Lower ankle-brachial index is related to worse cognitive performance in old age.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:We aimed to study the associations between peripheral artery disease (PAD) and ankle-brachial index (ABI) and performance in a range of cognitive domains in nondemented elderly persons. METHODS:Data were collected within the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 and 1936 studies. These are two narrow-age cohorts at age 87 (n = 170) and 73 (n = 748) years. ABI was analyzed as a dichotomous (PAD vs. no PAD) and a continuous measure. PAD was defined as having an ABI less than 0.90. Measures of nonverbal reasoning, verbal declarative memory, verbal fluency, working memory, and processing speed were administered. Both samples were screened for dementia. RESULTS:We observed no significant differences in cognitive performance between persons with or without PAD. However, higher ABI was associated with better general cognition (β = .23, p = .02, R2 change = .05) and processing speed (β = .29, p < .01, R2 change = .08) in the older cohort and better processing speed (β = .12, p < .01, R2 change = .01) in the younger cohort. This was after controlling for age, sex, and childhood mental ability and excluding persons with abnormally high ABI (>1.40) and a history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease. CONCLUSION:Lower ABI is associated with worse cognitive performance in old age, especially in the oldest old (>85 years), possibly because of long-term exposure to atherosclerotic disease. Interventions targeting PAD in persons free of manifest cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease may reduce the incidence of cognitive impairment and dementia.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Acquired brain injury (ABI) leads to cognitive deficits in a great variety of cognitive functions. Interventions aimed at reducing such deficits include the use of computer-based cognitive interventions. The present work synthetizes and quantitively analyses the effect of computer-based cognitive interventions in ABI. METHODS:PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest and Ovid databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) addressing this issue. A total number of 8 randomized-controlled trials were included for systematic review and meta-analysis. Univariate meta-analyses were conducted for every cognitive function, producing aggregates when a study contributed more than one effect size per cognitive domain. RESULTS:Random-effects meta-analyses showed an improvement of Visual and Verbal working memory, while other domains like Attention, Processing speed, Executive functions and Memory were not benefited by the interventions. CONCLUSIONS:Computer-based cognitive interventions might be a beneficial intervention for ABI population to improve Visual and Verbal working memory, although no effect was found in other cognitive domains. Implications and possible future directions of the research are discussed.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:American Indians experience substantial health disparities relative to the US population, including vascular brain aging. Poorer cognitive test performance has been associated with cranial magnetic resonance imaging findings in aging community populations, but no study has investigated these associations in elderly American Indians. METHODS:We examined 786 American Indians aged 64 years and older from the Cerebrovascular Disease and its Consequences in American Indians study (2010-2013). Cranial magnetic resonance images were scored for cortical and subcortical infarcts, hemorrhages, severity of white matter disease, sulcal widening, ventricle enlargement, and volumetric estimates for white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), hippocampus, and brain. Participants completed demographic, medical history, and neuropsychological assessments including testing for general cognitive functioning, verbal learning and memory, processing speed, phonemic fluency, and executive function. RESULTS:Processing speed was independently associated with the presence of any infarcts, white matter disease, and hippocampal and brain volumes, independent of socioeconomic, language, education, and clinical factors. Other significant associations included general cognitive functioning with hippocampal volume. Nonsignificant, marginal associations included general cognition with WMH and brain volume; verbal memory with hippocampal volume; verbal fluency and executive function with brain volume; and processing speed with ventricle enlargement. CONCLUSIONS:Brain-cognition associations found in this study of elderly American Indians are similar to those found in other racial/ethnic populations, with processing speed comprising an especially strong correlate of cerebrovascular disease. These findings may assist future efforts to define opportunities for disease prevention, to conduct research on diagnostic and normative standards, and to guide clinical evaluation of this underserved and overburdened population.
