Lack of common TCRA and TCRB clonotypes in CD8(+)/TCR??(+) T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia: a review on the role of antigenic selection in the immunopathogenesis of CD8(+) T-LGL.
ABSTRACT: Clonal CD8(+)/T-cell receptor (TCR)??(+) T-cell large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) proliferations constitute the most common subtype of T-LGL leukemia. Although the etiology of T-LGL leukemia is largely unknown, it has been hypothesized that chronic antigenic stimulation contributes to the pathogenesis of this disorder. In the present study, we explored the association between expanded TCR-V? and TCR-V? clonotypes in a cohort of 26 CD8(+)/TCR??(+) T-LGL leukemia patients, in conjunction with the HLA-ABC genotype, to find indications for common antigenic stimuli. In addition, we applied purpose-built sophisticated computational tools for an in-depth evaluation of clustering of TCR? (TCRB) complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) amino-acid LGL clonotypes. We observed a lack of clear TCRA and TCRB CDR3 homology in CD8(+)/TCR??(+) T-LGL, with only low level similarity between small numbers of cases. This is in strong contrast to the homology that is seen in CD4(+)/TCR??(+) T-LGL and TCR??(+) T-LGL and thus underlines the idea that the LGL types have different etiopathogenesis. The heterogeneity of clonal CD8(+)/TCR??(+) T-LGL proliferations might in fact suggest that multiple pathogens or autoantigens are involved.
Project description:New massively parallel sequencing technology enables, through deep sequencing of rearranged T-cell receptor (TCR) V? complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) regions, a previously inaccessible level of TCR repertoire analysis. The CDR3 repertoire diversity reflects clonal composition, the potential antigenic recognition spectrum, and the quantity of available T-cell responses. In this context, T-large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) leukemia is a chronic clonal lymphoproliferation of cytotoxic T cells often associated with autoimmune diseases and various cytopenias. Using CD8(+) T-LGL leukemia as a model disease, we set out to evaluate and compare the TCR deep-sequencing spectra of both patients and healthy controls to better understand how TCR deep sequencing could be used in the diagnosis and monitoring of not only T-LGL leukemia but also reactive processes such as autoimmune disease and infection. Our data demonstrate, with high resolution, significantly decreased diversity of the T-cell repertoire in CD8(+) T-LGL leukemia and suggest that many T-LGL clonotypes may be private to the disease and may not be present in the general public, even at the basal level.
Project description:T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated cross-recognition is a major mechanism in the pathogenesis of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome. However, the characteristics of the TCR repertoire and the clinical significance of repertoire reformation throughout the course of DRESS are unknown. Here, we isolated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells from peripheral blood of 8 DRESS patients at 10-day intervals and, sequenced CDR3-regions of the TCRB chain by high-throughput sequencing to analyze the dynamic reformation in the T-cell repertoire hierarchy. Compared with healthy donors, T-cell expanded in peripheral repertoires from DRESS patient. The extent of fluctuation of dominant CD8(+) T-cell clones, but not of CD4(+) counterparts, correlated positively with the clinical severity and helped classify the enrolled subjects into "fluctuant" and "flat" repertoire groups. The anti-herpesvirus response, which was measured using anti-EBV/HHV antibodies, and the proportion of the homologous CD8(+) EBV-specific clonotypes, in the "fluctuant" group was substantial higher than that in the "flat" group. Furthermore, autoimmune sequelae were observed in a cured "fluctuant" patient. Collectively, the clinical relevance of the fluctuant CD8(+) T-cell repertoires supports the notion that herpes virus-mediated continuously de novo priming of newly pathogenic CD8(+) T-cell clones is an alternate mechanism responsible for the pathogenicity of DRESS.
