Mutational and structural analysis of KIR3DL1 reveals a lineage-defining allotypic dimorphism that impacts both HLA and peptide sensitivity.
ABSTRACT: Killer Ig-like receptors (KIRs) control the activation of human NK cells via interactions with peptide-laden HLAs. KIR3DL1 is a highly polymorphic inhibitory receptor that recognizes a diverse array of HLA molecules expressing the Bw4 epitope, a group with multiple polymorphisms incorporating variants within the Bw4 motif. Genetic studies suggest that KIR3DL1 variation has functional significance in several disease states, including HIV infection. However, owing to differences across KIR3DL1 allotypes, HLA-Bw4, and associated peptides, the mechanistic link with biological outcome remains unclear. In this study, we elucidated the impact of KIR3DL1 polymorphism on peptide-laden HLA recognition. Mutational analysis revealed that KIR residues involved in water-mediated contacts with the HLA-presented peptide influence peptide binding specificity. In particular, residue 282 (glutamate) in the D2 domain underpins the lack of tolerance of negatively charged C-terminal peptide residues. Allotypic KIR3DL1 variants, defined by neighboring residue 283, displayed differential sensitivities to HLA-bound peptide, including the variable HLA-B*57:01-restricted HIV-1 Gag-derived epitope TW10. Residue 283, which has undergone positive selection during the evolution of human KIRs, also played a central role in Bw4 subtype recognition by KIR3DL1. Collectively, our findings uncover a common molecular regulator that controls HLA and peptide discrimination without participating directly in peptide-laden HLA interactions. Furthermore, they provide insight into the mechanics of interaction and generate simple, easily assessed criteria for the definition of KIR3DL1 functional groupings that will be relevant in many clinical applications, including bone marrow transplantation.
Project description:Mutations within MHC class I-restricted epitopes have been studied in relation to T cell-mediated immune escape, but their impact on NK cells via interaction with killer Ig-like receptors (KIRs) during early HIV infection is poorly understood. In two patients acutely infected with HIV-1, we observed the appearance of a mutation within the B*57-restricted TW10 epitope (G9E) that did not facilitate strong escape from T cell recognition. The NK cell receptor KIR3DL1, carried by these patients, is known to recognize HLA-B*5703 and is associated with good control of HIV-1. Therefore, we tested whether the G9E mutation influenced the binding of HLA-B*5703 to soluble KIR3DL1 protein by surface plasmon resonance, and while the wild-type sequence and a second (T3N) variant were recognized, the G9E variant abrogated KIR3DL1 binding. We extended the study to determine the peptide sensitivity of KIR3DL1 interaction with epitopes carrying mutations near the C termini of TW10 and a second HLA-B*57-restricted epitope, IW9. Several amino acid changes interfered with KIR3DL1 binding, the most extreme of which included the G9E mutation commonly selected by HLA-B*57. Our results imply that during HIV-1 infection, some early-emerging variants could affect KIR-HLA interaction, with possible implications for immune recognition.
Project description:Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are a family of glycoproteins expressed primarily on natural killer cells that can regulate their function. Inhibitory KIRs recognize MHC class I molecules (KIR-ligands) as ligands. We have reported associations of KIRs and KIR-ligands for patients in two monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based trials: (1) A Children's Oncology Group (COG) trial for children with high-risk neuroblastoma randomized to immunotherapy treatment with dinutuximab (anti-GD2 mAb)?+?GM-CSF?+?IL-2?+?isotretinion or to treatment with isotretinoin alone and (2) An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) trial for adults with low-tumor burden follicular lymphoma responding to an induction course of rituximab (anti-CD20 mAb) and randomized to treatment with maintenance rituximab or no-maintenance rituximab. In each trial, certain KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes were associated with clinical benefit for patients randomized to immunotherapy treatment (immunotherapy in COG; maintenance rituximab in ECOG) as compared to patients that did not receive the immunotherapy [isotretinoin alone (COG); no-maintenance (ECOG)]. Namely, patients with both KIR3DL1 and its HLA-Bw4 ligand (KIR3DL1+/HLA-Bw4+ genotype) had improved clinical outcomes if randomized to immunotherapy regimens, as compared to patients with the KIR3DL1+/HLA-Bw4+ genotype randomized to the non-immunotherapy