Formulation of pH responsive peptides as inhalable dry powders for pulmonary delivery of nucleic acids.
ABSTRACT: Nucleic acids have the potential to be used as therapies or vaccines for many different types of disease, but delivery remains the most significant challenge to their clinical adoption. pH responsive peptides containing either histidine or derivatives of 2,3-diaminopropionic acid (Dap) can mediate effective DNA transfection in lung epithelial cells with the latter remaining effective even in the presence of lung surfactant containing bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), making this class of peptides attractive candidates for delivering nucleic acids to lung tissues. To further assess the suitability of pH responsive peptides for pulmonary delivery by inhalation, dry powder formulations of pH responsive peptides and plasmid DNA, with mannitol as carrier, were produced by either spray drying (SD) or spray freeze drying (SFD). The properties of the two types of powders were characterised and compared using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), next generation impactor (NGI), gel retardation and in vitro transfection via a twin stage impinger (TSI) following aerosolisation by a dry powder inhaler (Osmohaler™). Although the aerodynamic performance and transfection efficacy of both powders were good, the overall performance revealed SD powders to have a number of advantages over SFD powders and are the more effective formulation with potential for efficient nucleic acid delivery through inhalation.
Project description:Nanoparticles represent one of the most widely studied classes of advanced drug delivery platforms in recent years due to a wide range of unique properties and capabilities that can be utilized to improve upon traditional drug administration. Conversely, hydrogel nanoparticles (HNPs) - also called nanogels - represent a unique class of materials that combine the intrinsic advantages of nanotechnology with the inherent capabilities of hydrogels. Responsive hydrogels pose a particularly interesting class of materials that can sense and respond to external stimuli and previous reports of inhalable hydrogel particles have highlighted their potential in pulmonary delivery. Here, we synthesized two different pH-responsive HNPs, designated HNP120 and HNP270, by incorporating functional monomers with a common crosslinker and characterized their physicochemical properties. One of the HNP systems was selected for incorporation into a composite dry powder by spray drying, and the aerodynamic performance of the resulting powder was evaluated. The HNP120s displayed a hydrodynamic diameter of approximately 120 nm in their fully swollen state and a minimal diameter of around 80 nm while the HNP270s were approximately 270 nm and 115 nm, respectively. Electron microscopy confirmed particle size- and morphological uniformity of the HNPs. The HNP120s were spray dried into composite dry powders for inhalation and cascade impaction studies showed good aerosol performance with a mass median aerosol diameter (MMAD) of 4.82 ± 0.37 and a fine particle fraction > 30%. The HNPs released from the spray dried composites retained their responsive behavior thereby illustrating the potential for these materials as intelligent drug delivery systems that combine the advantages of nanotechnology, lung targeting through pulmonary delivery, and stimuli-responsive hydrogels.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to formulate a dry powder for inhalation containing a combination treatment for eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial biofilms. Dry powders containing an antibiotic (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, CH) and nutrient dispersion compound (glutamic acid, GA) at a ratio determined to eliminate the biofilms were generated by spray drying. Leucine was added to the spray dried formulation to aid powder flowability. A central composite design of experiments was performed to determine the effects of solution and processing parameters on powder yield and aerodynamic properties. Combinations of CH and GA eradicated bacterial biofilms at lower antibiotic concentrations compared to CH alone. Spray dried powders were produced with yields up to 43% and mass mean aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) in the respirable range. Powder yield was primarily affected by variables that determine cyclone efficiency, i.e. atomizer and solution flow rates and solution concentration; while MMAD was mainly determined by solution concentration. Fine particle fractions (FPF)<4.46?m and <2.82?m of the powders ranged from 56 to 70% and 35 to 46%, respectively. This study demonstrates that dry powder aerosols containing high concentrations of a combination treatment effective against P. aeruginosa biofilms could be developed with high yield, aerodynamic properties appropriate for inhalation, and no loss of potency.
