The BRCA1 variant p.Ser36Tyr abrogates BRCA1 protein function and potentially confers a moderate risk of breast cancer.
ABSTRACT: The identification of variants of unknown clinical significance (VUS) in the BRCA1 gene complicates genetic counselling and causes additional anxiety to carriers. In silico approaches currently used for VUS pathogenicity assessment are predictive and often produce conflicting data. Furthermore, functional assays are either domain or function specific, thus they do not examine the entire spectrum of BRCA1 functions and interpretation of individual assay results can be misleading. PolyPhen algorithm predicted that the BRCA1 p.Ser36Tyr VUS identified in the Cypriot population was damaging, whereas Align-GVGD predicted that it was possibly of no significance. In addition the BRCA1 p.Ser36Tyr variant was found to be associated with increased risk (OR?=?3.47, 95% CI 1.13-10.67, P?=?0.02) in a single case-control series of 1174 cases and 1109 controls. We describe a cellular system for examining the function of exogenous full-length BRCA1 and for classifying VUS. We achieved strong protein expression of full-length BRCA1 in transiently transfected HEK293T cells. The p.Ser36Tyr VUS exhibited low protein expression similar to the known pathogenic variant p.Cys61Gly. Co-precipitation analysis further demonstrated that it has a reduced ability to interact with BARD1. Further, co-precipitation analysis of nuclear and cytosolic extracts as well as immunofluorescence studies showed that a high proportion of the p.Ser36Tyr variant is withheld in the cytoplasm contrary to wild type protein. In addition the ability of p.Ser36Tyr to co-localize with conjugated ubiquitin foci in the nuclei of S-phase synchronized cells following genotoxic stress with hydroxyurea is impaired at more pronounced levels than that of the p.Cys61Gly pathogenic variant. The p.Ser36Tyr variant demonstrates abrogated function, and based on epidemiological, genetic, and clinical data we conclude that the p.Ser36Tyr variant is probably associated with a moderate breast cancer risk.
Project description:Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are responsible for a large proportion of breast-ovarian cancer families. Protein-truncating mutations have been effectively used in the clinical management of familial breast cancer due to their deleterious impact on protein function. However, the majority of missense variants identified throughout the genes continue to pose an obstacle for predictive informative testing due to low frequency and lack of information on how they affect BRCA1/2 function. Phosphorylation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 play an important role in their function as regulators of DNA repair, transcription and cell cycle in response to DNA damage but whether missense variants of uncertain significance (VUS) are able to disrupt this important process is not known. Here we employed a novel approach using NetworKIN which predicts in vivo kinase-substrate relationship, and evolutionary conservation algorithms SIFT, PolyPhen and Align-GVGD. We evaluated whether 191 BRCA1 and 43 BRCA2 VUS from the Breast Cancer Information Core (BIC) database can functionally alter the consensus phosphorylation motifs and abolish kinase recognition and binding to sites known to be phosphorylated in vivo. Our results show that 13.09% (25/191) BRCA1 and 13.95% (6/43) BRCA2 VUS altered the phosphorylation of BRCA1 and BRCA2. We highlight six BRCA1 (K309T, S632N, S1143F, Q1144H, Q1281P, S1542C) and three BRCA2 (S196I, T207A, P3292L) VUS as potentially clinically significant. These occurred rarely (n<2 in BIC), mutated evolutionarily conserved residues and abolished kinase binding to motifs established in the literature involved in DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, transcription or response to DNA damage. Additionally in vivo phosphorylation sites identified via through-put methods are also affected by VUS and are attractive targets for studying their biological and functional significance. We propose that rare VUS affecting phosphorylation may be a novel and important mechanism for which BRCA1 and BRCA2 functions are disrupted in breast cancer.
Project description:Hereditary mutations in BRCA1/2 genes increase the risk of breast cancer by 60-80% and ovarian cancer by about 20-40% in female carriers. Detection of inherited mutations in asymptomatic carriers allows for the implementation of appropriate preventive measures. BRCA1/2 genotyping is also important for poly(adenosine diphosphate)-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor administration. This work addresses the need for next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology for the detection of BRCA1/2 mutations in Poland where until recently mostly founder mutations have been tested, and whether BRCA diagnostics should be extended beyond the panel of founder mutations in this population. The study comprises 2931 patients who were referred for genetic counseling and tested for founder and recurrent mutations in BRCA1 (5382insC (c.5266dupC; p.Gln1756Profs), c.5370C>T (c.5251C>T; p.R1751*), 300T>G (c.181T>G; p.Cys61Gly), 185delAG (c.68_69delAG; p.Glu23Valfs), and 4153delA (c.4035delA; p.Glu1346Lysfs)) by high-resolution melting/Sanger sequencing. A total of 103 (3.5%) mutations were detected, including 53 (51%) in healthy subjects and 50 (49%) in cancer patients. Then, based on more stringent clinical and pedigree criteria, sequencing of all BRCA1/2 exons was performed in 454 (16%) patients without founder mutations by NGS, which detected 58 mutations (12.8%), 40 (8.8%) of which were pathogenic. In 14 (3.1%) subjects, variants of uncertain significance (VUS) were detected, and in four (0.9%) subjects, the detected mutations were benign. In total, 161 mutations were detected using our two-step algorithm (founder test and NGS), of which 64% were founder mutations, 25% were NGS-detected pathogenic mutations, 9% were VUS, and 2% were benign. In addition, 38 mutations not yet reported in the Polish population were detected. In total, founder mutations accounted for only 64% of all detected mutations, and the remaining mutations (36%) were dispersed across the BRCA1/2 gene sequences. Thus, in Poland, testing for constitutional mutations in BRCA1/2 should be carried out in two stages, where NGS is performed in qualifying subjects if founder mutations are not identified.
