Propofol compared with isoflurane inhibits mitochondrial metabolism in immature swine cerebral cortex.
ABSTRACT: Anesthetics used in infants and children are implicated in the development of neurocognitive disorders. Although propofol induces neuroapoptosis in developing brain, the underlying mechanisms require elucidation and may have an energetic basis. We studied substrate utilization in immature swine anesthetized with either propofol or isoflurane for 4?hours. Piglets were infused with 13-Carbon-labeled glucose and leucine in the common carotid artery to assess citric acid cycle (CAC) metabolism in the parietal cortex. The anesthetics produced similar systemic hemodynamics and cerebral oxygen saturation by near-infrared spectroscopy. Compared with isoflurane, propofol depleted ATP and glycogen stores. Propofol decreased pools of the CAC intermediates, citrate, and ?-ketoglutarate, while markedly increasing succinate along with decreasing mitochondrial complex II activity. Propofol also inhibited acetyl-CoA entry into the CAC through pyruvate dehydrogenase, while promoting glycolytic flux with marked lactate accumulation. Although oxygen supply appeared similar between the anesthetic groups, propofol yielded a metabolic phenotype that resembled a hypoxic state. Propofol impairs substrate flux through the CAC in the immature cerebral cortex. These impairments occurred without systemic metabolic perturbations that typically accompany propofol infusion syndrome. These metabolic abnormalities may have a role in the neurotoxity observed with propofol in the vulnerable immature brain.
Project description:Prolonged exposure to volatile anesthetics, such as isoflurane and sevoflurane, causes neurodegeneration in the developing animal brains. Recent studies showed that dexmedetomidine, a selective ?2-adrenergic agonist, reduced isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment and neuroapoptosis. However, the mechanisms for the effect are not completely clear. Thus, we investigated whether exposure to isoflurane or sevoflurane at an equivalent dose for anesthesia during brain development causes different degrees of neuroapoptosis and whether this neuroapoptosis is reduced by dexmedetomidine via effects on PI3K/Akt pathway that can regulate cell survival. Seven-day-old (P7) neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly exposed to 0.75% isoflurane, 1.2% sevoflurane or air for 6 h. Activated caspase-3 was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Phospho-Akt, phospho-Bad, Akt, Bad and Bcl-xL proteins were detected by Western blotting in the hippocampus at the end of exposure. Also, P7 rats were pretreated with various concentrations of dexmedetomidine alone or together with PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and then exposed to 0.75% isoflurane. Terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and activated caspase-3 were used to detect neuronal apoptosis in their hippocampus. Isoflurane, not sevoflurane at the equivalent dose, induced significant neuroapoptosis, decreased the levels of phospho-Akt and phospho-Bad proteins, increased the expression of Bad protein and reduced the ratio of Bcl-xL/Bad in the hippocampus. Dexmedetomidine pretreatment dose-dependently inhibited isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis and restored protein expression of phospho-Akt and Bad as well as the Bcl-xL/Bad ratio induced by isoflurane. Pretreatment with single dose of 75 µg/kg dexmedetomidine provided a protective effect similar to that with three doses of 25 µg/kg dexmedetomidine. Moreover, LY294002, partly inhibited neuroprotection of dexmedetomidine. Our results suggest that dexmedetomidine pretreatment provides neuroprotection against isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis in the hippocampus of neonatal rats by preserving PI3K/Akt pathway activity.
Project description:Previous research has shown that exposure to volatile anesthetics can induce acute neuroinflammation and neuroapoptopsis in neonatal rodents and that these events can lead to cognitive dysfunction at later stages. Isoflurane and sevoflurane are two of the most popular anesthetics used in the field of pediatrics. However, the relative impact of these two anesthetics on the developing brain at distinct time points after the induction of anesthesia has not been compared. In the present study, we exposed 7-day-old mice to clinically equivalent doses of isoflurane (1.5%) and sevoflurane (2.5%) for 4 h and then investigated consequential changes in the brains of these mice at six different time points. We analyzed the levels of proteins that are directly related to neuroapoptosis, neuroinflammation, synaptic function, and memory, in the brains of neonatal mice. Exposure of neonatal mice to isoflurane and sevoflurane resulted in acute neuronal apoptosis. Our analysis observed significant levels of neuroinflammation and changes in the expression levels of proteins associated with both synaptic transmission and memory in mice from the isoflurane group but not the sevoflurane group. Our results therefore indicate that isoflurane and sevoflurane induce differential effects in the brains of neonatal mice.
