-osmotically. The periplasmic Pi can be gradually imported into the cytoplasm by ATP-powered transport, however, the proton motive force (PMF) is not required to keep Pi in the periplasm. In contrast, the accumulation of Pi into the periplasm across the OM is PMF-dependent and can be enhanced by light energy. Because the conventional mechanism of Pi-specific transport cannot explain Pi accumulation in the periplasm we propose that periplasmic Pi anions pair with chemiosmotic cations of the PMF and millions of accumulated Pi pairs could influence the periplasmic osmolarity of marine bacteria.