Project description:PURPOSE:Guidelines for variant interpretation incorporate variant hotspots in critical functional domains as evidence for pathogenicity (e.g., PM1 and PP2), but do not use "coldspots," that is, regions without essential functions that tolerate variation, as evidence a variant is benign. To improve variant classification we evaluated BRCA1 and BRCA2 missense variants reported in ClinVar to identify regions where pathogenic missenses are extremely infrequent, defined as coldspots. METHODS:We used Bayesian approaches to model variant classification in these regions. RESULTS:BRCA1 exon 11 (~60% of the coding sequence), and BRCA2 exons 10 and 11 (~65% of the coding sequence), are coldspots. Of 89 pathogenic (P) or likely pathogenic (LP) missense variants in BRCA1, none are in exon 11 (odds <0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0-0.01). Of 34?P or LP missense variants in BRCA2, none are in exons 10-11 (odds <0.01, 95% CI 0.0-0.01). More than half of reported missense variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are in coldspots (3115/5301?=?58.8%). Reclassifying these 3115 VUS as likely benign would substantially improve variant classification. CONCLUSION:In BRCA1 and BRCA2 coldspots, missense variants are very unlikely to be pathogenic. Classification schemes that incorporate coldspots can reduce the number of VUS and mitigate risks from reporting benign variation as VUS.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We investigated the proportions of and reclassified BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS) in Korean patients with epithelial ovarian, tubal, and primary peritoneal cancers. METHODS:Data from 805 patients who underwent genetic testing for BRCA1/2 from January 1, 2006 to August 31, 2018 were included. The VUS in BRCA1/2 were reclassified using the 2015 American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology standards and guidelines. RESULTS:A BRCA1 pathogenic variant was found in 17.0% (137/805) of the patients, and BRCA1 VUS were found in 15.9% (128/805) of the patients. Further, 8.7% (69/805) of the patients possessed a BRCA2 pathogenic variant and 18.4% (148/805) of the patients possessed BRCA2 VUS. Fifty-three specific BRCA1 VUS were found and 20 were further reclassified as benign (n=11), likely benign (n=5), likely pathogenic (n=3), and pathogenic (n=1). The remaining 33 remained classified as VUS. For BRCA2, 55 specific VUS were detected; among these, 14 were reclassified as benign or likely benign, and 2 were reclassified as likely pathogenic. Among the 805 patients, 195 were found to have only VUS and no pathogenic variants (PV), and 41.5% (81/195) were reclassified as benign or likely benign, and 10.3% (20/195) as pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. CONCLUSIONS:Approximately 33.3% (36/108) of the specific BRCA1/2 variants analyzed in this study that were initially classified as VUS over a 13-year period were reclassified. Among these, 5.6% (6/108) were reclassified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Inactivating germline mutations in the tumour suppressor gene BRCA1 are associated with a significantly increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer. A large number (>1500) of unique BRCA1 variants have been identified in the population and can be classified as pathogenic, non-pathogenic or as variants of unknown significance (VUS). Many VUS are rare missense variants leading to single amino acid changes. Their impact on protein function cannot be directly inferred from sequence information, precluding assessment of their pathogenicity. Thus, functional assays are critical to assess the impact of these VUS on protein activity. BRCA1 is a multifunctional protein and different assays have been used to assess the impact of variants on different biochemical activities and biological processes. METHODS AND RESULTS:To facilitate VUS analysis, we have developed a visualisation resource that compiles and displays functional data on all documented BRCA1 missense variants. BRCA1 Circos is a web-based visualisation tool based on the freely available Circos software package. The BRCA1 Circos web tool (http://research.nhgri.nih.gov/bic/circos/) aggregates data from all published BRCA1 missense variants for functional studies, harmonises their results and presents various functionalities to search and interpret individual-level functional information for each BRCA1 missense variant. CONCLUSIONS:This research visualisation tool will serve as a quick one-stop publically available reference for all the BRCA1 missense variants that have been functionally assessed. It will facilitate meta-analysis of functional data and improve assessment of pathogenicity of VUS.
