High-performance flexible ultraviolet photoconductors based on solution-processed ultrathin ZnO/Au nanoparticle composite films.
ABSTRACT: Transparent ultraviolet (UV) ZnO thin film photoconductors are expected to have great applications in environmental monitoring, large-area displays, and optical communications, and they have drawn enormous interests in recent years. However, at present their performances are not satisfactory: the responsivity R (a parameter characterizing the sensitivity of the device to light) is not high (<1.0 × 10(3)?AW(-1)), and the transparency T is not high either (<80%). Realizing high R and high T remains a big challenge today. In this paper, by employing solution-processed ultrathin ZnO/Au nanoparticle composite films, R as high as 1.51 × 10(5)?AW(-1) and T of over 90% are achieved. High values for detectivity D* and linear dynamic range LDR are also obtained, which are 2.05 × 10(15) Jones and 60?dB, respectively. Moreover, such high-performance devices can be fabricated on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates.
Project description:Herein, the optoelectrical investigation of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) and indium (In) doped CZT (InCZT) single crystals-based photodetectors have been demonstrated. The grown crystals were configured into photodetector devices and recorded the current-voltage (I-V) and current-time (I-t) characteristics under different illumination intensities. It has been observed that the photocurrent generation mechanism in both photodetector devices is dominantly driven by a photogating effect. The CZT photodetector exhibits stable and reversible device performances to 632 nm light, including a promotable responsivity of 0.38 AW-1, a high photoswitch ratio of 152, specific detectivity of 6.30 × 1011 Jones, and fast switching time (rise time of 210 ms and decay time of 150 ms). When doped with In, the responsivity of device increases to 0.50 AW-1, photoswitch ratio decrease to 10, specific detectivity decrease to 1.80 × 1011 Jones, rise time decrease to 140 ms and decay time increase to 200 ms. Moreover, these devices show a very high external quantum efficiency of 200% for CZT and 250% for InCZT. These results demonstrate that the CZT based crystals have great potential for visible light photodetector applications.
Project description:Organic-inorganic halide perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) constitute an attractive class of materials for many optoelectronic applications. However, their charge transport properties are inferior to materials like graphene. On the other hand, the charge generation efficiency of graphene is too low to be used in many optoelectronic applications. Here, we demonstrate the development of ultrathin phototransistors and photonic synapses using a graphene-PQD (G-PQD) superstructure prepared by growing PQDs directly from a graphene lattice. We show that the G-PQDs superstructure synchronizes efficient charge generation and transport on a single platform. G-PQD phototransistors exhibit excellent responsivity of 1.4 × 108 AW-1 and specific detectivity of 4.72 × 1015 Jones at 430 nm. Moreover, the light-assisted memory effect of these superstructures enables photonic synaptic behavior, where neuromorphic computing is demonstrated by facial recognition with the assistance of machine learning. We anticipate that the G-PQD superstructures will bolster new directions in the development of highly efficient optoelectronic devices.
Project description:Topological insulators (TIs) possess exciting nonlinear optical properties due to presence of metallic surface states with the Dirac fermions and are predicted as a promising material for broadspectral phodotection ranging from UV (ultraviolet) to deep IR (infrared) or terahertz range. The recent experimental reports demonstrating nonlinear optical properties are mostly carried out on non-flexible substrates and there is a huge demand for the fabrication of high performing flexible optoelectronic devices using new exotic materials due to their potential applications in wearable devices, communications, sensors, imaging etc. Here first time we integrate the thin films of TIs (Bi<sub>2</sub>Te<sub>3</sub>) with the flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrate and report the strong light absorption properties in these devices. Owing to small band gap material, evolving bulk and gapless surface state conduction, we observe high responsivity and detectivity at NIR (near infrared) wavelengths (39 A/W, 6.1?×?10<sup>8</sup> Jones for 1064 nm and 58 A/W, 6.1?×?10<sup>8</sup> Jones for 1550 nm). TIs based flexible devices show that photocurrent is linearly dependent on the incident laser power and applied bias voltage. Devices also show very fast response and decay times. Thus we believe that the superior optoelectronic properties reported here pave the way for making TIs based flexible optoelectronic devices.
Project description:There is a great interest in phototransistors based on transition metal dichalcogenides because of their interesting optoelectronic properties. However, most emphasis has been put on MoS2 and little attention has been given to MoSe2, which has higher optical absorbance. Here, we present a compelling case for multilayer MoSe2 phototransistors fabricated in a bottom-gate thin-film transistor configuration on SiO2/Si substrates. Under 650-nm-laser, our MoSe2 phototransistor exhibited the best performance among MoSe2 phototransistors in literature, including the highest responsivity (1.4?×?105 AW-1), the highest specific detectivity (5.5?×?1013 jones), and the fastest response time (1.7?ms). We also present a qualitative model to describe the device operation based on the combination of photoconductive and photogating effects. These results demonstrate the feasibility of achieving high performance in multilayer MoSe2 phototransistors, suggesting the possibility of further enhancement in the performance of MoSe2 phototransistors with proper device engineering.
