Multivariate recurrent events in the presence of multivariate informative censoring with applications to bleeding and transfusion events in myelodysplastic syndrome.
ABSTRACT: We propose a general novel class of joint models to analyze recurrent events that has a wide variety of applications. The focus in this article is to model the bleeding and transfusion events in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) studies, where patients may die or withdraw from the study early due to adverse events or other reasons, such as consent withdrawal or required alternative therapy during the study. The proposed model accommodates multiple recurrent events and multivariate informative censoring through a shared random-effects model. The random-effects model captures both within-subject and within-event dependence simultaneously. We construct the likelihood function for the semiparametric joint model and develop an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for inference. The computational burden does not increase with the number of types of recurrent events. We utilize the MDS clinical trial data to illustrate our proposed methodology. We also conduct a number of simulations to examine the performance of the proposed model.
Project description:In multivariate recurrent event data regression, observation of recurrent events is usually terminated by other events that are associated with the recurrent event processes, resulting in informative censoring. Additionally, some covariates could be measured with errors. In some applications, an instrumental variable is observed in a subsample, namely a calibration sample, which can be applied for bias correction. In this article, we develop two non-parametric correction approaches to simultaneously correct for the informative censoring and measurement errors in the analysis of multivariate recurrent event data. A shared frailty model is adopted to characterize the informative censoring and dependence among different types of recurrent events. To adjust for measurement errors, a non-parametric correction method using the calibration sample only is proposed. In the second approach, the information from the whole cohort is incorporated by the generalized method of moments. The proposed methods do not require the Poisson-type assumption for the multivariate recurrent event process and the distributional assumption for the frailty. Moreover, we do not need to impose any distributional assumption on the underlying covariates and measurement error. Both methods perform well, but the second approach improves efficiency. The proposed methods are applied to the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer trial to assess the effect of selenium treatment on the recurrences of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
Project description:In many biomedical studies, patients may experience the same type of recurrent event repeatedly over time, such as bleeding, multiple infections and disease. In this article, we propose a Bayesian design to a pivotal clinical trial in which lower risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients are treated with MDS disease modifying therapies. One of the key study objectives is to demonstrate the investigational product (treatment) effect on reduction of platelet transfusion and bleeding events while receiving MDS therapies. In this context, we propose a new Bayesian approach for the design of superiority clinical trials using recurrent events frailty regression models. Historical recurrent events data from an already completed phase 2 trial are incorporated into the Bayesian design via the partial borrowing power prior of Ibrahim et al. (2012, Biometrics 68, 578-586). An efficient Gibbs sampling algorithm, a predictive data generation algorithm, and a simulation-based algorithm are developed for sampling from the fitting posterior distribution, generating the predictive recurrent events data, and computing various design quantities such as the type I error rate and power, respectively. An extensive simulation study is conducted to compare the proposed method to the existing frequentist methods and to investigate various operating characteristics of the proposed design.
Project description:We propose a broad class of semiparametric transformation models with random effects for the joint analysis of recurrent events and a terminal event. The transformation models include proportional hazards/intensity and proportional odds models. We estimate the model parameters by the nonparametric maximum likelihood approach. The estimators are shown to be consistent, asymptotically normal, and asymptotically efficient. Simple and stable numerical algorithms are provided to calculate the parameter estimators and to estimate their variances. Extensive simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed inference procedures perform well in realistic settings. Applications to two HIV/AIDS studies are presented.
Project description:Recurrent events data are frequently encountered in biomedical follow-up studies. The generalized accelerated recurrence time (GART) model (Sun et al., 2016), which formulates covariate effects on the time scale of the mean function of recurrent events (i.e., time to expected frequency), has arisen as a useful secondary analysis tool to provide meaningful physical interpretations. In this article, we investigate the GART model in a multivariate recurrent events setting, where subjects may experience multiple types of recurrent events and some event types may be missing. We propose methods for the GART model that utilize the inverse probability weighting technique or the estimating equation projection strategy to handle event types that are missing at random. The new methods do not require imposing any parametric model for the missing mechanism, and thus are robust; moreover, they enjoy easy and stable implementation. We establish the uniform consistency and weak convergence of the resulting estimators and develop appropriate inferential procedures. Extensive simulation studies and an application to a dataset from Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR) illustrate the validity and practical utility of the proposed methods.