Project description:ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell powders were prepared by applying a simple spray-drying process. Dextrin was used as a drying additive and carbon source material, and thus played a key role in the preparation of the powders. The combustion of precursor powders consisting of zinc and iron salts and dextrin obtained by a spray-drying process produced the yolk-shell-structured ZnFe2O4 powders even at a low post-treatment temperature of 350 °C. The ZnFe2O4 powders prepared from the spray solution without dextrin had a filled and pockmarked structure. The initial discharge capacities of the ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell and filled powders post-treated at 450 °C at a current density of 500 mA g(-1) were 1226 and 993 mA h g(-1), respectively, and the corresponding initial Coulombic efficiencies were 74 and 58%. The discharge capacities of the ZnFe2O4 powders with yolk-shell and filled structures post-treated at 450 °C after 200 cycles were 862 and 332 mA h g(-1), respectively. The ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell powders with high structural stability during cycling had superior electrochemical properties to those of the powders with filled structure.
Project description:In this work, heat stable dry powders of oxytocin (OT) suitable for delivery by oral inhalation were prepared. The OT dry powders were prepared by spray drying using excipients chosen to promote OT stability including trehalose, isoleucine, polyvinylpyrrolidone, citrate (sodium citrate and citric acid), and zinc salts (zinc chloride and zinc citrate). Characterization by laser diffraction indicated that the OT dry powders had a median particle size of 2 ?m, making them suitable for delivery by inhalation. Aerodynamic performance upon discharge from proprietary dry powder inhalers was evaluated by Andersen cascade impaction (ACI) and in an anatomically correct airway (ACA) model, and confirmed that the powders had excellent aerodynamic performance, with respirable fractions up to 77% (ACI, 30 L/min). Physicochemical characterization demonstrated that the powders were amorphous (X-ray diffraction) with high glass transition temperature (modulated differential scanning calorimetry, MDSC), suggesting the potential for stabilization of the OT in a glassy amorphous matrix. OT assay and impurity profile were conducted by reverse phase HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) after storage up to 32 weeks at 40°C/75%RH. Analysis demonstrated that OT dry powders containing a mixture of citrate and zinc salts retained more than 90% of initial assay after 32 weeks storage and showed significant reduction in dimers and trisulfide formation (up to threefold reduction compared to control).
Project description:The treatment of enteric bacterial infections using oral bacteriophage therapy can be challenging since the harsh acidic stomach environment renders phages inactive during transit through the gastrointestinal tract. Solid oral dosage forms allowing site-specific gastrointestinal delivery of high doses of phages, e.g., using a pH or enzymatic trigger, would be a game changer for the nascent industry trying to demonstrate the efficacy of phages, including engineered phages for gut microbiome modulation in expensive clinical trials. Spray-drying is a scalable, low-cost process for producing pharmaceutical agents in dry powder form. Encapsulation of a model Salmonella-specific phage (Myoviridae phage Felix O1) was carried out using the process of spray-drying, employing a commercially available Eudragit S100® pH-responsive anionic copolymer composed of methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid formulated with trehalose. Formulation and processing conditions were optimised to improve the survival of phages during spray-drying, and their subsequent protection upon exposure to simulated gastric acidity was demonstrated. Addition of trehalose to the formulation was shown to protect phages from elevated temperatures and desiccation encountered during spray-drying. Direct compression of spray-dried encapsulated phages into tablets was shown to significantly improve phage protection upon exposure to simulated gastric fluid. The results reported here demonstrate the significant potential of spray-dried pH-responsive formulations for oral delivery of bacteriophages targeting gastrointestinal applications.
Project description:While the formulation of nanoparticle (NP) suspensions has been widely applied in materials and life science, the recovery of NPs from such a suspension into a solid state is practically important to confer long-term storage stability. However, solidification, while preserving the original nanoscale properties, remains a formidable challenge in the pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of NPs. Herein we combined flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) and spray-drying as a nanofabrication platform for NP formulation and recovery without compromising the dissolution kinetics of the active ingredient. Clofazimine was chosen to be the representative drug, which has been recently repurposed as a potential treatment for cryptosporidiosis. Clofazimine was encapsulated in NPs with low-cost surface coatings, hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) and lecithin, which were required by the ultimate application to global health. Spray-drying and lyophilization were utilized to produce dried powders with good long-term storage stability for application in hot and humid climatic zones. The particle morphology, yield efficiency, drug loading, and clofazimine crystallinity in the spray-dried powders were characterized. The in vitro release kinetics of spray-dried NP powders were compared to analogous dissolution profiles from standard lyophilized NP samples, crystalline clofazimine powder, and the commercially available formulation Lamprene. The spray-dried powders showed a supersaturation level of up to 60 times the equilibrium solubility and remarkably improved dissolution rates. In addition, the spray-dried powders with both surface coatings showed excellent stability during aging studies with elevated temperature and humidity, in view of the dissolution and release in vitro. Considering oral delivery for pediatric administration, the spray-dried powders show less staining effects with simulated skin than crystalline clofazimine and may be made into minitablets without additional excipients. These results highlight the potential of combining FNP and spray-drying as a feasible and versatile platform to design and rapidly recover amorphous NPs in a solid dosage form, with the advantages of satisfactory long-term storage stability, low cost, and easy scalability.
