Salicylic acid antagonizes abscisic acid inhibition of shoot growth and cell cycle progression in rice.
ABSTRACT: We analysed effects of abscisic acid (ABA, a negative regulatory hormone), alone and in combination with positive or neutral hormones, including salicylic acid (SA), on rice growth and expression of cell cycle-related genes. ABA significantly inhibited shoot growth and induced expression of OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6. A yeast two-hybrid assay showed that OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6 interacted with OsCDKA;1 and/or OsCDKA;2. When SA was simultaneously supplied with ABA, the antagonistic effect of SA completely blocked ABA inhibition. SA also blocked ABA inhibition of DNA replication and thymidine incorporation in the shoot apical meristem. These results suggest that ABA arrests cell cycle progression by inducing expression of OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6, which inhibit the G1/S transition, and that SA antagonizes ABA by blocking expression of OsKRP genes.
Project description:The interplay between abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) influences plant responses to various (a)biotic stresses; however, the underlying mechanism for this crosstalk is largely unknown. Here, we report that type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), some of which are negative regulators of ABA signaling, bind SA. SA binding suppressed the ABA-enhanced interaction between these PP2Cs and various ABA receptors belonging to the PYR/PYL/RCAR protein family. Additionally, SA suppressed ABA-enhanced degradation of PP2Cs and ABA-induced stabilization of SnRK2s. Supporting SA's role as a negative regulator of ABA signaling, exogenous SA suppressed ABA-induced gene expression, whereas the SA-deficient sid2-1 mutant displayed heightened PP2C degradation and hypersensitivity to ABA-induced suppression of seed germination. Together, these results suggest a new molecular mechanism through which SA antagonizes ABA signaling. A better understanding of the crosstalk between these hormones is important for improving the sustainability of agriculture in the face of climate change.
Project description:Salicylic acid (SA) can induce plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses through cross talk with other signaling molecules, whereas the interaction between hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and abscisic acid (ABA) in response to SA signal is far from clear. Here, we focused on the roles and interactions of H2O2 and ABA in SA-induced freezing tolerance in wheat plants. Exogenous SA pretreatment significantly induced freezing tolerance of wheat via maintaining relatively higher dark-adapted maximum photosystem II quantum yield, electron transport rates, less cell membrane damage. Exogenous SA induced the accumulation of endogenous H2O2 and ABA. Endogenous H2O2 accumulation in the apoplast was triggered by both cell wall peroxidase and membrane-linked NADPH oxidase. The pharmacological study indicated that pretreatment with dimethylthiourea (H2O2 scavenger) completely abolished SA-induced freezing tolerance and ABA synthesis, while pretreatment with fluridone (ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) reduced H2O2 accumulation by inhibiting NADPH oxidase encoding genes expression and partially counteracted SA-induced freezing tolerance. These findings demonstrate that endogenous H2O2 and ABA signaling may form a positive feedback loop to mediate SA-induced freezing tolerance in wheat.
Project description:To investigate the putative crosstalk between JA and ABA in Solanum lycopersicum plants in response to drought, suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2, JA-deficient) and flacca (flc, ABA-deficient) mutants together with the naphthalene/salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) transgenic (SA-deficient) line were used. Hormone profiling and gene expression of key enzymes in ABA, JA and SA biosynthesis were analyzed during early stages of drought. ABA accumulation was comparable in spr2 and wild type (WT) plants whereas expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (NCED1) and NCED2 was different, implying a compensation mechanism between NCED genes and an organ-specific regulation of NCED1 expression. JA levels and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase 3 (OPR3) expression in flc plants suggest that ABA regulates the induction of the OPR3 gene in roots. By contrast, ABA treatment to flc plants leads to a reduction of JA and SA contents. Furthermore, different pattern of SA accumulation (and expression of isochorismate synthase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1) was observed between WT seedlings and mutants, suggesting that SA plays an important role on the early response of tomato plants to drought and also that JA and ABA modulate its biosynthesis. Finally, hormone profiling in spr2 and NahG plants indicate a crosstalk between JA and SA that could enhance tolerance of tomato to water stress.