regimen. Conversely, patients that did not have the KIR3DL1+/HLA-Bw4+ genotype showed no evidence of a difference in outcome if receiving the immunotherapy vs. no-immunotherapy. For each trial, HLA-Bw4 status was determined by assessing the genotypes of three separate isoforms of HLA-Bw4: (1) HLA-B-Bw4 with threonine at amino acid 80 (B-Bw4-T80); (2) HLA-B-Bw4 with isoleucine at amino acid 80 (HLA-B-Bw4-I80); and (3) HLA-A with a Bw4 epitope (HLA-A-Bw4). Here, we report on associations with clinical outcome for patients with KIR3DL1 and these separate isoforms of HLA-Bw4. Patients randomized to immunotherapy with KIR3DL1+/A-Bw4+ or with KIR3DL1+/B-Bw4-T80+ had better outcome vs. those randomized to no-immunotherapy, whereas for those with KIR3DL1+/B-Bw4-I80+ there was no evidence of a difference based on immunotherapy vs. no-immunotherapy. Additionally, we observed differences within treatment types (either within immunotherapy or no-immunotherapy) that were associated with the genotype status for the different KIR3DL1/HLA-Bw4-isoforms. These studies suggest that specific HLA-Bw4 isoforms may differentially influence response to these mAb-based immunotherapy, further confirming the involvement of KIR-bearing cells in tumor-reactive mAb-based cancer immunotherapy.
Project description:HLA-B allotypes exhibiting the Bw4 epitope trigger variable inhibitory signaling of KIR3DL1 receptor types, where strong inhibitory HLA-B and KIR3DL1 allele combinations are associated with increased risk for relapse of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Several HLA-A allotypes also exhibit the Bw4 epitope. Studies with natural killer (NK) cell clones have demonstrated NK inhibition via KIR3DL1 by HLA-A Bw4+ allotypes, but did not delineate strengths of inhibition or hierarchies of NK education. Using primary NK cells from healthy donors, we demonstrate that HLA-A*23, HLA-A*24, and HLA-A*32 proteins are expressed at different densities and exhibit different capacities to educate and inhibit KIR3DL1-expressing NK cells in vitro. Among the HLA-A Bw4+ allotypes, HLA-A*24 and HLA-A*32 demonstrate the strongest inhibitory capacity. To determine if HLA-A allotypes with strong inhibitory capacity have similar negative impact in allogeneic HCT as HLA-B Bw4+ allotypes, we performed a retrospective analysis of 1729 patients with AML who received an allogeneic HCT from a 9/10 or 10/10 HLA allele-matched unrelated donor. Examination of the donor-recipient pairs whose Bw4 epitope was exclusively contributed from HLA-A*24 and A*32 allotypes revealed that patients with HLA-A*24 who received an allograft from a KIR3DL1+ donor experienced a higher risk of disease relapse (hazard ratio, 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.32; P = .004) when compared with patients without a Bw4 epitope. These findings indicate that despite weak affinity interactions with KIR3DL1, common HLA-A allotypes with the Bw4 epitope can interact with KIR3DL1+ donor NK cells with clinically meaningful impact and provide additional insight to donor NK alloreactivity in HLA-matched HCT.
Project description:The killer cell Ig-like receptor 3DL1 (KIR3DL1) inhibits activation of NK cells upon interaction with HLA class I molecules such as HLA-B*57:01, which contains the Bw4 epitope spanning residues 77-83 (e.g., NLRIALR), and not with HLA allomorphs that possess the Bw6 motif (e.g., HLA-B*08:01), which differ at residues 77, 80, 81, 82, and 83. Although Bw4 residues Ile(80) and Arg(83) directly interact with KIR3DL1*001, their precise role in determining KIR3DL1-HLA-Bw4 specificity remains unclear. Recognition of HLA-B*57:01 by either KIR3DL1(+) NK cells or the NK cell line YTS transfected with KIR3DL1*001 was impaired by mutation of residues 80 and 83 of HLA-B*57:01 to the corresponding amino acids within the Bw6 motif. Conversely, the simultaneous introduction of three Bw4 residues at positions 80, 82, and 83 into HLA-B*08:01 conferred an interaction with KIR3DL1*001. Structural analysis of HLA-B*57:01, HLA-B*08:01, and mutants of each bearing substitutions at positions 80 and 83 revealed that Ile(80) and Arg(83) within the Bw4 motif constrain the conformation of Glu(76), primarily through a salt bridge between Arg(83) and Glu(76). This salt bridge was absent in HLA-Bw6 molecules as well as position 83 mutants of HLA-B*57:01. Mutation of the Bw4 residue Ile(80) also disrupted this salt bridge, providing further insight into the role that position 80 plays in mediating KIR3DL1 recognition. Thus, the strict conformation of HLA-Bw4 allotypes, held in place by the Glu(76)-Arg(83) interaction, facilitates KIR3DL1 binding, whereas Bw6 allotypes present a platform on the ?1 helix that is less permissive for KIR3DL1 binding.
