Carpal tunnel release using the Paine retinaculotome inserted through a palmar incision.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most commonly diagnosed and treated entrapment neuropathy. There is no consensus regarding the optimal technique for carpal tunnel release. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the surgical treatment of CTS by a small palmar incision and utilization of Paine retinaculotome to divide the transverse carpal ligament. METHODS: In this technical note, we describe the use of a retinaculotome described by Paine in 1955, through a palmar approach. DISCUSSION: Open, minimally invasive and endoscopic surgical techniques have all been described as treatment options for CTS, and short-term success with these methods is well established. During the last decade, less invasive techniques have been developed in order to reduce the incidence of pillar pain and tender scars. We have used a mini-palmar incision and the Paine retinaculotome for carpal tunnel release since 1994. The goals of surgery are to create a small incision that permits a patient to have early motion and return to activity. CONCLUSION: After many years, no permanent nerve or vascular damage has been reported. This method has demonstrated itself to be efficient and safe in the treatment of the carpal tunnel syndrome.
Project description:Introduction. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is caused by the compression of the median nerves in the wrist. Patients have pain and numbness in the hands. According to the records of Songklanagarind Hospital from 2015 to 2018, of 800 patients, 196 or 24.5% were treated with surgery. The novel tool of minimally invasive surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome (MIS-CTS) was developed to improve effectiveness and safety. Purpose:This study was performed to the effectiveness of visualization during surgery and the complete release of the transverse carpal ligament (TCL) and also the safety of using the MIS-CTS kits. Methods:Twenty fresh cadaveric forearms had surgery. Surgical techniques were (1) incision 15-18?mm at palmar hand; (2) the scissors and the navigator were inserted to create working space underneath the palmar aponeurosis; (3) the visual enhancer was inserted. The visual enhancer improves the visual field by shielding the soft tissue around the operative field; (4) the TCL was cut at the distal TCL by surgery scalpel, and then a flexible freer was used to detach the fibrous tissue from the median nerve and the TCL; and (5) the TCL cutting blade was pushed straight to cut the TCL completely from distal to proximal. TCL length was observed until the complete release. The median nerve and the recurrent branch of the median nerve were observed. Results:All TCL were cut completely. All median nerves, recurrent branches of the median nerve, and superficial palmar arches could be observed during the operation, and none were injured. This technique showed effectiveness and safety for minimally invasive carpal tunnel surgery. Conclusions:The study found that the new device, MIS-CTS kits, along with this technique is effective for CTS release in terms of minimally invasive open carpal tunnel surgery.
Project description:The symptoms in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) can be ameliorated by open and endoscopic release of the transverse carpal ligament. It is unknown whether a mini-incision or endoscopic carpal tunnel release more effectively reverses the pathological changes that are observed in the median nerve in patients with CTS and these morphologic changes correlates with the subjective outcomes after carpal tunnel release. We hypothesized that (1) at 24 weeks after surgery, the subjective outcomes of mini-incision release and endoscopic release would not differ in patients with CTS; and (2) the ultrasonographic (US) morphology of the median nerve reverses similarly after mini-incision and endoscopic release; (3) the subjective outcomes correlates with these morphologic changes.Between November 2011 and January 2013, 67 patients with CTS in their dominant wrist were randomized to either mini-incision (n?=?32) or endoscopic (n?=?35) release. Each patient was assessed by both the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) pre-operatively and 24 weeks' post-operation. An US examination was conducted at both time points to measure the cross-sectional area (CSA) at the inlet, middle, and outlet (CSA-I, CSA-M and CSA-O) and the flattening ratio (FR) at the middle and outlet (FR-M and FR-O) of the median nerve.The post-operative mean BCTQ and DASH scores were improved significantly from the pre-operative scores in both groups (p?<?0.001). The mean CSA-I decreased and CSA-M and CSA-O increased similarly in both groups (by 3.3, 3.0, and 3.8 mm2 in the mini-incision group and 2.9, 3.1. and 2.7 mm2 in the endoscopic group. The mean FR-M/FR-O decreased similarly from 3.6/4.2 to 3.2/3.0 in the mini-incision group and 3.8/4.3 to 3.2/2.9 in the endoscopic group. There were no significant differences in the subjective outcome scores or median nerve measures between the two groups. Improvement in the BCTQ-S only was significantly correlated with changes in the CSA at the inlet.Mini-incision and endoscopic release both similarly relieved subjective symptoms and functions along with the pathological changes in the median nerve morphology along the carpal tunnel in patients with idiopathic CTS. Symptom relief after surgical decompression seems to correlate with reduced nerve swelling at carpal inlet and reversed nerve flattening inside carpal tunnel.This study was retrospectively registered in "ClinicalTrials.gov" at Oct 18th, 2013, and the registration number was NCT01972165 .
