Tissue-selective estrogen complexes with bazedoxifene prevent metabolic dysfunction in female mice.
ABSTRACT: Pairing the selective estrogen receptor modulator bazedoxifene (BZA) with estrogen as a tissue-selective estrogen complex (TSEC) is a novel menopausal therapy. We investigated estrogen, BZA and TSEC effects in preventing diabetisity in ovariectomized mice during high-fat feeding. Estrogen, BZA or TSEC prevented fat accumulation in adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle, and improved insulin resistance and glucose intolerance without stimulating uterine growth. Estrogen, BZA and TSEC improved energy homeostasis by increasing lipid oxidation and energy expenditure, and promoted insulin action by enhancing insulin-stimulated glucose disposal and suppressing hepatic glucose production. While estrogen improved metabolic homeostasis, at least partially, by increasing hepatic production of FGF21, BZA increased hepatic expression of Sirtuin1, PPAR? and AMPK activity. The metabolic benefits of BZA were lost in estrogen receptor-? deficient mice. Thus, BZA alone or in TSEC produces metabolic signals of fasting and caloric restriction and improves energy and glucose homeostasis in female mice.
Project description:Context:Studies suggest that menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) prevents type 2 diabetes (T2D). The combination of conjugated estrogens (CE) with the selective estrogen receptor modulator bazedoxifene (BZA) is an MHT that improves obesity and T2D in preclinical models of menopausal metabolic syndrome. The effect of CE/BZA on adiposity and glucose homeostasis in obese postmenopausal women is unknown. Objective:To investigate the effect of CE/BZA on body composition, glucose homeostasis, and markers of inflammation in obese postmenopausal women. Research Design Intervention and Participants:Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial of 12 obese menopausal women assigned to 12-week treatment with CE 0.45 mg/BZA 20 mg (n = 7) or placebo (n = 5). At baseline and after 12 weeks, we assessed body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), glucose homeostasis (IV glucose tolerance test), and inflammation biomarkers. Results:Women treated with CE/BZA exhibited increased ? cell function using homeostatic model assessment-B [median (interquartile range) CE/BZA vs placebo: 18.5 (-0.9 to 320.6) ?U/mM vs -25.5 (-39.9 to -0.1) ?U/mM; P = 0.045], and decreased basal glucose concentrations (Gb) [-5.2 (-9.2 to -1.7) mg/dL vs 2.7 (0.9 to 4.9) mg/dL; P = 0.029]. Insulin sensitivity was higher in the placebo arm [1.35 (1.12 to 1.82) (?U/mL) min-1 vs -0.24 (-1.50 to 0.19) (?U/mL) min-1; P = 0.029]. No changes between treatment groups were observed for the acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg), the disposition index (DI), body composition, and inflammatory biomarkers. Conclusions:A 12-week treatment of obese postmenopausal women with CEs/BZA improves fasting ? cell function and glucose concentrations without change in AIRg, HOMA-IR, DI, body composition, or markers of inflammation.
Project description:Objective:Combining conjugated estrogens (CE) with the selective estrogen receptor modulator bazedoxifene (BZA) is a novel, orally administered menopausal therapy. We investigated the effect of CE/BZA on insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism, and serum metabolome in postmenopausal women with obesity. Design:Randomized, double-blind, crossover pilot trial with washout was conducted at Pennington Biomedical Research Center. Eight postmenopausal women (age 50-60 years, BMI 30-40 kg/m2) were randomized to 8 weeks CE/BZA or placebo. Primary outcome was insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp). Secondary outcomes included body composition (DXA); resting metabolic rate (RMR); substrate oxidation (indirect calorimetry); ectopic lipids (1H-MRS); fat cell size, adipose and skeletal muscle gene expression (biopsies); serum inflammatory markers; and serum metabolome (LC/MS). Results:CE/BZA treatment produced no detectable effect on insulin sensitivity, body composition, ectopic fat, fat cell size, or substrate oxidation, but resulted in a non-significant increase in RMR (basal: P = 0.06; high-dose clamp: P = 0.08) compared to placebo. CE/BZA increased serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. CE/BZA also increased serum diacylglycerol (DAG) and triacylglycerol (TAG) species containing long-chain saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) and decreased long-chain acylcarnitines, possibly reflecting increased hepatic de novo FA synthesis and esterification into TAGs for export into very low-density lipoproteins, as well as decreased FA oxidation, respectively (P < 0.05). CE/BZA increased serum phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, ceramides, and sphingomyelins, possibly reflecting the increase in serum lipoproteins (P < 0.05). Conclusions:A short treatment of obese postmenopausal women with CE/BZA does not alter insulin action or ectopic fat but increases serum markers of hepatic de novo lipogenesis and TAG production.
