Role of pncA and rpsA gene sequencing in detection of pyrazinamide resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from southern China.
ABSTRACT: We sequenced pncA and rpsA genes plus flanking regions of 161 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and found 10 new pncA and 3 novel rpsA mutations in pyrazinamide-resistant strains determined by the Bactec MGIT 960 system. The 3' end of rpsA might be added as the target of molecular detection of pyrazinamide susceptibility.
Project description:Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing is the current "gold standard" for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility to antituberculous drugs. Pyrazinamide is one antituberculous drug for which the correlation between in vitro resistance and clinical outcomes remains unclear. Here we performed latent class analysis (LCA) to develop a consensus gold standard definition of pyrazinamide resistance using three paired standard pyrazinamide resistance assays. We then compared this consensus measure to the 2-month culture results for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) who were treated for 2 months with first-line antituberculous drugs before their resistance results were known. Among 121 patients with MDR-TB, 60 (49.6%) were resistant to pyrazinamide by the Wayne method (L. G. Wayne, Am Rev Respir Dis 109:147-151, 1974), 71 (58.7%) were resistant by the Bactec MGIT 960 method, and 68 (56.2%) were resistant by pncA sequencing. LCA grouped isolates with positive results by at least two assays into a category which we considered the "consensus gold standard" for pyrazinamide resistance. The sensitivity and specificity for this consensus gold standard were 82.4% and 92.5%, respectively, for the Wayne method; 95.6% and 88.7%, respectively, for the Bactec MGIT 960 method; and 92.6% and 90.6%, respectively, for pncA sequencing. After we adjusted for other factors associated with poor outcomes, including age, sex, alcohol use, and baseline ethambutol resistance, patients whose isolates were resistant by the LCA-derived consensus gold standard were more likely to be culture positive at 2 months with an odds ratio of 1.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 5.11), but this result was not statistically significant. These findings underscore the need for improved diagnostics for routine use in programmatic settings.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Susceptibility testing for pyrazinamide (PZA), a cornerstone anti-TB drug is not commonly done in Uganda because it is expensive and characterized with technical difficulties thus resistance to this drug is less studied. Resistance is commonly associated with mutations in the pncA gene and its promoter region. However, these mutations vary geographically and those conferring phenotypic resistance are unknown in Uganda. This study determined the prevalence of PZA resistance and its association with pncA mutations. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Using a cross-sectional design, archived isolates collected during the Uganda national drug resistance survey between 2008-2011 were sub-cultured. PZA resistance was tested by BACTEC Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 system. Sequence reads were downloaded from the NCBI Library and bioinformatics pipelines were used to screen for PZA resistance-conferring mutations. RESULTS:The prevalence of phenotypic PZA resistance was found to be 21%. The sensitivity and specificity of pncA sequencing were 24% (95% CI, 9.36-45.13%) and 100% (73.54% - 100.0%) respectively. We identified four mutations associated with PZA phenotypic resistance in Uganda; K96R, T142R, R154G and V180F. CONCLUSION:There is a high prevalence of phenotypic PZA resistance among TB patients in Uganda. The low sensitivity of pncA gene sequencing confirms the already documented discordances suggesting other mechanisms of PZA resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Project description:Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important component of first-line therapy for the treatment of tuberculosis. Here, we evaluate targeted gene sequencing as a supplement to phenotypic PZA susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Routine sequencing of pncA, but not rpsA, is effective for verification of PZA susceptibility results.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important component of first-line drugs because of its distinctive capability to kill subpopulations of persistent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The prodrug (PZA) is converted to its active form, pyrazinoic acid (POA) by MTB pncA-encoded pyrazinamidase (PZase). Mutation in pncA is the most common and primary cause of PZA resistance. The aim of the present study was to explore the molecular characterization of PZA resistance in a Pashtun-dominated region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. METHODS:We performed drug susceptibility testing (DST) on 753 culture-positive isolates collected from the Provincial Tuberculosis Control Program Khyber Pakhtunkhwa using the BACTEC MGIT 960 PZA method. In addition, the pncA gene was sequenced in PZA-resistant isolates, and PZA susceptibility testing results were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of pncA gene mutations. RESULTS:A total of 69 isolates were PZA resistant (14.8%). Mutations were investigated in 69 resistant, 26 susceptible and one H37Rv isolates by sequencing. Thirty-six different mutations were identified in PZA-resistant isolates, with fifteen mutations, including 194_203delCCTCGTCGTG and 317_318delTC, that have not been reported in TBDRM and GMTV Databases and previous studies. Mutations Lys96Thr and Ser179Gly were found in the maximum number of isolates (n?=?4 each). We did not detect mutations in sensitive isolates, except for the synonymous mutation 195C?>?T (Ser65Ser). The sensitivity and specificity of the pncA sequencing method were 79.31% (95% CI, 69.29 to 87.25%) and 86.67% (95% CI, 69.28 to 96.24%). CONCLUSION:Mutations in the pncA gene in circulating isolates of geographically distinct regions, especially in high-burden countries, should be investigated for better control and management of drug-resistant TB. Molecular methods for the investigation of PZA resistance are better than DST.