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical results of minimal single palmar-incision carpal tunnel release without a tourniquet.<h4>Methods</h4>We reviewed the medical records of 75 patients (90 cases of carpal tunnel syndrome) who underwent minimal single-palmar incision carpal tunnel release without a tourniquet from June 2010 to January 2018. Ten patients had a bleeding tendency. We compared the preoperative and postoperative Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ) scores. We also analyzed outcomes and complications according to the presence of a bleeding tendency.<h4>Results</h4>In all cases, there was a complete disappearance or marked improvement in symptoms within 6 months, with no recurrence. The postoperative BCTQ score showed a significant improvement compared to the preoperative score, and no statistically significant difference in BCTQ scores was detected according to the presence of a bleeding tendency.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Carpal tunnel release without a tourniquet using a minimal single palmar incision is effective and reliable. This technique prevents unnecessary pain associated with the tourniquet and is especially helpful in patients with a bleeding tendency or those treated with hemodialysis.
Project description:<strong>BACKGROUND</strong> This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of wrist arthroscopy, small incision surgery, and conventional open carpal tunnel release surgery for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. <strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS</strong> Patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (n=111) were treated with wrist arthroscopy (n=33), small incision surgery (n=40), and conventional open carpal tunnel release surgery (n=38). Incision length, duration of surgery, degree of intraoperative bleeding, recovery time, and findings at postoperative follow-up at one month, three months, and six months after surgery were recorded. Assessment included the two-point discrimination test, the grip and pinch strength test, the visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain, the Levine questionnaire, and Kelly's therapeutic evaluation. <strong>RESULTS</strong> Incision length, duration of surgery, intraoperative bleeding, and recovery time were significantly reduced in the wrist arthroscopy group and the small incision surgery group compared with the conventional surgery group (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the two-point discrimination or grip and pinch strength test (p>0.05). Postoperatively, at one month, the VAS score, Levine score, and Kelly's therapeutic evaluation in the wrist arthroscopy group and the small incision surgery group were significantly lower compared with the conventional surgery group (p<0.05). Scar length and scar tenderness in the conventional surgery group were significantly increased compared with the wrist arthroscopy group and the small incision surgery group (p<0.05). <strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> Wrist arthroscopy, small incision surgery, and conventional open carpal tunnel release surgery were effective for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome, but conventional surgery resulted in more postoperative complications.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to investigate the sex-based differences in the carpal arch morphology. Carpal arch morphology was quantified using palmar bowing and area of the arch formed by the transverse carpal ligament. The carpal arch was imaged at the distal and proximal tunnel levels using ultrasonography in 20 healthy young adults (10 women and 10 men). It was found that females had a smaller carpal arch height compared to men at both distal and proximal levels (p<0.05) and smaller carpal arch width only at the proximal level (p<0.05) but not distally. Palmar bowing index, the carpal arch height to width ratio, was significantly smaller in females at the distal level (p<0.05) but not at the proximal level. Carpal arch cross-sectional area normalized to the wrist cross-sectional area was found to be significantly smaller in females at both tunnel levels compared to men (p<0.05). This study demonstrates that females have a smaller carpal arch compared to men with a reduced palmar bowing distally and a smaller arch area at both tunnel levels. The findings help explain the higher incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome in women as a smaller carpal arch makes the median nerve more vulnerable to compression neuropathy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Dupuytren's contracture (DC) is a fibroproliferative disorder characterized by the progressive development of a scar-like collagen-rich cord that affects the palmar fascia of the hand and leads to digital flexion contractures. DC is most commonly treated by surgical resection of the diseased tissue, but has a high reported recurrence rate ranging from 27% to 80%. We sought to determine if the transcriptomic profiles of fibroblasts derived from DC-affected palmar fascia, adjacent phenotypically normal palmar fascia, and non-DC palmar fascial tissues might provide mechanistic clues to understanding the puzzle of disease predisposition and recurrence in DC. METHODS: To achieve this, total RNA was obtained from fibroblasts derived from primary DC-affected palmar fascia, patient-matched unaffected palmar fascia, and palmar fascia from non-DC patients undergoing carpal tunnel release (6 patients in each group). These cells were grown on a type-1 collagen substrate (to better mimic their in vivo environments). Microarray analyses were subsequently performed using Illumina BeadChip arrays to compare the transcriptomic profiles of these three cell populations. Data were analyzed using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM v3.02), hierarchical clustering, concordance mapping and Venn diagram. RESULTS: We found that the transcriptomic profiles of DC-disease fibroblasts and fibroblasts from unaffected fascia of DC patients exhibited a much greater overlap than fibroblasts derived from the palmar fascia of patients undergoing carpal tunnel release. Quantitative real time RT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of select genes validating the microarray data analyses. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that predisposition and recurrence in DC may stem, at least in part, from intrinsic similarities in the basal gene expression of diseased and phenotypically unaffected palmar fascia fibroblasts. These data also demonstrate that a collagen-rich environment differentially alters gene expression in these cells. In addition, Ingenuity pathway analysis of the specific biological pathways that differentiate DC-derived cells from carpal tunnel-derived cells has identified the potential involvement of microRNAs in this fibroproliferative disorder. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that the transcriptomic profiles of DC-disease fibroblasts and fibroblasts from unaffected palmar fascia in DC patients are highly similar, and differ significantly from the transcriptomic profiles of fibroblasts from the palmar fascia of patients undergoing carpal tunnel release.
Project description:Various surgical procedures for carpal tunnel syndrome exist, such as open release, ultrasound-guided percutaneous release, and endoscopic release. Postoperative pain, scarring, and slow recovery to normal function are reported complications of open release. Damage to vessels and the median nerve and its branches underlying the transverse carpal ligament is a reported complication of ultrasound-guided percutaneous release. Damage to the superficial palmar arch and incomplete release are reported complications of endoscopic release. By performing endoscopic carpal tunnel release with ultrasound assistance, we could visualize neurovascular structures directly with the endoscope and also indirectly with ultrasound to minimize complications. We could also evaluate the morphologic changes of the median nerve dynamically before and after the release. We discuss the technique for this procedure and outline pearls and pitfalls for success.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphological and mechanical properties of the transverse carpal ligament (TCL) in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Thickness and stiffness of the TCL in eight female CTS patients and eight female control subjects were examined using ultrasound imaging modalities. CTS patients had a 30.9% thicker TCL than control subjects. There was no overall difference in TCL stiffness between the two groups, but the radial TCL region was significantly stiffer than the ulnar region within the CTS group and such a regional difference was not found for the controls. The increased thickness and localized stiffness of the TCL for CTS patients may contribute to CTS symptoms due to reduction in carpal tunnel space and compliance. Advancements in ultrasound technology provide a means of understanding CTS mechanisms and quantifying the morphological and mechanical properties of the TCL in vivo.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: This study compares anatomical findings at wrist level in patients with known carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and controls by ultrasonography (US). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Wrist-US investigations of 28 consecutive patients with 38 diagnosed, idiopathic CTS were compared to 49 healthy volunteers without history of CTS. Internal wrists dimensions, the presence of flexor muscle bellies in the carpal tunnel, and cross-sectional area of the median nerve were analyzed. The findings were correlated to gender, age, and BMI. RESULTS: US demonstrated a square internal carpal tunnel configuration in CTS patients compared to controls (P < 0.001). Patients with CTS showed a trend towards the presence of flexor muscles bellies in the carpal tunnel (odds ratio 1.77, 95% CI 0.337-8.33). CTS was present in women with higher BMI (P = 0.015). CONCLUSION: US allowed detection of specific anatomical features at wrist level in CTS patients. This observation may enable--following confirmation in larger prospective studies--risk evaluation for CTS development.
Project description:Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a very common pathology. Its most common diagnosis is idiopathic. Although it is accepted that chronic increase in pressure within the carpal tunnel is responsible for median nerve neuropathy, the exact pathophysiology leading to this pressure increase remains unknown. All the histological studies of the carpal tunnel in the CTS find a noninflammatory thickening of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT), which seems to be a characteristic of this pathology. Numerous animal models have been developed to recreate CTS in vivo to develop and improve preventive strategies and effective conservative treatments by a better understanding of its pathophysiology. The creation of a shear injury of the SSCT in a rabbit model induced similar modifications to what is observed in CTS, suggesting that this could be a pathway leading to idiopathic CTS.