Project description:The function of natural killer (NK) cells is controlled by several activating and inhibitory receptors, including the family of killer-immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs). One distinctive feature of KIRs is the extensive number of various haplotypes generated by the gene content within the KIR gene locus as well as by highly polymorphic members of the KIR gene family, namely KIR3DL1/S1. Within the KIR3DL1/S1 gene locus, KIR3DS1 represents a conserved allelic variant and displays other unique features in comparison to the highly polymorphic KIR3DL1 allele. KIR3DS1 is present in all human populations and belongs to the KIR haplotype group B. KIR3DS1 encodes for an activating receptor featuring the characteristic short cytoplasmic tail and a positively charged residue within the transmembrane domain, which allows recruitment of the ITAM-bearing adaptor molecule DAP12. Although HLA class I molecules are thought to represent natural KIR ligands, and HLA-Bw4 molecules serve as ligands for KIR3DL1, the ligand for KIR3DS1 still needs to be identified. Despite the lack of formal evidence for an interaction of KIR3DS1 with HLA-Bw4-I80 or any other HLA class I subtype to date, a growing number of associations between the presence of KIR3DS1 and the outcome of viral infections have been described. Especially, the potential protective role of KIR3DS1 in combination with HLA-Bw4-I80 in the context of HIV-1 infection has been studied intensively. In addition, a number of recent studies have associated the presence or absence of KIR3DS1 with the occurrence and outcome of some malignancies, autoimmune diseases, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In this review, we summarize the present knowledge regarding the characteristics of KIRD3S1 and discuss its role in various human diseases.
Project description:KIR3DL1 is among the most interesting receptors studied, within the killer immunoglobulin receptor (KIR) family. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I Bw4 epitope inhibits strongly Natural Killer (NK) cell's activity through interaction with KIR3DL1 receptor, while Bw6 generally does not. This interaction has been indicated to play an important role in the immune control of different viral infectious diseases. However, the structural interaction between the KIR3DL1 receptor and different HLA-B alleles has been scarcely studied. To understand the complexity of KIR3DL1-HLA-B interaction, HLA-B alleles carrying Bw4/Bw6 epitope and KIR3DL1?001 allele in presence of different peptides has been evaluated by using a structural immunoinformatic approach. Different energy minimization force fields (ff) have been tested and NOVA ff enables the successful prediction of ligand-receptor interaction. HLA-B alleles carrying Bw4 epitope present the highest capability of interaction with KIR3DL1?001 compared to the HLA-B alleles presenting Bw6. The presence of the epitope Bw4 determines a conformational change which leads to a stronger interaction between nonpolymorphic arginine at position 79 of HLA-B and KIR3DL1?001 136-142 loop. The data shed new light on the modalities of KIR3DL1 interaction with HLA-B alleles essential for the modulation of NK immune-mediated response.
Project description:Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) are a family of receptors expressed on natural killer (NK) and T-cell subsets. KIR3DL1 is a highly polymorphic receptor that binds to groups of HLAA and HLA-B allotypes that express the Bw4 epitope. The variation in KIR3DL1 allotypes manifests at a number of levels. Most dramatically, a common allelic variant encodes an activating rather than an inhibitory receptor (KIR3DS1). In addition, sequence variants can affect both the frequency of expression within the NK cell population and the intensity of expression on a given cell. KIR3DL1 polymorphism also influences the interaction with HLA-Bw4 molecules, due to contacts with the HLA molecule itself and sensitivity to the presented peptide. A body of evidence from genetic association studies supports the biological significance not only of the interaction of KIR3DL1 with HLA-Bw4 but also the functional variation seen with different KIR3DL1 and HLA allotypes. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of KIR3DL1 function and our recent insights from the structure of the KIR3DL1 in complex with HLA. In addition, we will summarize our current understanding of KIR3DS1, including its ligand specificity and its role in immune responses.