Project description:Development of noninvasive techniques to discover new biomarkers in the live brain is important to further understand the underlying metabolic pathways of significance for processes such as anesthesia-induced apoptosis and cognitive dysfunction observed in the undeveloped brain. We used in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and two different signal processing approaches to test the hypothesis that volatile (isoflurane) and intravenous (propofol) anesthetics at equipotent doses produce distinct metabolomic profiles in the hippocampus and parietal cortex of the live rodent. For both brain regions, prolonged isoflurane anesthesia was characterized by higher levels of lactate (Lac) and glutamate compared with long-lasting propofol. In contrast, propofol anesthesia was characterized by very low concentrations of Lac ([lac]) as well as glucose. Quantitative analysis revealed that the [lac] was fivefold higher with isoflurane compared with propofol anesthesia and independent of [lac] in blood. The metabolomic profiling further demonstrated that for both brain regions, Lac was the most important metabolite for the observed differences, suggesting activation of distinct metabolic pathways that may impact mechanisms of action, background cellular functions, and possible agent-specific neurotoxicity.
Project description:Isoflurane is a volatile halogenated anesthetic used especially for anesthesia maintenance whereas propofol is a venous anesthetic utilized for anesthesia induction and maintenance, and reportedly an antioxidant. However, there are still controversies related to isoflurane-induced oxidative stress and it remains unanswered whether the antioxidant effects occur in patients under propofol anesthesia.Taking into account the importance of better understanding the role of anesthetics on oxidative stress in anesthetized patients, the present study was designed to evaluate general anesthesia maintained with isoflurane or propofol on antioxidant status in patients who underwent minimally invasive surgeries.We conducted a prospective randomized trial in 30 adult patients without comorbidities who underwent elective minor surgery (septoplasty) lasting at least 2?h admitted to a Brazilian tertiary hospital.The patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups, according to anesthesia maintenance (isoflurane, n?=?15 or propofol, n?=?15). Peripheral blood samples were drawn before anesthesia (baseline) and 2-h after anesthesia induction.The primary outcomes were to investigate the effect of either isoflurane or propofol anesthesia on aqueous plasma oxidizability and total antioxidant performance (TAP) by fluorometry as well as several individual antioxidants by high-performance liquid chromatography. As secondary outcome, oxidized genetic damage (7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine, known as 8-oxo-Gua) was investigated by the comet assay.Both anesthesia techniques (isoflurane or propofol) for a 2-h period resulted in a significant decrease of plasma ?-tocopherol, but not other antioxidants including uric acid, carotenoids, and retinol (P?>?0.05). Propofol, in contrast to isoflurane anesthesia, significantly increased (P?<?0.001) anti-inflammatory/antioxidant plasma ?-tocopherol concentration in patients. Both anesthesia types significantly enhanced hydrophilic antioxidant capacity and TAP, with no significant difference between them, and 8-oxo-Gua remained unchanged during anesthesia in both groups. In addition, both anesthetics showed antioxidant capacity in vitro.This study shows that anesthesia maintained with either propofol or isoflurane increase both hydrophilic and total antioxidant capacity in plasma, but only propofol anesthesia increases plasma ?-tocopherol concentration. Additionally, both types of anesthetics do not lead to oxidative DNA damage in patients without comorbidities undergoing minimally invasive surgery.