Project description:Ankle-brachial index (ABI) and interartery systolic blood pressure differences, as markers of vascular disease, are plausible risk factors for deficits in cognitive function among overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes.The ABI and maximum interartery differences (MIAD) in systolic blood pressures were assessed annually for five years among 479 participants assigned to the control condition in a randomized clinical trial of a behavioral weight loss intervention. A battery of standardized cognitive function tests was administered 4 to 5?years later. Analyses of covariance were used to assess relationships that ABI, MIAD, and progression of ABI and MIAD had with cognitive function.There was a curvilinear relationship between ABI and a composite index of cognitive function (p?=?0.03), with lower ABI being associated with poorer function. In graded fashions, both greater MIAD and increases in MIAD over time also had modest relationships with poorer verbal memory (both p???0.05), processing speed (both p???0.05), and composite cognitive function (both p?<?0.04). These relationships were independent of each other and remained evident after extensive covariate adjustment.In overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes, lower ABI and larger interartery systolic blood pressure differences have modest, independent, graded relationships with poorer cognitive function 4-5?years later.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Most prior studies investigating the association of lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) with physical function were small or analyzed selected populations (e.g., patients at vascular clinics or persons with reduced function), leaving particular uncertainty regarding the association in the general community. METHODS:Among 5262 ARIC participants (age 71-90 years during 2011-2013), we assessed the cross-sectional association of ankle-brachial index (ABI) with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score (0-12), its individual components (chair stands, standing balance, and gait speed) (0-4 points each), and grip strength after accounting for potential confounders, including a history of coronary disease, stroke, or heart failure. RESULTS:There were 411 participants (7.8%) with low ABI ?0.90 and 469 (8.9%) participants with borderline low ABI 0.91-1.00. Both ABI ?0.90 and 0.91-1.00 were independently associated with poor physical function (SPPB score ?6) compared to ABI 1.11-1.20 (adjusted odds ratio 2.10 [95% CI 1.55-2.84] and 1.86 [1.38-2.51], respectively). The patterns were largely consistent across subgroups by clinical conditions (e.g., leg pain or other cardiovascular diseases), in every SPPB component, and for grip strength. ABI >1.3 (472 participants [9.0%]), indicative of non-compressible pedal arteries, was related to lower physical function as well but did not necessarily reach significance. CONCLUSIONS:In community-dwelling older adults, low and borderline low ABI suggestive of PAD were independently associated with poorer systemic physical function compared to those with normal ABI. Clinical attention to PAD as a potential contributor to poor physical function is warranted in community-dwelling older adults.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recent research has identified impairment in processing speed, measured by the digit-symbol substitution task, as central to the cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. However, the underlying cognitive correlates of this impairment remain unknown. METHODS:A sample of cases (N=125) meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia and a sample of community controls (N=272) from the same geographical area completed a set of putative measures of processing-speed ability to which we implemented confirmatory factor and structural regression modelling in order to elucidate the latent structure of processing speed. Next, we tested the degree to which the structural and relational portions of the model were equal across groups. RESULTS:Processing-speed ability was best defined, in both controls and cases (?(2)=38.59(26), p=0.053), as a multidimensional cognitive ability consisting of three latent factors comprising: psychomotor speed, sequencing and shifting, and verbal fluency. However, cases exhibited dedifferentiation (i.e., markedly stronger inter-correlations between factors; ?(2)=59.94(29), p<.01) and a reliance on an alternative ensemble of cognitive operations to controls when completing the digit-symbol substitution task. CONCLUSION:Dedifferentiation of processing-speed ability in schizophrenia and subsequent overreliance on alternative (and possibly less than optimal) cognitive operations underlies the marked deficit observed on the digit-symbol substitution task.
Project description:To determine the association between amyloid-beta (A?) plaque deposition and changes in global cognition, executive functions, information processing speed, and falls risk over a 12-month period in older adults with a primary clinical diagnosis of subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (SIVCI).This is a secondary analysis of data acquired from a subset of participants (N = 22) who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of aerobic exercise (NCT01027858). The subset of individuals completed an 11C Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) scan. Cognitive function and falls risk were assessed at baseline, 6-months, and 12-months. Global cognition, executive functions, and information processing speed were measured using: 1) ADAS-Cog; 2) Trail Making Test; 3) Digit Span Test; 4) Stroop Test, and 5) Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Falls risk was measured using the Physiological Profile Assessment. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses determined the unique contribution of A? on changes in cognitive function and falls risk at 12-months after controlling for experimental group (i.e. aerobic exercise training or usual care control) and baseline performance. To correct for multiple comparisons, we applied the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure to obtain a false discovery rate corrected threshold using alpha = 0.05.Higher PIB retention was significantly associated with greater decrements in set shifting (Trail Making Test, adjusted R2 = 35.3%, p = 0.002), attention and conflict resolution (Stroop Test, adjusted R2 = 33.4%, p = 0.01), and information processing speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test, adjusted R2 = 24.4%, p = 0.001) over a 12-month period. Additionally, higher PIB retention was significantly associated with increased falls risk (Physiological Profile Assessment, adjusted R2 = 49.1%, p = 0.04). PIB retention was not significantly associated with change in ADAS-Cog and Verbal Digit Span Test (p > 0.05).Symptoms associated with SIVCI may be amplified by secondary A? pathology.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01027858 , December 7, 2009.