Project description:Respiratory support improvements have aided survival of premature neonates, but infection susceptibility remains a predominant problem. We previously reported that neonatal mice have a rapidly evolving T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire that impairs CD8+ T cell immunity. To understand the impact of prematurity on the human CD8+ TCR repertoire, we performed next-generation sequencing of the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) from the rearranged TCR variable beta (V?) in sorted, naïve CD8+ T cells from extremely preterm neonates (23-27?weeks gestation), term neonates (37-41?weeks gestation), children (16-56?months), and adults (25-50?years old). Strikingly, preterm neonates had an increased frequency of public clonotypes shared between unrelated individuals. Public clonotypes identified in preterm infants were encoded by germline gene sequences, and some of these clonotypes persisted into adulthood. The preterm neonatal naïve CD8+ TCR repertoire exhibited convergent recombination, characterized by different nucleotide sequences encoding the same amino acid CDR3 sequence. As determined by Pielou's evenness and iChao1 metrics, extremely preterm neonates have less clonality, and a much lower bound for the number of unique TCR within an individual preterm neonate, which indicates a less rich and diverse repertoire, as compared to term neonates, children, and adults. This suggests that T cell selection in the preterm neonate may be less stringent or different. Our analysis is the first to compare the TCR repertoire of naïve CD8+ T cells between viable preterm neonates and term neonates. We find preterm neonates have a repertoire immaturity which potentially contributes to their increased infection susceptibility. A developmentally regulated, evenly distributed repertoire in preterm neonates may lead to the inclusion of public TCR CDR3? sequences that overlap between unrelated individuals in the preterm repertoire.
Project description:TCR??+ T-LGL leukemia is a rare form of chronic mature T cell disorders in elderly, which is generally characterized by a persistently enlarged CD3+CD57+TCR??+ large granular lymphocyte population in the peripheral blood with a monoclonal phenotype. Clinically, the disease is heterogeneous, most patients being largely asymptomatic, although neutropenia, fatigue and B symptoms and underlying diseases such as autoimmune diseases or malignancies are also often observed. The etiology of TCR??+ T-LGL proliferations is largely unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of these rare proliferations by performing gene expression profiling of TCR??+ T-LGL versus normal TCR??+ T cell subsets. From our initial microarray dataset we observed that TCR??+ T-LGL leukemia forms a separate group when compared with different healthy control TCR??+ T cell subsets, correlating best with the healthy TemRA subset. The lowest correlation was seen with the naive subset. Based on specific comparison between healthy control cells and TCR??+ T-LGL leukemia cells we observed up-regulation of survival, proliferation and hematopoietic system related genes, with a remarkable down-regulation of apoptotic pathway genes. RQ-PCR validation of important genes representative for the dataset, including apoptosis (XIAP, CASP1, BCLAF1 and CFLAR), proliferation/development (ID3) and inflammation (CD28, CCR7, CX3CR1 and IFNG) processes largely confirmed the dysregulation in proliferation and apoptosis. Based on these expression data we conclude that TCR??+ T-LGL leukemia is likely the result of an underlying aberrant molecular mechanisms leading to increased proliferation and reduced apoptosis.
Project description:A diverse T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is essential for controlling viral infections. However, information about TCR repertoires to defined viral antigens is limited. We performed a comprehensive analysis of CD8+ TCR repertoires for two dominant viral epitopes: pp65495-503 (NLV) of cytomegalovirus and M158-66 (GIL) of influenza A virus. The highly individualized repertoires (87-5,533 ? or ? clonotypes per subject) comprised thousands of unique TCR? and TCR? sequences and dozens of distinct complementary determining region (CDR)3? and CDR3? motifs. However, diversity is effectively restricted by preferential V-J combinations, CDR3 lengths, and CDR3?/CDR3? pairings. Structures of two GIL-specific TCRs bound to GIL-HLA-A2 provided a potential explanation for the lower diversity of GIL-specific versus NLV-specific repertoires. These anti-viral TCRs occupied up to 3.4% of the CD8+ TCR? repertoire, ensuring broad T cell responses to single epitopes. Our portrait of two anti-viral TCR repertoires may inform the development of predictors of immune protection.
Project description:Adipose tissue (AT) CD4+ and CD8+ T cells contribute to obesity-associated insulin resistance. Prior studies identified conserved T-cell receptor (TCR) chain families in obese AT, but the presence and clonal expansion of specific TCR sequences in obesity has not been assessed. We characterized AT and liver CD8+ and CD4+ TCR repertoires of mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD) and high-fat diet (HFD) using deep sequencing of the TCRβ chain to quantify clonal expansion, gene usage, and CDR3 sequence. In AT CD8+ T cells, HFD reduced TCR diversity, increased the prevalence of public TCR clonotypes, and selected for TCR CDR3 regions enriched in positively charged and less polarized amino acids. Although TCR repertoire alone could distinguish between LFD- and HFD-fed mice, these properties of the CDR3 region of AT CD8+ T cells from HFD-fed mice led us to examine the role of negatively charged and nonpolar isolevuglandin (isoLG) adduct-containing antigen-presenting cells within AT. IsoLG-adducted protein species were significantly higher in AT macrophages of HFD-fed mice; isoLGs were elevated in M2-polarized macrophages, promoting CD8+ T-cell activation. Our findings demonstrate that clonal TCR expansion that favors positively charged CDR3s accompanies HFD-induced obesity, which may be an antigen-driven response to isoLG accumulation in macrophages.