Project description:The RNA silencing pathways modulate responses to certain stresses, and can be partially tuned by several hormones such as salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Although SA and ABA are often antagonistic and often modulate different stress responses, they have similar effects on virus resistance, which are partially achieved through the antiviral RNA silencing pathway. Whether they play similar roles in regulating the RNA silencing pathway is unclear. By employing coexpression and promoter analyses, we found that some ABA- and SA-related transcription factors (TFs) are coexpressed with several AGO, DCL, and RDR genes, and have multiple binding sites for the identified TFs in the queried promoters. ABA and SA are antagonistic with respect to the expression of AGO1 and RDRs because ABA was able to induce these genes only in the SA mutant. Nevertheless, both hormones showed similarities in the regulation of other genes, for example, the induction of AGO2 by ABA was SA-dependent, indicating that ABA acts upstream of SA in this regulation. We inferred that the similar effects of ABA and SA on some genes resulted in the redundancy of their roles in resistance to bamboo mosaic virus, but that the two hormones are antagonistic with respect to other genes unrelated to their biosynthesis pathways.
Project description:Shoot regeneration in calli derived from immature barley embryos is regulated by light conditions during the callus-induction period. Barley cultivars Kanto Nijo-5 (KN5) and K-3 (K3) showed lower efficiency of shoot regeneration in a 16-h photoperiod during callus-induction than those in continuous darkness, whereas shoot regeneration was enhanced in cultures under a 16-h photoperiod in Golden Promise (GP) and Lenins (LN). These cultivars were classified as photo-inhibition type (KN5 and K3) or photo-induction type (GP and LN) according to their response to light. Contents of endogenous plant hormones were determined in calli cultured under a 16-h photoperiod and continuous darkness. In photo-inhibition type, higher accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) was detected in calli cultured under a 16-h photoperiod, whereas calli showed lower levels of endogenous ABA in continuous darkness. However, cultivars of photo-induction type showed lower levels of ABA in calli cultured under both light conditions, similarly to photo-inhibition type in continuous darkness. Exogenous ABA inhibited the callus growth and shoot regeneration independent of light conditions in all cultivars. In photo-inhibition type, lower levels of endogenous ABA induced by ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, fluridone, reduced the photo-inhibition of shoot regeneration. Expression of ABA biosynthesis gene, HvNCED1, in calli was regulated by the light conditions. Higher expression was observed in calli cultured under a 16-h photoperiod. These results indicate that ABA biosynthesis could be activated through the higher expression of HvNCED1 in a 16-h photoperiod and that the higher accumulations of ABA inhibit shoot regeneration in the photo-inhibition type cultivars.
Project description:Arsenic (As) is posing serious health concerns in South East Asia where rice, an efficient accumulator of As, is prominent crop. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signaling molecule and plays a crucial role in resistance against biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In present study, ameliorative effect of SA against arsenate (As(V)) toxicity has been investigated in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Arsenate stress hampered the plant growth in terms of root, shoots length, and biomass as well as it enhanced the level of H2O2 and MDA in dose dependent manner in shoot. Exogenous application of SA, reverted the growth, and oxidative stress caused by As(V) and significantly decreased As translocation to the shoots. Level of As in shoot was positively correlated with the expression of OsLsi2, e?ux transporter responsible for root to shoot translocation of As in the form of arsenite (As(III)). SA also overcame As(V) induced oxidative stress and modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in a differential manner in shoots. As treatment hampered the translocation of Fe in the shoot which was compensated by the SA treatment. The level of Fe in root and shoot was positively correlated with the transcript level of transporters responsible for the accumulation of Fe, OsNRAMP5, and OsFRDL1, in the root and shoot, respectively. Co-application of SA was more effective than pre-treatment for reducing As accumulation as well as imposed toxicity.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Brassinosteroids (BRs) play crucial roles in plant development and also promote tolerance to a range of abiotic stresses. Although much has been learned about their roles in plant development, the mechanisms by which BRs control plant stress responses and regulate stress-responsive gene expression are not fully known. Since BR interacts with other plant hormones, it is likely that the stress tolerance conferring ability of BR lies in part in its interactions with other stress hormones. RESULTS: Using a collection of Arabidopsis mutants that are either deficient in or insensitive to abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ET), jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA), we studied the effects of 24-epibrassinloide (EBR) on basic thermotolerance and salt tolerance of these mutants. The positive impact of EBR on thermotolerance in proportion to wild type was evident in all mutants studied, with the exception of the SA-insensitive npr1-1 mutant. EBR could rescue the ET-insensitive ein2 mutant from its hypersensitivity to salt stress-induced inhibition of seed germination, but remained ineffective in increasing the survival of eto1-1 (ET-overproducer) and npr1-1 seedlings on salt. The positive effect of EBR was significantly greater in the ABA-deficient aba1-1 mutant as compared to wild type, indicating that ABA masks BR effects in plant stress responses. Treatment with EBR increased expression of various hormone marker genes in both wild type and mutant seedlings, although to different levels. CONCLUSIONS: These results together indicate that the redox-sensitive protein NPR1 (NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1), a master regulator of SA-mediated defense genes, is likely a critical component of EBR-mediated increase in thermotolerance and salt tolerance, but it is not required for EBR-mediated induction of PR-1 (PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1) gene expression; that BR exerts anti-stress effects independently as well as through interactions with other hormones; that ABA inhibits BR effects during stress; and that BR shares transcriptional targets with other hormones.