Project description:<b>Backgrounds</b>: Aging-related impairment of cerebral blood flow regulation leads to the disruption of neuronal micro-environmental homeostasis. Anesthetics should be carefully selected for aging patients since they have less cognition capacity. Effects and mechanisms of propofol or isoflurane have been widely investigated. However, how different combinations of propofol and isoflurane affect neurons and the mechanism still needs to be demonstrated. <b>Methods</b>: We cultured rat hippocampal neurons and established a hypoxic injury model to imitate the micro-environment of aging brains. Three different combinations of propofol and isoflurane were applied to find out an optimum group <i>via</i> Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) assay, lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, real-time qPCR, and immunofluorescence of key proteins. Then BiP was silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) to explore the mechanism of how isoflurane and propofol affect neurons. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was measured by Western blot and immunofluorescence. To detect GABA<sub>A</sub>R ?1 subunit proteostasis and its function, real-time qPCR, immunoprecipitation, and Western blot were carried out. <b>Results</b>: Hypoxic neurons showed no different changes on cell viability, LDH leakage, and ER stress after treatment with 1% isoflurane and 1.2 ?g/ml of propofol. Hypoxic neurons showed a sharp increase of LDH leakage and ER stress and a decrease of cell viability after treatment with 1.4% isoflurane and 0.6 ?g/ml of propofol or 0.5% isoflurane and 1.8 ?g/ml of propofol. After knockdown of BiP, the application of 1% isoflurane and 1.2 ?g/ml of propofol led to the decrease of GABA<sub>A</sub>R ?1 subunit protein content and viability of cell, as well as aggravation of ER stress. <b>Conclusion</b>: A combination of 1% isoflurane and 1.2 ?g/ml of propofol causes the least damage than do other dosages of both two drugs, and endogenous BiP plays an important role in this process.
Project description:Anesthesia impairs upper airway integrity, but recent data suggest that low doses of some anesthetics increase upper airway dilator muscle activity, an apparent paradox. The authors sought to understand which anesthetics increase or decrease upper airway dilator muscle activity and to study the mechanisms mediating the effect.The authors recorded genioglossus electromyogram, breathing, arterial blood pressure, and expiratory carbon dioxide in 58 spontaneously breathing rats at an estimated ED50 (median effective dose) of isoflurane or propofol. The authors further evaluated the dose-response relations of isoflurane under different study conditions: (1) normalization of mean arterial pressure, or end-expiratory carbon dioxide; (2) bilateral lesion of the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus; and (3) vagotomy. To evaluate whether the markedly lower inspiratory genioglossus activity during propofol could be recovered by increasing flow rate, a measure of respiratory drive, the authors performed an additional set of experiments during hypoxia or hypercapnia.In vagally intact rats, tonic and phasic genioglossus activity were markedly higher with isoflurane compared with propofol. Both anesthetics abolished the genioglossus negative pressure reflex. Inspiratory flow rate and anesthetic agent predicted independently phasic genioglossus activity. Isoflurane dose-dependently decreased tonic and increased phasic genioglossus activity, and increased flow rate, and its increasing effects were abolished after vagotomy. Impairment of phasic genioglossus activity during propofol anesthesia was reversed during evoked increase in respiratory drive.Isoflurane compared with propofol anesthesia yields higher tonic and phasic genioglossus muscle activity. The level of respiratory depression rather than the level of effective anesthesia correlates closely with the airway dilator muscle function during anesthesia.
Project description:Accumulation and deposition of ?-amyloid protein (A?) are the hallmark features of Alzheimer's disease. The inhalation anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to induce caspase activation and increase A? accumulation. In addition, recent studies suggest that isoflurane may directly promote the formation of cytotoxic soluble A? oligomers, which are thought to be the key pathological species in AD. In contrast, propofol, the most commonly used intravenous anesthetic, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects. We therefore set out to compare the effects of isoflurane and propofol alone and in combination on caspase-3 activation and A? oligomerization in vitro and in vivo. Naïve and stably-transfected H4 human neuroglioma cells that express human amyloid precursor protein, the precursor for A?; neonatal mice; and conditioned cell culture media containing secreted human A?40 or A?42 were treated with isoflurane and/or propofol. Here we show for the first time that propofol can attenuate isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation in cultured cells and in the brain tissues of neonatal mice. Furthermore, propofol-mediated caspase inhibition occurred when there were elevated levels of A?. Finally, isoflurane alone induces A?42, but not A?40, oligomerization, and propofol can inhibit the isoflurane-mediated oligomerization of A?42. These data suggest that propofol may mitigate the caspase-3 activation by attenuating the isoflurane-induced A?42 oligomerization. Our findings provide novel insights into the possible mechanisms of isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity that may aid in the development of strategies to minimize potential adverse effects associated with the administration of anesthetics to patients.