Project description:Could 'defect-considered' void formation in metal-oxide be actively used? Is it possible to realize stable void formation in a metal-oxide layer, beyond unexpected observations, for functional utilization? Herein we demonstrate the effective tailoring of void formation of NiO for ultra-sensitive UV photodetection. NiO was formed onto pre-sputtered ZnO for a large size and spontaneously formed abrupt p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction device. To form voids at an interface, rapid thermal process was performed, resulting in highly visible light transparency (85-95%). This heterojunction provides extremely low saturation current (<0.1?nA) with an extraordinary rectifying ratio value of over 3000 and works well without any additional metal electrodes. Under UV illumination, we can observe the fast photoresponse time (10?ms) along with the highest possible responsivity (1.8?A W(-1)) and excellent detectivity (2?×?10(13) Jones) due to the existence of an intrinsic-void layer at the interface. We consider this as the first report on metal-oxide-based void formation (Kirkendall effect) for effective photoelectric device applications. We propose that the active adoption of 'defect-considered' Kirkendall-voids will open up a new era for metal-oxide based photoelectric devices.
Project description:One dimensional single-crystal nanorods of C60 possess unique optoelectronic properties including high electron mobility, high photosensitivity and an excellent electron accepting nature. In addition, their rapid large scale synthesis at room temperature makes these organic semiconducting nanorods highly attractive for advanced optoelectronic device applications. Here, we report low-cost large-area flexible photoconductor devices fabricated using C60 nanorods. We demonstrate that the photosensitivity of the C60 nanorods can be enhanced ~400-fold via an ultralow photodoping mechanism. The photodoped devices offer broadband UV-vis-NIR spectral tuneability, exhibit a detectivitiy>10(9) Jones, an external quantum efficiency of ~100%, a linear dynamic range of 80?dB, a rise time 60?µs and the ability to measure ac signals up to ~250?kHz. These figures of merit combined are among the highest reported for one dimensional organic and inorganic large-area planar photoconductors and are competitive with commercially available inorganic photoconductors and photoconductive cells. With the additional processing benefits providing compatibility with large-area flexible platforms, these devices represent significant advances and make C60 nanorods a promising candidate for advanced photodetector technologies.
Project description:Photodetectors based on three dimensional organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites have recently received significant attention. As a new type of light-harvesting materials, formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3) is known to possess excellent optoelectronic properties even exceeding those of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). To date, only a few photoconductor-type photodetectors based on FAPbI3 single crystals and polycrystalline thin films in a lateral structure have been reported. Here, we demonstrate low-voltage, high-overall-performance photodiode-type photodetectors in a sandwiched geometry based on polycrystalline ?-FAPbI3 thin films synthesized by a one-step solution processing method and post-annealing treatment. The photodetectors exhibit a broadband response from the near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared (330-800?nm), achieving a high on/off current ratio of 8.6?×?104 and fast response times of 7.2/19.5??s. The devices yield a photoresponsivity of 0.95 AW-1 and a high specific detectivity of 2.8?×?1012 Jones with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) approaching 182% at -1.0?V under 650?nm illumination. The photodiode-type photodetectors based on polycrystalline ?-FAPbI3 thin films with superior performance consequently show great promise for future optoelectronic device applications.
Project description:Ultraviolet photodetectors have been fabricated from ZnO quantum dots/carbon nanodots hybrid films, and the introduction of carbon nanodots improves the performance of the photodetectors greatly. The photodetectors can be used to detect very weak ultraviolet signals (as low as 12 nW/cm(2)). The detectivity and noise equivalent power of the photodetector can reach 3.1 × 10(17) cmHz(1/2)/W and 7.8 × 10(-20) W, respectively, both of which are the best values ever reported for ZnO-based photodetectors. The mechanism for the high sensitivity of the photodetectors has been attributed to the enhanced carrier-separation at the ZnO/C interface.
Project description:Circularly polarized light (CPL) detection is required in various fields such as drug screening, security surveillance and quantum optics. Conventionally, CPL photodetector needs the installation of optical elements, imposing difficulties for integrated and flexible devices. The established CPL detectors without optical elements rely on chiral organic semiconductor and metal metamaterials, but they suffer from extremely low responsivity. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials combine CPL-sensitive absorption induced by chiral organics and efficient charge transport of inorganic frameworks, providing an option for direct CPL detection. Here we report the CPL detector using chiral organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, and obtain a device with responsivity of 797 mA W-1, detectivity of 7.1 × 1011 Jones, 3-dB frequency of 150 Hz and one-month stability, a competitive combined feature for circularly polarized light detection. Thanks to the solution processing, we further demonstrate flexible devices on polyethylene terephthalate substrate with comparable performance.
Project description:Organic thin film photoconductors (OTFPs) are expected to have wide applications in the field of optical communications, artificial vision and biomedical sensing due to their great advantages of high flexibility and low-cost large-area fabrication. However, their performances are not satisfactory at present: the value of responsivity (R), the parameter that measures the sensitivity of a photoconductor to light, is below 1 AW(-1). We believe such poor performance is resulted from an intrinsic self-limited effect of present bare blend based device structure. Here we designed a PIN architecture for OTFPs, the PIN device exhibits a significantly improved high R value of 96.5 AW(-1). The PIN architecture and the performance the PIN device shows here should represent an important step in the development of OTFPs.