Project description:The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in a wide variety of plant processes, including the initiation of stress-adaptive responses to various environmental cues. Recently, ABA also emerged as a central factor in the regulation and integration of plant immune responses, although little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Aiming to advance our understanding of ABA-modulated disease resistance, we have analyzed the impact, dynamics and interrelationship of ABA and the classic defense hormone salicylic acid (SA) during progression of rice infection by the leaf blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Consistent with ABA negatively regulating resistance to Xoo, we found that exogenously administered ABA renders rice hypersusceptible to infection, whereas chemical and genetic disruption of ABA biosynthesis and signaling, respectively, led to enhanced Xoo resistance. In addition, we found successful Xoo infection to be associated with extensive reprogramming of ABA biosynthesis and response genes, suggesting that ABA functions as a virulence factor for Xoo. Interestingly, several lines of evidence indicate that this immune-suppressive effect of ABA is due at least in part to suppression of SA-mediated defenses that normally serve to limit pathogen growth. Resistance induced by the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone, however, appears to operate in a SA-independent manner and is likely due to induction of non-specific physiological stress. Collectively, our findings favor a scenario whereby virulent Xoo hijacks the rice ABA machinery to cause disease and highlight the importance of ABA and its crosstalk with SA in shaping the outcome of rice-Xoo interactions.
Project description:Plant hormones involved in environmental stresses, namely abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), have been shown to interact with each other in a complex manner. To address the network of the hormone interactions, we have investigated the changes in expression under multiple hormone treatments, ABA+SA and ABA+JA. We chose cultured cells to remove the difference in the response to hormones among developmental cells or tissues. The cells were treated for 3hr and 24hr to see the rapid or transient response and steady-state response. The obtained data indicate that ABA and SA affect antagonistically, but these hormones affected many genes collaboratively. Indeed, according to the microarray data, there are many genes that responded only to ABA+SA. In addition, the ABA+SA responsive genes also responded to ABA+JA. These data suggest that hormone crosstalk is more complicated than expected and that more systematic analysis is required to untangle the hormone crosstalk network. To investigate the hormonal interactions, Arabidopsis T87 cultured cells were exposed to ABA, SA, or JA alone, or two hormones simultaneously, ABA+SA or ABA+JA, for 3hr and 24 hr. Comparing the data among those treatments, the relationships among these hormones were deduced.
Project description:Although, plant hormones play an important role in adjusting growth in response to environmental perturbation, the relative contributions of abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene remain elusive. Using six spring wheat genotypes differing for stress tolerance, we show that young seedlings of the drought-tolerant (DT) group maintained or increased shoot dry weight (SDW) while the drought-susceptible (DS) group decreased SDW in response to mild drought. Both the DT and DS groups increased endogenous ABA and ethylene concentrations under mild drought compared to control. The DT and DS groups exhibited different SDW response trends, whereby the DS group decreased while the DT group increased SDW, to increased concentrations of ABA and ethylene under mild drought, although both groups decreased ABA/ethylene ratio under mild drought albeit at different levels. We concluded that SDW of the DT and DS groups might be distinctly regulated by specific ABA:ethylene ratio. Further, a foliar-spray of low concentrations (0.1 ?M) of ABA increased shoot relative growth rate (RGR) in the DS group while ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, ethylene precursor) spray increased RGR in both groups compared to control. Furthermore, the DT group accumulated a significantly higher galactose while a significantly lower maltose in the shoot compared to the DS group. Taken all together, these results suggest an impact of ABA, ethylene, and ABA:ethylene ratio on SDW of wheat seedlings that may partly underlie a genotypic variability of different shoot growth sensitivities to drought among crop species under field conditions. We propose that phenotyping based on hormone accumulation, response and hormonal ratio would be a viable, rapid, and an early-stage selection tool aiding genotype selection for stress tolerance.