Dysbiosis of salivary microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease and its association with oral immunological biomarkers.
ABSTRACT: Analysis of microbiota in various biological and environmental samples under a variety of conditions has recently become more practical due to remarkable advances in next-generation sequencing. Changes leading to specific biological states including some of the more complex diseases can now be characterized with relative ease. It is known that gut microbiota is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), mainly Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, exhibiting symptoms in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies also showed increased frequency of oral manifestations among IBD patients, indicating aberrations in the oral microbiota. Based on these observations, we analyzed the composition of salivary microbiota of 35 IBD patients by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and compared it with that of 24 healthy controls (HCs). The results showed that Bacteroidetes was significantly increased with a concurrent decrease in Proteobacteria in the salivary microbiota of IBD patients. The dominant genera, Streptococcus, Prevotella, Neisseria, Haemophilus, Veillonella, and Gemella, were found to largely contribute to dysbiosis (dysbacteriosis) observed in the salivary microbiota of IBD patients. Analysis of immunological biomarkers in the saliva of IBD patients showed elevated levels of many inflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulin A, and a lower lysozyme level. A strong correlation was shown between lysozyme and IL-1? levels and the relative abundance of Streptococcus, Prevotella, Haemophilus and Veillonella. Our data demonstrate that dysbiosis of salivary microbiota is associated with inflammatory responses in IBD patients, suggesting that it is possibly linked to dysbiosis of their gut microbiota.
Project description:The upper respiratory tract (URT) is home to various microbial commensals, which function as competitors to pathogens and help train the immune system. However, few studies have reported the normal microbiota carriage in the URT of healthy Chinese children. In this study, we performed a 16S rDNA gene sequencing analysis of 83 anterior nares (ANs), 60 nasopharynx (NP), and 97 oropharynx (OP) samples from 98 healthy children in Shenzhen, China (?12 years of age). The microbiota in ANs and NP is the same at different ages and typical species in these sites include Moraxella, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Streptococcus, and Dolosigranulum. By contrast, the OP is primarily colonized by Streptococcus, Prevotella, Neisseria, Veillonella, Rothia, Leptotrichia, and Haemophilus. Streptococcus and Rothia keep low abundance in OP microbiota of children ?1 year old, whereas Prevotella, Neisseria, Haemophilus, and Leptotrichia amass significantly in individuals >1 year old. This work furnishes an important reference for understanding microbial dysbiosis in the URT of Chinese paediatric patients.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic, idiopathic, relapsing disorders of unclear etiology affecting millions of people worldwide. Aberrant interactions between the human microbiota and immune system in genetically susceptible populations underlie IBD pathogenesis. Despite extensive studies examining the involvement of the gut microbiota in IBD using culture-independent techniques, information is lacking regarding other human microbiome components relevant to IBD. Since accumulated knowledge has underscored the role of the oral microbiota in various systemic diseases, we hypothesized that dissonant oral microbial structure, composition, and function, and different community ecotypes are associated with IBD; and we explored potentially available oral indicators for predicting diseases. We examined the 16S rRNA V3-V4 region of salivary bacterial DNA from 54 ulcerative colitis (UC), 13 Crohn's disease (CD), and 25 healthy individuals using Illumina sequencing. Distinctive sample clusters were driven by disease or health based on principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of both the Operational Taxonomic Unit profile and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Comparisons of taxa abundances revealed enrichment of Streptococcaceae (Streptococcus) and Enterobacteriaceae in UC and Veillonellaceae (Veillonella) in CD, accompanied by depletion of Lachnospiraceae and [Prevotella] in UC and Neisseriaceae (Neisseria) and Haemophilus in CD, most of which have been demonstrated to exhibit the same variation tendencies in the gut of IBD patients. IBD-related oral microorganisms were associated with white blood cells, reduced basic metabolic processes, and increased biosynthesis and transport of substances facilitating oxidative stress and virulence. Furthermore, UC and CD communities showed robust sub-ecotypes that were not demographic or severity-specific, suggesting their value for future applications in precision medicine. Additionally, indicator species analysis revealed several genera indicative of UC and CD, which were confirmed in a longitudinal cohort. Collectively, this study demonstrates evident salivary dysbiosis and different ecotypes in IBD communities and provides an option for identifying at-risk populations, not only enhancing our understanding of the IBD microbiome apart from the gut but also offering a clinically useful strategy to track IBD as saliva can be sampled conveniently and non-invasively.
Project description:The oral cavity is one of the most complex microbial environments; however, the complex nature of the salivary microbiota and the level of inorganic anions in the saliva of subjects with and without gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are poorly understood. The primary goals of this pilot research were to assess differences in salivary bacterial community composition and inorganic anion concentrations between patients with GERD and GERD-free people. Thus, the salivary microbiota within both groups was dominated by these genera: Streptococcus, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Veillonella, Neisseria, Haemophilus, Fusobacterium, Rothia, and Leptotrichia. However, the relative abundances of the genera Actinomyces, Atopobium, Stomatobaculum, Ruminococcaceae_[G-2], Veillonella, and Leptotrichia were significantly higher in the saliva samples of patients with GERD, while the genera Porphyromonas, Gemella, Peptostreptococcus, and Neisseria were less abundant in this group. The concentrations of chloride, phosphate, and sulphate ions in the human saliva varied among all subjects and sampling time. These results broaden our knowledge of the salivary microbial community composition and chemistry of saliva of patients with GERD and GERD-free individuals.