Project description:The bazedoxifene and conjugated estrogens (CE+BZA) combination has been shown to prevent visceral adiposity and weight gain after ovariectomy. However, its impact on the liver transcriptomes associated with prevention of hepatosteatosis is yet to be determined. In the present study, we use liver transcriptomics and plasma metabolomics analysis to characterize the effects of various estrogens on liver. The CE+BZA combination was very effective at preventing ovariectomy-induced weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). In CE+BZA treated animals, liver weight and hepatic lipid deposition were significantly lower than in Vehicle (Veh) treated animals. Additionally, CE+BZA induced unique liver transcriptome and plasma metabolome profiles compared to estradiol, conjugated estrogens alone, and bazedoxifene alone. Blood plasma metabolite analysis identified several metabolites similar to and distinct from other estrogen treatments. Integrated pathway analysis showed that gene networks that were associated with inflammation, reactive oxygen species pathway and lipid metabolism and their relevant metabolites were regulated significantly by CE+BZA treatment. Thus, long-term CE+BZA treatment modulated hepatic metabolic gene networks and their associated metabolites and improves hepatic health without stimulating the uterus.
Project description:The Women's Health Initiative studies reported that the menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) regimen containing conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and medroxyprogesterone acetate increased, whereas CEE alone reduced breast cancer incidence. These observations suggest the possibility that CEE might exert unique actions on breast and also suggest the need to eliminate the progestogen from MHT regimens. A MHT regimen called a tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC), containing CEE plus bazedoxifene (BZA), to avoid the need for a progestogen, was developed and FDA approved. Our study addressed two questions regarding this TSEC: (i) whether CEE exert effects on breast cancer which differ from those of estradiol (E2 ) and (ii) whether BZA antagonize the effects of E2 and CEE on breast cancer? Two rodent models (NMU and ACI) were used to compare the effect of CEE with E2 on mammary tumor formation, proliferation and apoptosis. In both the NMU and ACI models, E2 significantly increased tumor incidence and multiplicity whereas in striking contrast CEE did not, even though the estrogenic effects of CEE and E2 on uterine weight were identical. Mechanistically E2 blocked whereas CEE stimulated apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) in ACI animals and only E2 stimulated proliferation (Ki67). BZA exerted highly potent anti-estrogenic effects on tumors by completely blocking palpable tumor formation. These data suggest that the CEE/BZA TSEC may be a safer, breast-antagonistic, MHT agent for women and might have potential to prevent breast cancer while relieving menopausal symptoms.
