The status of rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody are not associated with the effect of anti-TNF? agent treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis was conducted to investigate whether the status of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody are associated with the clinical response to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: A systemic literature review was performed using the MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Clinical Trials Register databases, and Hayden's criteria of quality assessment for prognostic studies were used to evaluate all of the studies. The correlation between the RF and anti-CCP antibody status with the treatment effect of anti-TNF? agents was analyzed separately using the Mantel Haenszel method. A fixed-effects model was used when there was no significant heterogeneity; otherwise, a random-effects model was applied. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's linear regression and a funnel plot. RESULTS: A total of 14 studies involving 5561 RA patients meeting the inclusion criteria were included. The overall analysis showed that the pooled relative risk for the predictive effects of the RF and anti-CCP antibody status on patient response to anti-TNF? agents was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.91-1.05, p=0.54) and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.76-1.03, p=0.11), respectively, with I(2) values of 43% (p=0.05) and 67% (p<0.01), respectively. Subgroup analyses of different anti-TNF? treatments (infliximab vs. etanercept vs. adalimumab vs. golimumab), response criteria (DAS28 vs. ACR20 vs. EULAR response), follow-up period (? 6 vs. <6 months), and ethnic group did not reveal a significant association for the status of RF and anti-CCP. CONCLUSIONS: Neither the RF nor anti-CCP antibody status in RA patients is associated with a clinical response to anti-TNF? treatment.
Project description:The presence of rheumatoid factor (RF) or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) autoantibodies contributes to the current rheumatoid arthritis (RA) classification criteria. These criteria involve stratification on antibody levels, which limits reproducibility, and underperform in the RA patients without RF and anti-CCP. Here, we have explored if two anti-acetylated peptide antibodies (AAPA), anti-acetylated lysine (AcLys) and anti-acetylated ornithine (AcOrn), could improve the performance of the current criteria. The analysis was done in 1062 prospectively-followed early arthritis (EA) patients. The anti-AcOrn were more informative than the anti-AcLys, the conventional RA antibodies and the anti-carbamylated protein antibodies. The anti-AcOrn produced a classification that did not require antibody levels and showed improved specificity (77.6% vs. 72.6%, p?=?0.003) and accuracy (79.0% vs. 75.8%, p?=?0.002) over the current criteria. These improvements were obtained with a scoring system that values concordance between anti-AcOrn, RF and anti-CCP. No significant gain was obtained in sensitivity (80.2% vs. 78.8%, p?=?0.25) or in improving the classification of the RA patients lacking RF and anti-CCP, although the anti-AcOrn ranked first among the analysed new antibodies. Therefore, the anti-AcOrn antibodies could contribute to the improvement of RA classification criteria by exploiting antibody concordance.
Project description:Although both rheumatoid factor (RF) and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) are useful for diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the impact of these autoantibodies on the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors has been controversial. The aim of this post hoc analysis of a randomized double-blind study (the RISING study) was to investigate the influences of RF and anti-CCP on the clinical response to infliximab in patients with RA.Methotrexate-refractory patients with RA received 3 mg/kg of infliximab from weeks 0 to 6 and then 3, 6, or 10 mg/kg every 8 weeks from weeks 14 to 46. In this post hoc analysis, patients were stratified into three classes on the basis of baseline RF/anti-CCP titers: "low/low-C" (RF < 55 IU/ml, anti-CCP < 42 U/ml), "high/high-C" (RF ≥ 160 IU/ml, anti-CCP ≥ 100 U/ml), and "middle-C" (neither low/low-C nor high/high-C). Baseline plasma TNF level, serum infliximab level, and disease activity were compared between the three classes.Baseline RF and anti-CCP titers showed significant correlations with baseline TNF and infliximab levels in weeks 2-14. Comparison of the three classes showed that baseline TNF level was lowest in the low/low-C group and highest in the high/high-C group (median 0.73 versus 1.15 pg/ml), that infliximab levels at week 14 were highest in the low/low-C group and lowest in the high/high-C group (median 1.0 versus 0.1 μg/ml), and that Disease Activity Score in 28 joints based on C-reactive protein at week 14 was lowest in the low/low-C group and highest in the high/high-C group (median 3.17 versus 3.82). A similar correlation was observed at week 54 in the 3 mg/kg dosing group, but not in the 6 or 10 mg/kg group. Significant decreases in both RF and anti-CCP were observed during infliximab treatment.RF/anti-CCP titers correlated with TNF level. This might explain the association of RF/anti-CCP with infliximab level and clinical response in patients with RA. Baseline RF/anti-CCP titers may serve as indices that aid infliximab treatment.