Project description:Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important first-line anti-tuberculosis drug. But PZA susceptibility test is challenging because PZA activity is optimal only in an acid environment that inhibits the growth of M. tuberculosis. For current phenotypic methods, inconsistent results between different labs have been reported. Direct sequencing of pncA gene is being considered as an accurate predictor for PZA susceptibility, but this approach needs expensive sequencers and a mutation database to report the results. An in-vitro synthesized Pyrazinamidase (PZase) assay was developed based on PCR amplification of pncA gene and an in vitro wheat germ system to express the pncA gene into PZase. The activity of the synthesized PZase was used as an indicator for PZA susceptibility. Fifty-one clinical isolates were tested along with pncA sequencing and the BACTEC MGIT 960 methods. The in-vitro synthesized PZase assay was able to detect PZA susceptibility of M. tuberculosis within 24 h through observing the color difference either by a spectrometer or naked eyes. This method showed agreements of 100% (33/33) and 88% (14/16) with the pncA sequencing method, and agreements of 96% (27/28) and 65% (15/23) with the BACTEC MGIT 960 method, for susceptible and resistant strains, respectively. The novel in-vitro synthesized PZase assay has significant advantages over current methods, such as its fast speed, simplicity, no need for expensive equipment, and the potentials of being a direct test, predicting resistance level and easy reading results by naked eyes. After confirmation by more clinical tests, this method may provide a radical change to the current PZA susceptibility assays.
Project description:A central approach for better understanding the forces involved in maintaining protein structures is to investigate the protein folding and thermodynamic properties. The effect of the folding process is often disturbed in mutated states. To explore the dynamic properties behind mutations, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations have been widely performed, especially in unveiling the mechanism of drug failure behind mutation. When comparing wild type (WT) and mutants (MTs), the structural changes along with solvation free energy (SFE), and Gibbs free energy (GFE) are calculated after the MD simulation, to measure the effect of mutations on protein structure. Pyrazinamide (PZA) is one of the first-line drugs, effective against latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, affecting the global TB control program 2030. Resistance to this drug emerges due to mutations in pncA and rpsA genes, encoding pyrazinamidase (PZase) and ribosomal protein S1 (RpsA) respectively. The question of how the GFE may be a measure of PZase and RpsA stabilities, has been addressed in the current review. The GFE and SFE of MTs have been compared with WT, which were already found to be PZA-resistant. WT structures attained a more stable state in comparison with MTs. The physiological effect of a mutation in PZase and RpsA may be due to the difference in energies. This difference between WT and MTs, depicted through GFE plots, might be useful in predicting the stability and PZA-resistance behind mutation. This study provides useful information for better management of drug resistance, to control the global TB problem.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pyrazinamide still may be a useful drug for treatment of rifampin-resistant (RR-TB) or multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in China while awaiting scale up of new drugs and regimens including bedaquiline and linezolid. The level of pyrazinamide resistance among MDR-TB patients in China is not well established. Therefore, we assessed pyrazinamide resistance in a representative sample and explored determinants and patterns of pncA mutations. METHODS:MDR-TB isolates from the 2007 national drug resistance survey of China were sub-cultured and examined for pyrazinamide susceptibility by BACTEC MGIT 960 method. pncA mutations were identified by sequencing. Characteristics associated with pyrazinamide resistance were analyzed using univariable and multivariable log-binominal regression. RESULTS:Of 401 MDR-TB isolates, 324 were successfully sub-cultured and underwent drug susceptibility testing. Pyrazinamide resistance was prevalent in 40.7% of samples, similarly among new and previously treated MDR-TB patients. Pyrazinamide resistance in MDR-TB patients was associated with lower age (adjusted OR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.34-0.87 for those aged ?60?years compared to <?40?years). Pyrazinamide resistance was not associated with gender, residential area, previous treatment history and Beijing genotype. Of 132 patients with pyrazinamide resistant MDR-TB, 97 (73.5%) had a mutation in the pncA gene; with 61 different point mutations causing amino acid change, and 11 frameshifts in the pncA gene. The mutations were scattered throughout the whole pncA gene and no hot spot region was identified. CONCLUSIONS:Pyrazinamide resistance among MDR-TB patients in China is common, although less so in elderly patients. Therefore, pyrazinamide should only be used for treatment of RR/MDR-TB in China if susceptibility is confirmed. Molecular testing for detection of pyrazinamide resistance only based on pncA mutations has certain value for the rapid detection of pyrazinamide resistance in MDR-TB strains but other gene mutations conferring to pyrazinamide resistance still need to be explored to increase its predictive ability .