Project description:Concerns of breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women taking combined estrogen + progestin therapy have generated interest in the use of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) as potential progestin alternatives. Endometrial proliferation and cancer risk are major concerns, however, for estrogens and certain types of SERMs when given alone. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the endometrial profile of bazedoxifene acetate (BZA), a third-generation SERM, alone and in combination with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) in a postmenopausal primate model.Ninety-eight ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were randomized to receive no hormone treatment (controls), BZA 20 mg, CEE 0.45 mg, or the combination of BZA 20 mg + CEE 0.45 mg once daily for 20 months in a parallel-arm study design. The primary outcome measure was endometrial epithelial proliferation.BZA + CEE and BZA treatment resulted in significantly less endometrial epithelial area and Ki67 expression compared with CEE (P < 0.001 for all). The prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and other estrogen-induced morphologic changes in the BZA + CEE and BZA groups was not significantly different from controls. The addition of BZA to CEE completely inhibited the expression of estrogen receptor-?-regulated genes (TFF1 and PGR), whereas BZA alone had no effect. BZA + CEE and BZA treatment also resulted in lower estrogen receptor-? protein expression in the endometrium compared with the control and CEE groups (P < 0.05 for all).BZA given at a clinically relevant dose inhibits estrogen effects on the endometrium and lacks uterotropic effects when given alone.
Project description:Concerns about increased breast cancer risk with estrogen and progestin therapy have led to an increased interest in progestin alternatives. The main objective of this study was to determine if bazedoxifene acetate (BZA), a new selective estrogen receptor modulator, will antagonize the proliferative and transcriptional effects of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) in the breast.As part of a 20-month preclinical trial, 95 ovariectomized cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were randomized to receive no treatment or treatment with BZA (20 mg/d), CEE (0.45 mg/d), or BZA and CEE in combination (women's daily equivalent doses). The data presented here include breast effects after 6 months of treatment. Endpoints included histomorphometry, histopathological evaluations, gene microarray assays, polymerase chain reaction quantification of specific estrogen receptor ? (ER-?) activity markers, and immunohistochemical detection of sex steroid receptors, and the proliferation marker Ki67.BZA + CEE and BZA resulted in significantly less total epithelial density, lobular enlargement, and Ki67 immunolabeling in the terminal ducts compared with CEE alone (P < 0.05 for all). The addition of BZA to CEE antagonized the expression of ER-?-regulated genes such as GREB1 and TFF1 (P < 0.01 for both), whereas BZA alone had minimal effects on ER-?-mediated transcriptional activity. BZA and BZA + CEE did not significantly up-regulate genes related to cell cycle progression and proliferation. BZA with and without CEE also resulted in less lobular and terminal duct ER-? immunolabeling compared with control and CEE (P < 0.0001 for all).These findings demonstrate that BZA given at a clinically relevant dose is an estrogen antagonist in the breast, supporting the idea that CEE + BZA may provide a lower breast cancer risk profile compared with traditional estrogen + progestin therapies.
Project description:The maintenance of glucose homeostasis within the body is crucial for constant and precise performance of energy balance and is sustained by a number of peripheral organs. Estrogens are known to play a role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice are estrogen-deficient and display symptoms of dysregulated glucose metabolism. We aim to investigate the effects of estrogen ablation and exogenous estrogen administration on glucose homeostasis regulation. Six month-old female wildtype, ArKO, and 17?-estradiol (E2) treated ArKO mice were subjected to whole body tolerance tests, serum examination of estrogen, glucose and insulin, ex-vivo muscle glucose uptake, and insulin signaling pathway analyses. Female ArKO mice display increased body weight, gonadal (omental) adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, and liver triglycerides, which were ameliorated upon estrogen treatment. Tolerance tests revealed that estrogen-deficient ArKO mice were pyruvate intolerant hence reflecting dysregulated hepatic gluconeogenesis. Analyses of skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissues supported a hepatic-based glucose dysregulation, with a down-regulation of Akt phosphorylation (a key insulin signaling pathway molecule) in the ArKO liver, which was improved with E2 treatment. Concurrently, estrogen treatment lowered ArKO serum leptin and adiponectin levels and increased inflammatory adipokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and interleukin 6 (IL6). Furthermore, estrogen deficiency resulted in the infiltration of CD45 macrophages into gonadal adipose tissues, which cannot be reversed by E2 treatment. This study describes the effects of estrogens on glucose homeostasis in female ArKO mice and highlights a primary phenotype of hepatic glucose dysregulation and a parallel estrogen modified adipokine profile.