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00691028 . Retrospectively registered on 3 June 2008.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Clinical outcomes of undifferentiated arthritis (UA) are diverse, and only 40% of patients with UA develop rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after 3 years. Discovering predictive markers at disease onset for further intervention is critical. Therefore, our objective was to analyze the clinical outcomes of UA and ascertain the predictors for RA development. METHODS:We performed a prospective, multi-center study from January 2013 to October 2016 among Chinese patients diagnosed with UA in 22 tertiary-care hospitals. Clinical and serological parameters were obtained at recruitment. Follow-up was undertaken in all patients every 12 weeks for 2 years. Predictive factors of disease progression were identified using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS:A total of 234 patients were recruited in this study, and 17 (7.3%) patients failed to follow up during the study. Among the 217 patients who completed the study, 83 (38.2%) patients went into remission. UA patients who developed RA had a higher rheumatoid factor (RF)-positivity (42.9% vs. 16.8%, ??=?8.228, P?=?0.008), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody-positivity (66.7% vs. 10.7%, ??=?43.897, P?<?0.001), and double-positivity rate of RF and anti-CCP antibody (38.1% vs. 4.1%, ??=?32.131, P?<?0.001) than those who did not. Anti-CCP antibody but not RF was an independent predictor for RA development (hazard ratio 18.017, 95% confidence interval: 5.803-55.938; P?<?0.001). CONCLUSION:As an independent predictor of RA, anti-CCP antibody should be tested at disease onset in all patients with UA.
Project description:Objectives:Tofacitinib is an oral JAK inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined response to tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg two times a day in patients with seropositive vs seronegative RA. Methods:Data were pooled from five Phase III studies of conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (csDMARD)- or biological DMARD-inadequate responders (ORAL Step [NCT00960440]; ORAL Scan [NCT00847613]; ORAL Solo [NCT00814307]; ORAL Sync [NCT00856544]; ORAL Standard [NCT00853385]). 'Serotype' subgroups were: anticyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) and rheumatoid factor (RF) positive (anti-CCP+/RF+); anti-CCP+/RF negative (-); anti-CCP-/RF+; anti-CCP-/RF-. At month 3, ACR20/50/70 response rates, Disease Activity Score (DAS28-4[ESR])-defined remission (DAS28-4[ESR]<2.6) and low disease activity (LDA; DAS28-4[ESR]≤3.2), changes from baseline (CFB) in Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) physical functioning and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) were evaluated. Safety endpoints were compared. Results:Baseline demographics/characteristics were similar across subgroups. Tofacitinib significantly improved ACR20/50/70 response rates, DAS28-4(ESR) LDA rates and CFB in HAQ-DI and FACIT-F vs placebo across subgroups. More anti-CCP+/RF+ than anti-CCP-/RF- patients had ACR20/50/70 responses (ACR20/50: both tofacitinib doses; ACR70: 10 mg two times a day). SF-36 physical functioning improved in anti-CCP+/RF+, anti-CCP+/RF- and anti-CCP-/RF+ patients (both tofacitinib doses) and anti-CCP-/RF- patients (10 mg two times a day) vs placebo. More anti-CCP+/RF+ and anti-CCP+/RF- than anti-CCP-/RF- patients achieved DAS28-4(ESR) remission and LDA with tofacitinib 10 mg two times a day. Frequency of adverse events (AEs), serious AEs and discontinuations due to AEs were similar across subgroups. Conclusion:Generally, tofacitinib efficacy (ACR20/50/70 responses) and safety were similar across subgroups. DAS28-4(ESR) remission rates and SF-36 physical functioning appeared lower in anti-CCP- patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To explore relationships between immunological status, clinical features, radiographic damage, disease activity, and functional disability in Tunisian patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MATERIALS AND METHODS:The study was carried out in 112 patients with RA. Demographic characteristics, disease duration, disease activity score 28 (DAS28), the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and the Sharp/van der Heijde score were collected. Anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP) and rheumatoid factor (RF) were performed. RESULTS:We found that anti-CCP positivity was associated with longer disease duration (P = 0.001), presence of RF (P = 4.89 × 10(-8) ), and night pain positivity (P = 0.025). Patients with positive RF had more night pain and higher anti-CCP positivity (for all P ? 0.05). Anti-CCP titer was correlated with disease duration (P = 0.034) and Sharp total score (P = 1.2 × 10(-4) ). Moreover, there was a significant correlation between RF and anti-CCP antibodies titers (P = 0.011). Indeed, DAS28 correlated with HAQ (P = 1.8 × 10(-7) ) and morning stiffness duration (P = 0.045). In multivariate regression analysis, the main factors associated with anti-CCP titers were radiographic damage (P = 1.625 × 10(-4) ) and RF (P = 0.013). For DAS28, only HAQ (P = 2.9 × 10(-4) ) was associated. CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that anti-CCP antibodies are associated with RF and more severe joint damage. Moreover, disease activity is associated with functional disability.