Project description:Sequencing of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis pncA gene allows for pyrazinamide susceptibility testing. We summarize data on pncA polymorphisms that do not confer resistance at a susceptibility breakpoint of 100 ?g/ml pyrazinamide in MGIT within a cohort of isolates from South Africa and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Project description:Resistance to key first-line drugs is a major hurdle to achieve the global end tuberculosis (TB) targets. A prodrug, pyrazinamide (PZA) is the only drug, effective in latent TB, recommended in drug resistance and susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates. The prodrug conversion into active form, pyrazinoic acid (POA), required the activity of pncA gene encoded pyrazinamidase (PZase). Although pncA mutations have been commonly associated with PZA resistance but a small number of resistance cases have been associated with mutationss in RpsA protein. Here in this study a total of 69 PZA resistance isolates have been sequenced for pncA mutations. However, samples that were found PZA resistant but pncA wild type (pncAWT), have been sequenced for rpsA and panD genes mutation. We repeated a drug susceptibility testing according to the WHO guidelines on 18 pncAWT MTB isolates. The rpsA and panD genes were sequenced. Out of total 69 PZA resistant isolates, 51 harbored 36 mutations in pncA gene (GeneBank Accession No. MH46111) while, fifteen different mutations including seven novel, were detected in the fourth S1 domain of RpsA known as C-terminal (MtRpsACTD) end. We did not detect any mutations in panD gene. Among the rpsA mutations, we investigated the molecular mechanism of resistance behind mutations, D342N, D343N, A344P, and I351F, present in the MtRpsACTD through molecular dynamic simulations (MD). WT showed a good drug binding affinity as compared to mutants (MTs), D342N, D343N, A344P, and I351F. Binding pocket volume, stability, and fluctuations have been altered whereas the total energy, protein folding, and geometric shape analysis further explored a significant variation between WT and MTs. In conclusion, mutations in MtRpsACTD might be involved to alter the RpsA activity, resulting in drug resistance. Such molecular mechanism behind resistance may provide a better insight into the resistance mechanism to achieve the global TB control targets.
Project description:Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a key component for the effective treatment of drug-susceptible and PZA-susceptible multidrug-resistant (MDRPZA-S) tuberculosis (TB). pncA gene mutations are usually detected in a clear majority (>90%) of PZA-resistant strains but obviously not in all. Rapid and reliable PZA drug susceptibility testing (DST) is critical whenever PZA is to be used in a treatment regimen, not least for the treatment of MDRPZA-S TB. In this study, we selected 26 PZA-resistant isolates reported to carry a wild-type pncA gene. To confirm resistance, susceptibility testing was repeated using 100 mg/liter and 200 mg/liter PZA for all the 26 isolates and Sanger sequencing was repeated on the 18 isolates that remained PZA resistant. Apart from the eight isolates initially misclassified as PZA resistant, the retests identified three factors responsible for the phenotype-genotype discrepancy: panD or rpsA mutations identified by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) (n = 7), heteroresistance (n = 8), and mixed populations with Mycobacterium avium (n = 3). Additionally, we performed WGS on 400 PZA-susceptible isolates and 15 consecutive MDRPZA-R clinical isolates. Of the 400 PZA-susceptible isolates, only 1 harbored a nonsynonymous pncA mutation (Thr87Met), whereas a nonsynonymous rpsA mutation was found in 17 isolates. None of these isolates carried a nonsynonymous panD mutation, while all 15 of the MDRPZA-R isolates harbored a nonsynonymous pncA mutation. Our findings indicate that it is necessary to consider the occurrence of panD mutations in PZA-resistant isolates, as well as heteroresistance, for the development and evaluation of new molecular techniques to ensure high-quality DST performance. The identification of nonsynonymous rpsA mutations in both PZA-susceptible and PZA-resistant isolates also implies that further studies are needed in order to determine the role of rpsA in PZA resistance.