Project description:An increasing number of studies have suggested the dysbiosis of salivary microbiome has been linked to the advancement of multiple diseases and proved to be helpful for the diagnosis of them. Although epidemiological studies of salivary microbiota in carcinogenesis are mounting, no systemic study exists regarding the oral microbiota of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In this study, we presented the characteristics of the salivary microbiota in patients from NSCLC and healthy controls by sequencing of the 16S rRNA microbial genes. Our result revealed distinct salivary microbiota composition in patients from NSCLC compared to the healthy controls. As principal co-ordinates analysis (PCoA) showed, saliva samples clearly differed between the two groups, considering the weighted (p = 0.001, R2 = 0.17), and unweighted (p = 0.001, R2 = 0.25) UniFrac distance. Phylum Firmicutes (31.69% vs 24.25%, p < 0.05) and its two genera Veillonella (15.51%% vs 9.35%, p < 0.05) and Streptococcus (9.96% vs 6.83%, p < 0.05) were strongly increased in NSCLC group compared to the controls. Additionally, the relative abundances of Fusobacterium (3.06% vs 4.92%, p = 0.08), Prevotella (1.45% vs 3.52%, p < 0.001), Bacteroides (0.56% vs 2.24%, p < 0.001), and Faecalibacterium (0.21% vs 1.00%, p < 0.001) in NSCLC group were generally decreased. Furthermore, we investigated the correlations between systemic inflammation markers and salivary microbiota. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) positively correlated with the Veillonella (r =0.350, p = 0.007) and lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR) negatively correlated with Streptococcus (r =-0.340, p = 0.008). Additionally, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways inferred by phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) showed that pathways related to xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism (p < 0.05) and amino acid metabolism (p < 0.05) were enriched in the NSCLC group. Folate biosynthesis (p < 0.05) significantly decreased in NSCLC group. The specific correlations of clinical systemic inflammation markers and predicted KEGG pathways also could pronounce a broad understanding of salivary microbiota in patients with NSCLC. Moreover, our study extended the new sight into salivary microbiota-targeted interventions to clinically improve the therapeutic strategies for salivary dysbiosis in NSCLC patients. Further investigations of the potential mechanism of salivary microbiota in the progression of NSCLC are still in demand.
Project description:Tea is the most widely consumed beverages next to water, however little is known about the influence of sustained tea consumption on the oral bacteria of healthy adults. In this study, three oral healthy adults were recruited and instructed to consume 1.0 L of oolong tea infusions (total polyphenol content, 2.83 g/L) daily, for eight weeks. Salivary microbiota pre-, peri-, and post-treatment were fully compared by high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing and multivariate statistical analysis. It was revealed that oolong tea consumption reduced salivary bacterial diversity and the population of some oral disease related bacteria, such as Streptococcus sp., Prevotella nanceiensis, Fusobacterium periodonticum, Alloprevotella rava, and Prevotella elaninogenica. Moreover, via correlation network and Venn diagram analyses, seven bacterial taxa, including Streptococcus sp. (OTU_1), Ruminococcaceae sp. (OTU_33), Haemophilus sp. (OTU_696), Veillonella spp. (OTU_133 and OTU_23), Actinomyces odontolyticus (OTU_42), and Gemella haemolysans (OTU_6), were significantly altered after oolong tea consumption, and presented robust strong connections (|r| > 0.9 and p < 0.05) with other oral microbiota. These results suggest sustained oolong tea consumption would modulate salivary microbiota and generate potential oral pathogen preventative benefits. Additionally, diverse responses to oolong tea consumption among subjects were also noticed.
Project description:Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory disorder with complex immunopathogenesis. Dysbiosis has been linked to many autoimmune diseases, but its detailed role in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) still needs rigorous evaluation, especially in Egypt. We aimed to identify the shift in the gut microbiota profile and resultant metabolic pathways in AIH Egyptian patients compared to healthy individuals. Stool samples were collected from 15 AIH-naive patients and from 10 healthy individuals. The V3-V4 hyper-variable regions in16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq platform. Significantly lower bacterial diversity in AIH patients was found compared to the controls. A phylum-level analysis showed the overrepresentation of Firmicutes, Bacteroides, and Proteobacteria. At the genus level, AIH-associated enrichment of Faecalibacterium, Blautia, Streptococcus, Haemophilus, Bacteroides, Veillonella, Eubacterium, Lachnospiraceae and Butyricicoccus was reported in contrast to Prevotella, Parabacteroides and Dilaster, which were significantly retracted in such patients. Overall, the predicted metabolic pathways associated with dysbiosis in AIH patients could orchestrate the potential pathogenic roles of gut microbiota in autoimmune disease, though not in a disease-specific manner, calling for future large-scale studies.