Project description:Recurrent events together with longitudinal measurements are commonly observed in follow-up studies where the observation is terminated by censoring or a primary failure event. In this article, we developed a joint model where the dependence of longitudinal measurements, recurrent event process and time to failure event is modeled through rescaling the time index. The general idea is that the trajectories of all biology processes of subjects in the survivors' population are elongated or shortened by the rate identified from a model for the failure event. To avoid making disputing assumptions on recurrent events or biomarkers after the failure event (such as death), the model is constructed on the basis of survivors' population. The model also possesses a specific feature that, by aligning failure events as time origins, the backward-in-time model of recurrent events and longitudinal measurements shares the same parameter values with the forward time model. The statistical properties, simulation studies and real data examples are conducted. The proposed method can be generalized to analyze left-truncated data.
Project description:Recurrent event data arise frequently in various fields such as biomedical sciences, public health, engineering, and social sciences. In many instances, the observation of the recurrent event process can be stopped by the occurrence of a correlated failure event, such as treatment failure and death. In this article, we propose a joint scale-change model for the recurrent event process and the failure time, where a shared frailty variable is used to model the association between the two types of outcomes. In contrast to the popular Cox-type joint modeling approaches, the regression parameters in the proposed joint scale-change model have marginal interpretations. The proposed approach is robust in the sense that no parametric assumption is imposed on the distribution of the unobserved frailty and that we do not need the strong Poisson-type assumption for the recurrent event process. We establish consistency and asymptotic normality of the proposed semiparametric estimators under suitable regularity conditions. To estimate the corresponding variances of the estimators, we develop a computationally efficient resampling-based procedure. Simulation studies and an analysis of hospitalization data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register illustrate the performance of the proposed method.
Project description:Recurrent event data arise frequently in many longitudinal follow-up studies. Hence, evaluating covariate effects on the rates of occurrence of such events is commonly of interest. Examples include repeated hospitalizations, recurrent infections of HIV, and tumor recurrences. In this article, we consider semiparametric regression methods for the occurrence rate function of recurrent events when the covariates may be measured with errors. In contrast to the existing works, in our case the conventional assumption of independent censoring is violated since the recurrent event process is interrupted by some correlated events, which is called informative drop-out. Further, some covariates may be measured with errors. To accommodate for both informative censoring and measurement error, the occurrence of recurrent events is modelled through an unspecified frailty distribution and accompanied with a classical measurement error model. We propose two corrected approaches based on different ideas, and we show that they are numerically identical when estimating the regression parameters. The asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators are established, and the finite sample performance is examined via simulations. The proposed methods are applied to the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer trial for assessing the effect of the plasma selenium treatment on the recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma.
Project description:Recurrent events could be stopped by a terminal event, which commonly occurs in biomedical and clinical studies. In this situation, dependent censoring is encountered because of potential dependence between these two event processes, leading to invalid inference if analyzing recurrent events alone. The joint frailty model is one of the widely used approaches to jointly model these two processes by sharing the same frailty term. One important assumption is that recurrent and terminal event processes are conditionally independent given the subject-level frailty; however, this could be violated when the dependency may also depend on time-varying covariates across recurrences. Furthermore, marginal correlation between two event processes based on traditional frailty modeling has no closed form solution for estimation with vague interpretation. In order to fill these gaps, we propose a novel joint frailty-copula approach to model recurrent events and a terminal event with relaxed assumptions. Metropolis-Hastings within the Gibbs Sampler algorithm is used for parameter estimation. Extensive simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the efficiency, robustness, and predictive performance of our proposal. The simulation results show that compared with the joint frailty model, the bias and mean squared error of the proposal is smaller when the conditional independence assumption is violated. Finally, we apply our method into a real example extracted from the MarketScan database to study the association between recurrent strokes and mortality.
Project description:The process by which patients experience a series of recurrent events, such as hospitalizations, may be subject to death. In cohort studies, one strategy for analyzing such data is to fit a joint frailty model for the intensities of the recurrent event and death, which estimates covariate effects on the two event types while accounting for their dependence. When certain covariates are difficult to obtain, however, researchers may only have the resources to subsample patients on whom to collect complete data: one way is using the nested case-control (NCC) design, in which risk set sampling is performed based on a single outcome. We develop a general framework for the design of NCC studies in the presence of recurrent and terminal events and propose estimation and inference for a joint frailty model for recurrence and death using data arising from such studies. We propose a maximum weighted penalized likelihood approach using flexible spline models for the baseline intensity functions. Two standard error estimators are proposed: a sandwich estimator and a perturbation resampling procedure. We investigate operating characteristics of our estimators as well as design considerations via a simulation study and illustrate our methods using two studies: one on recurrent cardiac hospitalizations in patients with heart failure and the other on local recurrence and metastasis in patients with breast cancer.