Project description:Epidemiological studies have associated certain human disease outcomes with particular killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) and HLA genotypes. However, the functional explanation for these associations is poorly understood, because the KIRs were initially described as natural killer (NK) cell inhibitory receptors with specificity for HLA molecules on their cellular targets. Yet resolution of infections is often associated with genotypic pairing of inhibitory KIRs with their cognate HLA ligands. Recent studies in mice indicate a second role for MHC-specific inhibitory receptors, i.e., self-MHC recognition confers functional competence on the NK cell to be triggered through their activation receptors, a process termed licensing. As a result, licensed NK cells with self-MHC-specific receptors are more readily activated as compared with unlicensed NK cells without self-MHC-specific receptors. Such results predict that human NK cells may undergo a similar process. Here, we examined the human NK cell subset expressing KIR3DL1, the only known KIR specific for HLA-Bw4 alleles. The KIR3DL1(+) subset in normal donors with two HLA-B-Bw4 genes displayed increased responsiveness to tumor stimulation compared with the KIR3DL1(+) subset from individuals with only one or no Bw4 genes. By contrast, NK cells lacking KIR3DL1 showed no differences. Therefore, these data indicate that particular KIR and HLA alleles are associated with more responsive NK cells, strongly suggesting that human NK cells are also subjected to NK cell licensing, and providing a potential functional explanation for the influence of KIR and HLA genes in disease as well as interindividual differences in NK cell potency.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) play an important role in the activation of natural killer (NK) cells, which in turn contribute to the effective immune control of many viral infections. In the context of HIV infection, the closely related KIR3DL1 and KIR3DS1 molecules, in particular, have been associated with disease outcome. Inhibitory signals via KIR3DL1 are disrupted by downregulation of HLA class I ligands on the infected cell surface and can also be impacted by changes in the presented peptide repertoire. In contrast, the activatory ligands for KIR3DS1 remain obscure. We used a structure-driven approach to define the characteristics of HLA class I-restricted peptides that interact with KIR3DL1 and KIR3DS1. In the case of HLA-B*57:01, we used this knowledge to identify bona fide HIV-derived peptide epitopes with similar properties. Two such peptides facilitated productive interactions between HLA-B*57:01 and KIR3DS1. These data reveal the presence of KIR3DS1 ligands within the HIV-specific peptide repertoire presented by a protective HLA class I allotype, thereby enhancing our mechanistic understanding of the processes that enable NK cells to impact disease outcome. IMPORTANCE:Natural killer (NK) cells are implicated as determinants of immune control in many viral infections, but the precise molecular mechanisms that initiate and control these responses are unclear. The activating receptor KIR3DS1 in combination with HLA-Bw4 has been associated with better outcomes in HIV infection. However, evidence of a direct interaction between these molecules is lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that KIR3DS1 recognition of HLA-Bw4 is peptide dependent. We also identify HIV-derived peptide epitopes presented by the protective HLA-B*57:01 allotype that facilitate productive interactions with KIR3DS1. Collectively, these findings suggest a mechanism whereby changes in the peptide repertoire associated with viral infection provide a trigger for KIR3DS1 engagement and NK cell activation.
Project description:During development, NK cells are "educated" to respond aggressively to cells with low surface expression of HLA class I, a hallmark of malignant and infected cells. The mechanism of education involves interactions between inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and specific HLA epitopes, but the details of this process are unknown. Because of the genetic diversity of HLA class I genes, most people have NK cells that are incompletely educated, representing an untapped source of human immunity. We demonstrate how mature peripheral KIR3DL1+ human NK cells can be educated in vitro. To accomplish this, we trained NK cells expressing the inhibitory KIR3DL1 receptor by co-culturing them with target cells that expressed its ligand, Bw4+HLA-B. After this training, KIR3DL1+ NK cells increased their inflammatory and lytic responses toward target cells lacking Bw4+HLA-B, as though they had been educated in vivo. By varying the conditions of this basic protocol, we provide mechanistic and translational insights into the process NK cell education.