Project description:A genuine microbiota resides in the lungs which emanates from the colonization by the oropharyngeal microbiota. Changes in the oropharyngeal microbiota might be the source of dysbiosis observed in the lower airways in patients suffering from asthma or cystic fibrosis (CF). To examine this hypothesis, we compared the throat microbiota from healthy children (n = 62) and that from children with asthma (n = 27) and CF (n = 57) aged 6 to 12 years using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Our results show high levels of similarities between healthy controls and children with asthma and CF revealing the existence of a core microbiome represented by Prevotella, Streptococcus, Neisseria, Veillonella, and Haemophilus. However, in CF, the global diversity, the bacterial load, and abundances of 53 OTUs were significantly reduced, whereas abundances of 6 OTUs representing opportunistic pathogens such as Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus were increased compared to those in healthy controls controls and asthmatics. Our data reveal a core microbiome in the throat of healthy children that persists in asthma and CF indicating shared host regulation favoring growth of commensals. Furthermore, we provide evidence for dysbiosis with a decrease in diversity and biomass associated with the presence of known pathogens consistent with impaired host defense in children with CF.
Project description:A comparison of national surveys on oral health suggested that the population of South Korea has a better periodontal health status than that of Japan, despite their similar inherent backgrounds. Here, we investigated differences in oral bacterial assemblages between individuals from those two countries. To exclude potential effects of oral health condition on the microbiota, we selected 52 Korean and 88 Japanese orally healthy adults (aged 40-79 years) from the participants of two cohort studies, the Yangpyeong study in South Korea and the Hisayama study in Japan, and compared the salivary microbiomes. The microbiota of the Japanese individuals comprised a more diverse community, with greater proportions of 17 bacterial genera, including Veillonella, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium, compared to the microbiota of the Korean individuals. Conversely, Neisseria and Haemophilus species were present in much lower proportions in the microbiota of the Japanese individuals than the Korean individuals. Because higher proportions of Prevotella and Veillonella and lower proportions of Neisseria and Haemophilus in the salivary microbiome were implicated in periodontitis, the results of this study suggest that the greater proportion of dysbiotic oral microbiota in the Japanese individuals is associated with their higher susceptibility to periodontitis compared to the Korean individuals.
Project description:Oral hygiene products containing tin are suitable to prevent erosive tooth wear, yet effects on the oral microbiota are not known yet. Therefore, this study determined the salivary microbiome of 16 participants using products with stannous ions for three years (TG) compared with a control group (CG) to assess their influence on the microbiota. Participants were included in a randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) with biannual visits. Illumina Miseq sequencing revealed as most abundant genera: Streptococcus (TG 14.3%; CG 13.0%), Veillonella (TG 11.3%; CG 10.9%), Prevotella (TG 7.0%; CG 9.8%), Haemophilus (TG 6.6%; CG 7.2%), Porphyromonas (TG 5.9%, CG 5.1%), Leptotrichia (TG 5.8%; CG 4.9%), Actinomyces (TG 4.0%; CG 4.6%) and Neisseria (TG 5.4%; CG 4.2%). Beta-Diversity was not significantly different between groups at both time points, although significant differences between groups were found for certain taxa after three years. The genus Prevotella was found in higher abundance in CG whereas Neisseria and Granulicatella, health-associated taxa, were found more abundantly in TG. Salivary microbiota after three years reflected a composition associated with oral health, hence continual use as a preventive measure for dental erosion can be considered safe and benefitting oral health for patients with a high risk of erosion.
Project description:Objective:To investigate the role of cigarette smoking in disease-development through altering the composition of the oral microbial community. Periodontitis and oral cancer are highly prevalent in Hungary; therefore, the salivary microbiome of smoker and non-smoker Hungarian adults was characterized. Methods:Shotgun metagenome sequencing of salivary DNA samples from 22 individuals (11 non-smokers and 11 current smokers) was performed using the Ion Torrent PGMTM platform. Quality-filtered reads were analysed by both alignment-based sequence similarity searches and genome-centric binning. Results:Prevotella, Veillonella and Streptococcus were the predominant genera in the saliva of both groups. Although the overall composition and diversity of the microbiota were similar, Prevotella was significantly more abundant in salivary samples of current smokers compared to non-smokers. Members of the genus Prevotella were implicated in the development of inflammatory diseases and oral cancer. The abundance of the genus Megasphaera also increased in current smokers, whereas the genera Neisseria, Oribacterium, Capnocytophaga and Porphyromonas were significantly reduced. The data generated by read-based taxonomic classification and genome-centric binning mutually validated the two distinct metagenomic approaches. Conclusion:Smoking-associated dysbiosis of the salivary microbiome in current cigarette smokers, especially increased abundance of Prevotella and Megasphaera genera, may facilitate disease development.