Project description:Antibodies to citrullinated proteins have been described in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and these appear to be the most specific markers of the disease. Our objective was to determine the frequency of antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides (CCPs) in patients with RA and the association of anti-CCP antibodies with disease activity, radiological erosions and HLA DR genotype. Forty patients with RA and 38 patients with fibromyalgia were included in this study. Serum samples were collected from both patient groups with RA and fibromyalgia. Anti-CCP was measured by the corresponding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor (RF), disease activity score (DAS), visual analog scala (VAS), HLA genotype and radiographic information were determined in patients with RA. The rate of sensitivity and specificity of anti-CCP reactivity for the diagnosis RA were measured (sensitivity 50%, specificity 100%). There is no significant difference between anti-CCP (+) and anti-CCP (-) RA patients for DAS28, VAS, ESR, CRP, disease duration, HLA genotype, and radiological assessment of hand. However, there was a significant difference between anti-CCP (+) and anti-CCP (-) RA patients for RF and the radiological assessment of left and right wrists (respectively, P < 0.05, P = 0.04, P = 0.01). There was no significant correlation between anti-CCP antibody and ESR, CRP, VAS, DAS 28 or radiological assessment. A small but significant correlation was found between RF and anti-CCP antibody (P = 0.02, r = 0.35).
Project description:The co-occurrence of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positivity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is well described. However, the mechanisms underlying the potential interaction between these 2 distinct autoantibodies have not been well defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiologic and molecular interaction of ACPAs and RF and its association with both disease activity and measures of RA-associated inflammation.In a cohort of 1,488 US veterans with RA, measures of disease activity and serum levels of cytokines and multiplex ACPAs were compared between the following groups of patients: double-negative (anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide [anti-CCP]-/RF-), anti-CCP+/RF-, anti-CCP-/RF+, or double-positive (anti-CCP+/RF+). Additional studies were performed using an in vitro immune complex (IC) stimulation assay in which macrophages were incubated with ACPA ICs in the presence or absence of monoclonal IgM-RF, and tumor necrosis factor ? production measured as a readout of macrophage activation.Compared with the double-negative subgroup (as well as each single-positive subgroup), the double-positive subgroup exhibited higher disease activity as well as higher levels of C-reactive protein and inflammatory cytokines (all P < 0.001). In vitro stimulation of macrophages by ACPA ICs increased cytokine production, and the addition of monoclonal IgM-RF significantly increased macrophage tumor necrosis factor ? production (P = 0.003 versus ACPA ICs alone).The combined presence of ACPAs and IgM-RF mediates increased proinflammatory cytokine production in vitro and is associated with increased systemic inflammation and disease activity in RA. Our data suggest that IgM-RF enhances the capacity of ACPA ICs to stimulate macrophage cytokine production, thereby providing a mechanistic link by which RF enhances the pathogenicity of ACPA ICs in RA.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence has highlighted a major genetic contribution to radiographic damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of this study was to determine whether genetic variants in the loci for interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-10, protein tyrosine phosphatase N22 (PTPN22), and selenoprotein S are associated with radiographic damage. METHODS: Modified Larsen scores of radiographic damage were determined in a cross-sectional population of patients with RA (n = 964). Rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) were also assayed. The Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test was used to compare median radiographic damage scores across genotype groups, followed by the Cuzick nonparametric test for trend to assess gene-dose effects. RESULTS: An allele-dose association of IL-6 -174G with increasing radiographic damage was present (P = 0.005), but only in patients who were RF positive (P = 0.004) or anti-CCP positive (P = 0.01). Patients with the IL-10 -592CC genotype had more extensive radiographic damage than did those with the AC or AA genotype (P = 0.006), but this was observed only among patients who were RF