Project description:Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitive functioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65-85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53). Participants were tested with a battery of cognitive performance tests that were classified into six broad domains--episodic memory, processing speed, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning, and complex speed at baseline and 2 months later. The results indicated that persons taking NT-020 improved significantly on two measures of processing speed across the 2-month test period in contrast to persons on the placebo whose performance did not change. None of the other cognitive ability measures were related to intervention group. The results also indicated that the NT-020 was well tolerated by older adults, and the presence of adverse events or symptoms did not differ between the NT-020 and placebo groups. Overall, the results of the current study were promising and suggest the potential for interventions like these to improve the cognitive health of older adults.
Project description:It remains unclear whether the onset of psychosis is associated with deterioration in cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to examine the course of cognitive performance in an ultrahigh risk (UHR) cohort, and whether change in cognition is associated with transition to psychosis and change in functioning. Consecutive admissions to Personal Assessment and Crisis Evaluation (PACE) Clinic between May 1994 and July 2000 who had completed a comprehensive cognitive assessment at baseline and follow-up were eligible (N = 80). Follow-up ranged from 7.3 to 13.4 years (M = 10.4 years; SD = 1.5). In the whole sample, significant improvements were observed on the Similarities (P = .03), Information (P < .01), Digit Symbol Coding (P < .01), and Trail Making Test-B (P = .01) tasks, whereas performance on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (Trials 1-3) declined significantly (P < .01) over the follow-up period. Change in performance on cognitive measures was not significantly associated with transition status. Taking time to transition into account, those who transitioned after 1 year showed significant decline on Digit Symbol Coding, whereas those who did not transition improved on this measure (P = .01; effect size [ES] = 0.85). Small positive correlations were observed between improvements in functioning and improvements in performance on Digit Symbol Coding and Arithmetic (0.24, P = .03 and 0.28, P = .01, respectively). In summary, the onset of psychosis was not associated with deterioration in cognitive ability. However, specific findings suggest that immediate verbal learning and memory, and processing speed may be relevant domains for future risk models and early intervention research in UHR individuals.
Project description:Lower performances in cognitive ability in individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have been observed on multiple occasions. Understanding cognitive performance in MDD could provide a wider insight in the aetiology of MDD as a whole. Using a large, well characterised cohort (N?=?7012), we tested for: differences in cognitive performance by MDD status and a gene (single SNP or polygenic score) by MDD interaction effect on cognitive performance. Linear regression was used to assess the association between cognitive performance and MDD status in a case-control, single-episode-recurrent MDD and control-recurrent MDD study design. Test scores on verbal declarative memory, executive functioning, vocabulary, and processing speed were examined. Cognitive performance measures showing a significant difference between groups were subsequently analysed for genetic associations. Those with recurrent MDD have lower processing speed versus controls and single-episode MDD (??=?-2.44, p?=?3.6?×?10-04; ??=?-2.86, p?=?1.8?×?10-03, respectively). There were significantly higher vocabulary scores in MDD cases versus controls (??=?0.79, p?=?2.0?×?10-06), and for recurrent MDD versus controls (??=?0.95, p?=?5.8?×?10-05). Observed differences could not be linked to significant single-locus associations. Polygenic scores created from a processing speed meta-analysis GWAS explained 1% of variation in processing speed performance in the single-episode versus recurrent MDD study (p?=?1.7?×?10-03) and 0.5% of variation in the control versus recurrent MDD study (p?=?1.6?×?10-10). Individuals with recurrent MDD showed lower processing speed and executive function while showing higher vocabulary performance. Within MDD, persons with recurrent episodes show lower processing speed and executive function scores relative to individuals experiencing a single episode.
Project description:Although some studies have reported that low ankle-brachial index (ABI) is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in diabetic patients, it remains controversial as to which stage of DR. The aim of this study is to assess whether peripheral artery disease (PAD), indicated by abnormally low or high ABI, is associated with different stages of DR in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and further evaluate the risk factors. A total of 2001 (858 men and 1143 women) patients with type 2 DM who underwent ABI measurement in an outpatient clinic were enrolled. PAD was defined as ABI < 0.9 or ? 1.3 in either leg. DR was classified as non-DR, nonproliferative DR and proliferative DR stages. The clinical data were analyzed and the risk factors for abnormal ABI were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of ABI < 0.9 or ? 1.3 was 3.0%. Multivariate forward logistic regression analysis identified proliferative DR (vs. non-DR) was associated with abnormal ABI (odds ratio, 1.718; 95% confidence interval, 1.152 to 2.562; p = 0.008), but nonproliferative DR was not. Furthermore, the presence of coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, declining renal function and patients without diuretics use were associated with abnormal ABI in patients with proliferative DR. Our study in patients of type 2 DM demonstrated that PAD was associated with proliferative DR. We emphasize the recommendation of performing the ABI test in this population at risk.