Project description:Many variants of uncertain significance (VUS) have been identified in BRCA2 through clinical genetic testing. VUS pose a significant clinical challenge because the contribution of these variants to cancer risk has not been determined. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of VUS in the BRCA2 C-terminal DNA binding domain (DBD) by using a validated functional assay of BRCA2 homologous recombination (HR) DNA-repair activity and defined a classifier of variant pathogenicity. Among 139 variants evaluated, 54 had ?99% probability of pathogenicity, and 73 had ?95% probability of neutrality. Functional assay results were compared with predictions of variant pathogenicity from the Align-GVGD protein-sequence-based prediction algorithm, which has been used for variant classification. Relative to the HR assay, Align-GVGD significantly (p < 0.05) over-predicted pathogenic variants. We subsequently combined functional and Align-GVGD prediction results in a Bayesian hierarchical model (VarCall) to estimate the overall probability of pathogenicity for each VUS. In addition, to predict the effects of all other BRCA2 DBD variants and to prioritize variants for functional studies, we used the endoPhenotype-Optimized Sequence Ensemble (ePOSE) algorithm to train classifiers for BRCA2 variants by using data from the HR functional assay. Together, the results show that systematic functional assays in combination with in silico predictors of pathogenicity provide robust tools for clinical annotation of BRCA2 VUS.
Project description:Objective:BRCA mutational status is important in the management of ovarian cancer, but there is a lack of evidence supporting genetic testing in Asian populations. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence and prognostic outcomes of BRCA1/2 mutation and variant of unknown significance (VUS) in Korean patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods:Among patients newly diagnosed with EOC between January 2007 and January 2017, those tested for germline BRCA1/2 mutation were studied, regardless of family history. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were compared between the patients with and without BRCA1/2 mutation and VUS. Results:A total of 313 patients underwent BRCA testing: 88 patients had a BRCA1/2 mutation and 48 patients had a BRCA1/2 VUS (28.1% and 15.3%, respectively). There were no significant associations between BRCA1/2 mutation, BRCA1/2 wild-type, or BRCA1/2 VUS with age at diagnosis, histologic distribution, or residual disease status after primary cytoreductive surgery. BRCA1 mutation, including BRCA1 VUS, showed no difference in PFS or OS compared to BRCA1 wild-type. In contrast, BRCA2 mutation showed longer PFS than that of BRCA2 wild-type (P=0.04) or BRCA2 VUS (P=0.02). BRCA2 mutation, including BRCA2 VUS, did not show any difference in OS compared to BRCA2 wild-type. Conclusion:BRCA mutation and BRCA VUS had similar clinical characteristics and survival outcomes, except that BRCA2 mutation showed better PFS. The results of this study will help to understand the prognostic significance of BRCA mutation and VUS in Korean patients.
Project description:Genetic testing for hereditary cancer syndromes contributes to the medical management of patients who may be at increased risk of one or more cancers. BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer is one such widely used test. However, clinical testing methods with high sensitivity for deleterious mutations in these genes also detect many unclassified variants, primarily missense substitutions.We developed an extension of the Grantham difference, called A-GVGD, to score missense substitutions against the range of variation present at their position in a multiple sequence alignment. Combining two methods, co-occurrence of unclassified variants with clearly deleterious mutations and A-GVGD, we analysed most of the missense substitutions observed in BRCA1.A-GVGD was able to resolve known neutral and deleterious missense substitutions into distinct sets. Additionally, eight previously unclassified BRCA1 missense substitutions observed in trans with one or more deleterious mutations, and within the cross-species range of variation observed at their position in the protein, are now classified as neutral.The methods combined here can classify as neutral about 50% of missense substitutions that have been observed with two or more clearly deleterious mutations. Furthermore, odds ratios estimated for sets of substitutions grouped by A-GVGD scores are consistent with the hypothesis that most unclassified substitutions that are within the cross-species range of variation at their position in BRCA1 are also neutral. For most of these, clinical reclassification will require integrated application of other methods such as pooled family histories, segregation analysis, or validated functional assay.
Project description:Testing for variation in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (commonly referred to as BRCA1/2), has emerged as a standard clinical practice and is helping countless women better understand and manage their heritable risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Yet the increased rate of BRCA1/2 testing has led to an increasing number of Variants of Uncertain Significance (VUS), and the rate of VUS discovery currently outpaces the rate of clinical variant interpretation. Computational prediction is a key component of the variant interpretation pipeline. In the CAGI5 ENIGMA Challenge, six prediction teams submitted predictions on 326 newly-interpreted variants from the ENIGMA Consortium. By evaluating these predictions against the new interpretations, we have gained a number of insights on the state of the art of variant prediction and specific steps to further advance this state of the art.
Project description:Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 confer an estimated lifetime risk of 56-80% for breast cancer and 15-60% for ovarian cancer. Since the mid 1990s when BRCA1 was identified, genetic testing has revealed over 1,500 unique germline variants. However, for a significant number of these variants, the effect on protein function is unknown making it difficult to infer the consequences on risks of breast and ovarian cancers. Thus, many individuals undergoing genetic testing for BRCA1 mutations receive test results reporting a variant of uncertain clinical significance (VUS), leading to issues in risk assessment, counseling, and preventive care. Here, we describe functional assays for BRCA1 to directly or indirectly assess the impact of a variant on protein conformation or function and how these results can be used to complement genetic data to classify a VUS as to its clinical significance. Importantly, these methods may provide a framework for genome-wide pathogenicity assignment.