Project description:Bazedoxifene acetate is a novel, chemically distinct selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that has been specifically developed after a stringent preclinical screening in order to obtain favorable effects on the skeleton and lipid metabolism with the additional improvement of a neutral effect on hot flushes and without stimulating the uterus or the breast. In both preclinical and clinical studies this SERM was shown to maintain BMD, prevent fractures, and reduce total cholesterol. Moreover, bazedoxifene also showed an improved uterine profile and demonstrated estrogen antagonistic activity on the endometrium. Importantly, this latter capacity has led to the development of a novel class of menopausal therapy called tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC), in which bazedoxifene is combined with conjugated estrogen. The rationale for selecting bazedoxifene as the SERM in this TSEC combination is that it may offset estrogen stimulation of endometrial and breast tissue, without the necessity of using a progestin in women with an intact uterus, without aggravating menopausal vasomotor symptoms, but with an additive effect on bone. Preliminary data from phase 3 clinical trials appear to confirm this hypothesis, showing a greater effect of bazedoxifene on BMD with respect to raloxifene, coupled with efficacy on menopausal vasomotor symptoms not achieved by SERM alone. These properties and the safety profile of this combination, if confirmed long-term in ongoing phase 3 trials, might significantly affect the way women and physicians approach menopause and its related disorders.
Project description:Menopausal symptoms (eg, hot flushes and vaginal symptoms) are common, often bothersome, and can adversely impact women's sexual functioning, relationships, and quality of life. Estrogen-progestin therapy was previously considered the standard care for hormone therapy (HT) for managing these symptoms in nonhysterectomized women, but has a number of safety and tolerability concerns (eg, breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, breast pain/tenderness, and vaginal bleeding) and its use has declined dramatically in the past decade since the release of the Women's Health Initiative trial results. Conjugated estrogens paired with bazedoxifene (CE/BZA) represent a newer progestin-free alternative to traditional HT for nonhysterectomized women. CE/BZA has demonstrated efficacy in reducing the frequency and severity of vasomotor symptoms and preventing loss of bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. CE/BZA provides an acceptable level of protection against endometrial hyperplasia and does not increase mammographic breast density. Compared with traditional estrogen-progestin therapy, it is associated with lower rates of breast pain/tenderness and vaginal bleeding. Patient-reported outcomes indicate that CE/BZA improves menopause-specific quality of life, sleep, some measures of sexual function (especially ease of lubrication), and treatment satisfaction. This review looks at the rationale for selection and combination of CE with BZA at the dose ratio in the approved product and provides a detailed look at the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and patient-reported outcomes from the five Phase III trials. Patient considerations in the choice between CE/BZA and traditional HT (eg, tolerability, individual symptoms, and preferences for route of administration) are also considered.
Project description:Estrogen deficiency alters quality of life during menopause. Hormone replacement therapy has been used to improve quality of life and prevent complications, but side effects limit its use. In this study, we evaluated the use of edible bird's nest (EBN) for prevention of cardiometabolic problems in rats with ovariectomy-induced menopause. Ovariectomized female rats were fed for 12 weeks with normal rat chow, EBN, or estrogen and compared with normal non-ovariectomized rats. Metabolic indices (insulin, estrogen, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, oral glucose tolerance test, and lipid profile) were measured at the end of the experiment from serum and liver tissue homogenate, and transcriptional levels of hepatic insulin signaling genes were measured. The results showed that ovariectomy worsened metabolic indices and disrupted the normal transcriptional pattern of hepatic insulin signaling genes. EBN improved the metabolic indices and also produced transcriptional changes in hepatic insulin signaling genes that tended toward enhanced insulin sensitivity, and glucose and lipid homeostasis, even better than estrogen. The data suggest that EBN could meliorate estrogen deficiency-associated increase in risk of cardiometabolic disease in rats, and may in fact be useful as a functional food for the prevention of such a problem in humans. The clinical validity of these findings is worth studying further.