Project description:Defects in T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire are proposed to predispose to autoimmunity. Here we show, by analyzing >2?×?108 TCRB sequences of circulating naive, central memory, regulatory and stem cell-like memory CD4+ T cell subsets from patients with type 1 diabetes and healthy donors, that patients have shorter TCRB complementarity-determining region 3s (CDR3), in all cell subsets, introduced by increased deletions/reduced insertions during VDJ rearrangement. High frequency of short CDR3s is also observed in unproductive TCRB sequences, which are not subjected to thymic culling, suggesting that the shorter CDR3s arise independently of positive/negative selection. Moreover, TCRB CDR3 clonotypes expressed by autoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells are shorter compared with anti-viral T cells, and with those from healthy donors. Thus, early events in thymic T cell development and repertoire generation are abnormal in type 1 diabetes, which suggest that short CDR3s increase the potential for self-recognition, conferring heightened risk of autoimmune disease.
Project description:Generating a detailed description of human T cell repertoire diversity is an important goal in the study of human immunology. The circulation is the source of most T cells used for studies in humans. Here we use high throughput sequencing of TCR BV19 transcripts from CD8 T cells derived from unmanipulated PBMC from an older HLA-A2 individual to provide a quantitative and qualitative description of the clonotypic CDR3 nucleotide and amino acid composition of the TCR ?-chain from this subset of circulating CD8 T cells. Aggregated samples from six time points spanning ?1.5 years were analyzed to smooth possible temporal fluctuation. BV19 encompasses the well studied RS-encoding clonotypes involved in recognition of the M1(58-66) epitope from influenza A in HLA-A2 individuals. The clonotype distribution was diverse, complex and self-similar. The amino acid composition was generally skewed in favor of glycines and there were specific amino acids observed at higher frequency at the NDN start position. The motif repertoire distribution was also diverse, complex and self-similar with respect to CDR3 length, NDN start and length.
Project description:Recombination of germline TCR alpha and beta genes generates polypeptide receptors for MHC peptide. Ag exposure during long-term herpes simplex infections may shape the T cell repertoire over time. We investigated the CD8 T cell response to HSV-2 in chronically infected individuals by sequencing the hypervariable regions encoding TCR alpha and beta polypeptides from T cell clones recognizing virion protein 22 aa 49-57, an immunodominant epitope. The most commonly detected TCRBV gene segment, found in four of five subjects and in 12 of 50 independently derived T cell clones, was TCRBV12-4. Nineteen to seventy-two percent of tetramer-binding cells in PBMCs were stained ex vivo with a TCRBV12 mAb. Three alpha-chain and three beta-chain public TCR sequences were shared between individuals. Public heterodimers were also detected. Promiscuous pairing of a specific TCRVA1-1 sequence with several different TCRB polypeptides was observed, implying a dominant structural role for the TCRA chain for these clonotypes. Functional avidity for cytotoxicity and IFN-gamma release was relatively invariant, except for one subject with both high avidity and unique TCR sequences and lower HSV-2 shedding. These data indicate that the CD8 response to a dominant alpha-herpesvirus epitope converges on preferred TCR sequences with relatively constant functional avidity.
Project description:The adaptive immune system uses several strategies to generate a repertoire of T cell receptors (TCR) with sufficient diversity to recognize the universe of potential pathogens. However, it remains unclear how differences in the T cell receptor (TCR) contribute to heterogeneity in T cell state. In this study, we used polychromatic flow cytometry to isolate highly pure CD4<sup>+</sup>/CD8<sup>+</sup> naive and memory T cells, and applied deep sequencing to characterize corresponding TCR ?-chain (TCR?) complementary-determining region 3 (CDR3) repertoires. We find that shorter TCR? CDR3s with fewer insertions were highly enriched during thymic selection. Antigen-experienced T cells (memory T cells) harbor shorter CDR3s vs. naive T cells. Moreover, the public TCR? CDR3 clonotypes within cell subsets or interindividual tend to have shorter CDR3 length and a significantly larger size compared with "private" clonotypes. Taken together, shorter CDR3s highly enriched during thymic selection and antigen-driven selection, and further enriched in public T-cell responses. These results indicated that it may be evolutionary pressures drive short CDR3s to recognize most of antigen in nature.