Project description:Pulmonary delivery of biopharmaceuticals may enable targeted local therapeutic effect and noninvasive systemic administration. Dry powder inhaler (DPI) delivery is an established patient-friendly approach for delivering large molecules to the lungs; however, the complexities of balancing protein stability with aerosol performance require that the design space of biopharmaceutical DPI formulations is rigorously explored. Utilizing four rationally selected formulations obtained using identical atomization conditions, an extensive study of the effect of the particle formation process (spray drying or spray freeze-drying) on powder properties, aerosol performance, and protein stability was performed. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to understand the relationship between powder properties, device dispersion mechanism, and aerosol performance. Spray drying and spray freeze-drying, despite the same spraying conditions, produced powders with vastly different physical characteristics, though similar aerosol performance. The resulting regression model points to the significance of particle size, density, and surface properties on the resulting aerosol performance, with these factors weighing differently according to the device dispersion mechanism utilized (shear-based or impaction-based). The physical properties of the produced spray dried and spray freeze-dried powders have differing implications for long-term stability, which will be explored extensively in a future study.
Project description:There is a current biodefense interest in protection against anthrax. Here, we developed a new generation of stable and effective anthrax vaccine. We studied the immune response elicited by recombinant protective antigen (rPA) delivered intranasally with a novel mucosal adjuvant, a mast cell activator compound 48/80 (C48/80). The vaccine formulation was prepared in a powder form by spray-freeze-drying (SFD) under optimized conditions to produce particles with a target size of D(50) = 25 ?m, suitable for delivery to the rabbit nasal cavity. Physicochemical properties of the powder vaccines were characterized to assess their delivery and storage potential. Structural stability of rPA was confirmed by circular dichroism and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, whereas functional stability of rPA and C48/80 was monitored by cell-based assays. Animal study was performed using a unit-dose powder device for direct nasal application. Results showed that C48/80 provided effective mucosal adjuvant activity in rabbits. Freshly prepared SFD powder vaccine formulations or powders stored for over 2 years at room temperature elicited significantly elevated serum PA-specific and lethal toxin neutralization antibody titers that were comparable to that induced by intramuscular immunization with rPA. Nasal delivery of this vaccine formulation may be a viable alternative to the currently licensed vaccine or an attractive vaccine platform for other mucosally transmitted diseases.
Project description:The data presented in this manuscript showed the effect of the carbon sources on the morphology and crystallite size of Fe/C composite microspheres obtained after reduction of the as spray-dried powders. Each morphology, phase, and crystalline size of powders obtained after spray-drying and subsequent heat-treatment were investigated.
Project description:White horehound (Marrubium vulgare L.), is a grey-leaved perennial herb, belonging to Lamiaceae family, distributed in Eurasia and northern Africa. Despite the fact that M. vulgare has been used since ancient times in treating diverse diseases, it is only in the last decade or so that scientists have been able to lay the foundation for its potential pharmacological actions from the results observed through the prism of ethnopharmacological use of this species. The novelty of this study was that subcritical water extraction, acknowledged as a powerful extraction technology to recover phenolic compounds, was coupled with spray drying. The subcritical horehound extract, obtained using optimal process parameters, was used as a liquid feed in spray drying. Maltodextrin was used as a carrier in a concentration of 10%. Thus, two M. vulgare powders, carrier-free and 10% MD, were produced. Comprehensive powders characterization was conducted in order to evaluate their quality. Results confirmed that spray drying can be used as a method of choice for obtaining high quality horehound powders which kept the amorphous structure constant after 6 months.