negative (P = 0.002) or anti-CCP negative (P = 0.002). However, RF status and anti-CCP status were not associated with the IL-6 or IL-10 genotype. No other genetic associations were detected, apart from a marginal association of PTPN22 +1858T with increased radiographic damage. CONCLUSION: The reported associations of IL-6 -174G with high IL-6 production and IL-10 -592 with low IL-10 production and our own results support a role of genetically determined dysregulated cytokine production in disease severity. The lack of association of these genotypes with RF and anti-CCP antibody status suggests that they act downstream of autoantibody production. We conclude that IL-6 and IL-10 genotypes may be useful in predicting disease severity in autoantibody-positive and autoantibody-negative patients, respectively.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate associations of HLA-DRB1 haplotypes and shared epitope (SE) with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) severity and all-cause mortality in RA. METHODS:Patients with RA from the Veterans Affairs Rheumatoid Arthritis (VARA) registry were followed from enrollment until death or December 31, 2013. Clinical characteristics, DNA, and serum were collected at enrollment. Radiographic damage, the presence or absence of subcutaneous nodules, disease activity measures, and functional status were assessed at enrollment and updated during followup. Sixteen HLA-DRB1 haplotypes and SE status were determined from banked DNA. Associations between HLA-DRB1 haplotypes, RA disease characteristics, and mortality were assessed in multivariable regression models. RESULTS:Within VARA, 1443 participants had genotyping and accrued 6150 patient-years of followup. Haplotypes VKA, VRA, LRA, SRA, SRE, SKR, and SEA, and SE alleles were significantly associated with seropositivity for rheumatoid factor (RF) and/or anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP). Haplotypes VKA and SKR were associated with higher RF concentrations, while VRA, DRE, and GRQ were associated with lower RF concentrations. Haplotypes VKA, VRA, and LRA were associated with higher concentrations of anti-CCP antibody, while haplotypes SRA, SRE, LEA, SKR, and SEA were significantly associated with lower anti-CCP concentrations. Haplotype VKA (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.08-1.80) was associated with increased frequency of radiographic damage at enrollment but none of the haplotypes were associated with the presence of subcutaneous nodules. Haplotypes SKA (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.26-1.83) was associated with higher mortality. CONCLUSION:HLA-DRB1 haplotypes are independently and variably associated with seropositivity, autoantibody concentrations, and outcomes in RA.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the contribution of synovial lymphoid aggregates to autoantibody (rheumatoid factor [RF] and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide [anti-CCP]) and total immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM) production in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and the effect thereon of the B-cell-depleting antibody, rituximab, in the ARISE (Assessment of Rituximab's Immunomodulatory Synovial Effects) trial.Autoantibodies as well as total IgM and IgG were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in extracts of synovial tissues and matched serum from patients with RA or osteoarthritis (OA). Synovial biopsies and serum were obtained at baseline and 8 weeks following rituximab therapy in 14 RA patients. A synovial/serum index (SSI) was calculated as the ratio of synovial to serum antibody/albumin, with values above 1 representing synovial enrichment. Lymphoid aggregates were evaluated histologically.Anti-CCP IgG, but not RF-IgM, was significantly enriched in RA synovia compared with serum. Total IgM and IgG were also enriched in RA, but not in OA. SSI correlated significantly with mRNA content for both IgM and IgG, demonstrating that it reflected synovial immunoglobulin production. RA synovia with lymphocyte aggregates contained significantly elevated RF-IgM and anti-CCP IgG compared with tissues with diffuse lymphoid infiltration. Rituximab treatment did not affect synovial autoantibody or total immunoglobulin SSI overall. However, in aggregate-containing tissues, rituximab significantly reduced total IgM and IgG SSI as well as IgM and IgG1 mRNA. Surprisingly, RF-IgM and anti-CCP IgG SSIs were unchanged by rituximab in aggregate-containing synovia.Combined with earlier observations that synovial lymphoid aggregates are unaltered by rituximab treatment, these data suggest that lymphoid aggregates may provide a protective niche for autoantibody-producing cells.