Project description:Brief isoflurane anesthesia induces neuroapoptosis in the developing rodent brain, but susceptibility of non-human primates to the apoptogenic action of isoflurane has not been studied. Therefore, we exposed postnatal day 6 (P6) rhesus macaques to a surgical plane of isoflurane anesthesia for 5 h, and studied the brains 3 h later for histopathologic changes.With the same intensity of physiologic monitoring typical for human neonatal anesthesia, five P6 rhesus macaques were exposed for 5 h to isoflurane maintained between 0.7 and 1.5 end-tidal Vol% (endotracheally intubated and mechanically ventilated) and five controls were exposed for 5 h to room air without further intervention. Three hours later, the brains were harvested and serially sectioned across the entire forebrain and midbrain, and stained immunohistochemically with antibodies to activated caspase-3 for detection and quantification of apoptotic neurons.Quantitative evaluation of brain sections revealed a median of 32.5 (range, 18.0-48.2) apoptotic cells/mm of brain tissue in the isoflurane group and only 2.5 (range, 1.1-5.2) in the control group (difference significant at P = 0.008). Apoptotic neuronal profiles were largely confined to the cerebral cortex. In the control brains, they were sparse and randomly distributed, whereas in the isoflurane brains they were abundant and preferentially concentrated in specific cortical layers and regions.The developing non-human primate brain is sensitive to the apoptogenic action of isoflurane and displays a 13-fold increase in neuroapoptosis after 5 h exposure to a surgical plane of isoflurane anesthesia.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Isoflurane and other volatile anesthetics are widely used in children to induce deep and reversible coma, but they may also exert neurotoxic actions. The effects of volatile anesthetics on the immature brain activity remain elusive, however.<h4>Methods</h4>The effects of isoflurane on spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity were explored using intracortical extracellular field potential and multiple unit recordings in the rat barrel cortex from birth to adulthood.<h4>Results</h4>During the first postnatal week, isoflurane suppressed cortical activity in a concentration-dependent manner. At surgical anesthesia levels (1.5-2%), isoflurane completely suppressed the electroencephalogram and silenced cortical neurons. Although sensory potentials evoked by the principal whisker deflection persisted, sensory-evoked early gamma and spindle-burst oscillations were completely suppressed by isoflurane. Isoflurane-induced burst-suppression pattern emerged during the second postnatal week and matured through the first postnatal month. Bursts in adolescent and adult rats were characterized by activation of entire cortical columns with a leading firing of infragranular neurons, and were triggered by principal and adjacent whiskers stimulation, and by auditory and visual stimuli, indicating an involvement of horizontal connections in their generation and horizontal spread.<h4>Interpretation</h4>The effects of isoflurane on cortical activity shift from total suppression of activity to burst-suppression pattern at the end of the first postnatal week. Developmental emergence of bursts likely involves a development of the intracortical short-and long-range connections. We hypothesize that complete suppression of cortical activity under isoflurane anesthesia during the first postnatal week may explain neuronal apoptosis stimulated by volatile anesthetics in the neonatal rats.
Project description:General anesthesia has been the requisite component of surgical procedures for over 150 yr. Although immunomodulatory effects of volatile anesthetics have been growingly appreciated, the molecular mechanism has not been understood. In septic mice, the commonly used volatile anesthetic isoflurane attenuated the production of 5-lipoxygenase products and IL-10 and reduced CD11b and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on neutrophils, suggesting the attenuation of TLR4 signaling. We confirmed the attenuation of TLR4 signaling in vitro and their direct binding to TLR4-myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2) complex by photolabeling experiments. The binding sites of volatile anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane were located near critical residues for TLR4-MD-2 complex formation and TLR4-MD-2-LPS dimerization. Additionally, TLR4 activation was not attenuated by intravenous anesthetics, except for a high concentration of propofol. Considering the important role of TLR4 system in the perioperative settings, these findings suggest the possibility that anesthetic choice may modulate the outcome in patients or surgical cases in which TLR4 activation is expected.-Okuno, T., Koutsogiannaki, S., Hou, L., Bu, W., Ohto, U., Eckenhoff, R. G., Yokomizo, T., Yuki, K. Volatile anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane directly target and attenuate Toll-like receptor 4 system.