Multiple receptor tyrosine kinases converge on microRNA-134 to control KRAS, STAT5B, and glioblastoma.
ABSTRACT: Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are co-deregulated in a majority of glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and most deadly brain tumor. We show that the RTKs MET, EGFR, and PDGFR regulate microRNA-134 (miR-134) in GBM. We find that miR-134 is downregulated in human tumors and cancer stem cells and that its expression inversely correlates with the activation of MET, EGFR, and PDGFR. We demonstrate that miR-134 inhibits cancer cell and stem-cell proliferation, survival, and xenograft growth, as well as cancer stem-cell self-renewal and stemness. We identify KRAS and STAT5B as targets of miR-134, and establish molecular and functional links between RTKs, miR-134, KRAS/STAT5B and malignancy in vitro and in vivo. We show that miR-134 induction is required for the anti-tumor effects of RTK inhibitors. We also uncover the molecular pathways through which RTKs regulate miR-134 expression and demonstrate the involvement of MAPK signaling and the KLF4 transcription factor. We therefore identify miR-134 as a novel RTK-regulated tumor-suppressive hub that mediates RTK and RTK-inhibitor effects on GBM malignancy by controlling KRAS and STAT5B.
Project description:Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling promotes the growth and progression of glioblastoma (GBM), a highly aggressive type of brain tumor. We previously reported that decreased miR-218 expression in GBM directly promotes RTK activity by increasing the expression of key RTKs and their signaling mediators, including the RTK epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), phospholipase C-?1 (PLC?1), and the kinases PIK3CA and ARAF. However, increased RTK signaling usually activates negative feedback mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. We found that decreased miR-218 expression in GBM cells also increased the expression of genes encoding additional upstream and downstream components of RTK signaling pathways, including the RTK platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? (PDGFR?) and the kinases ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) and S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), that collectively overrode the negative feedback mechanism. Furthermore, increased RTK signaling itself suppressed miR-218 expression. Mass spectrometry and DNA pull-down identified binding of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) along with the transcriptional repressor BCL2-associated transcription factor 1 (BCLAF1) directly to the miR-218 locus. These data identify previously unknown feedback loops by which miR-218 repression promotes increased RTK signaling in high-grade gliomas.
Project description:Multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including PDGFR, have been validated as therapeutic targets in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), yet inhibitors of RTKs have had limited clinical success. As various antiapoptotic mechanisms render GBM cells resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy, we hypothesized that these antiapoptotic mechanisms also confer resistance to RTK inhibition. We found that in vitro inhibition of PDGFR in human GBM cells initiated the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, as evidenced by mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, but downstream caspase activation was blocked by inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). Consistent with this, inhibition of PDGFR combined with small molecule inactivation of IAPs induced apoptosis in human GBM cells in vitro and had synergistic antitumor effects in orthotopic mouse models of GBM and in primary human GBM neurospheres. These results demonstrate that concomitant inhibition of IAPs can overcome resistance to RTK inhibitors in human malignant GBM cells, and suggest that blockade of IAPs has the potential to improve treatment outcomes in patients with GBM.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is distinguished by a high degree of intratumoral heterogeneity, which extends to the pattern of expression and amplification of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Although most GBMs harbor RTK amplifications, clinical trials of small-molecule inhibitors targeting individual RTKs have been disappointing to date. Activation of multiple RTKs within individual GBMs provides a theoretical mechanism of resistance; however, the spectrum of functional RTK dependence among tumor cell subpopulations in actual tumors is unknown. We investigated the pattern of heterogeneity of RTK amplification and functional RTK dependence in GBM tumor cell subpopulations. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas GBM dataset identified 34 of 463 cases showing independent focal amplification of two or more RTKs, most commonly platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? (PDGFRA) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on eight samples with EGFR and PDGFRA amplification, revealing distinct tumor cell subpopulations amplified for only one RTK; in all cases these predominated over cells amplified for both. Cell lines derived from coamplified tumors exhibited genotype selection under RTK-targeted ligand stimulation or pharmacologic inhibition in vitro. Simultaneous inhibition of both EGFR and PDGFR was necessary for abrogation of PI3 kinase pathway activity in the mixed population. DNA sequencing of isolated subpopulations establishes a common clonal origin consistent with late or ongoing divergence of RTK genotype. This phenomenon is especially common among tumors with PDGFRA amplification: overall, 43% of PDGFRA-amplified GBM were found to have amplification of EGFR or the hepatocyte growth factor receptor gene (MET) as well.
Project description:Glioma, the most prevalent malignancy in brain, is classified into four grades (I, II, III, and IV), and grade IV glioma is also known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Aberrant activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), are frequently observed in glioma. Accumulating evidence suggests that PDGFR plays critical roles during glioma development and progression and is a promising drug target for GBM therapy. However, PDGFR inhibitor (PDGFRi) has failed in clinical trials, at least partially, due to the activation of other RTKs, which compensates for PDGFR inhibition and renders tumor cells resistance to PDGFRi. Therefore, identifying the RTKs responsible for PDGFRi resistance might provide new therapeutic targets to synergetically enhance the efficacy of PDGFRi. In this study, we analyzed the TCGA glioma database and found that the mRNA expressions of three RTKs, i.e. ERBB3, IGF1R, and TGFBR2, were positively correlated with that of PDGFR. Co-immunoprecipitation assay indicated novel interactions between the three RTKs and PDGFR in GBM cells. Moreover, concurrent expression of PDGFR with ERBB3, IGF1R, or TGFBR2 in GBM cells attenuated the toxicity of PDGFRi and maintained the activation of PDGFR downstream targets under the existence of PDGFRi. Thus, ERBB3, IGF1R, and TGFBR2 might participate in PDGFRi resistance of GBM cells. Consistent with this notion, combination of PDGFRi with inhibitor targeting either ERBB3 or IGF1R more potently suppressed the growth of GBM cells than each inhibitor alone. The positive correlations of PDGFR with ERBB3, IGF1R, and TGFBR2 were further confirmed in 66 GBM patient samples. Intriguingly, survival analysis showed that ERBB3 predicted poor prognosis in GBM patients with high PDGFRA expression. Altogether, our work herein suggested that ERBB3, IGF1R, and TGFBR2 were responsible for PDGFRi resistance and revealed that ERBB3 acted as potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for GBM with high PDGFRA expression.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate of all gynecologic malignancy. The receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including EGFR, ERBB2, PDGFR, VEGFR and MET, are activated in subsets of ovarian cancer, suggesting that these kinases might represent novel therapeutic targets. However, clinical trials have not or just partially shown benefit to ovarian cancers treated with EGFR, ERBB2, or PDGFR inhibitors. Despite multiple RTK activation in ovarian cancer pathogenesis, it is unclear whether transforming activity is dependent on an individual kinase oncoprotein or the coordinated activity of multiple kinases. We hypothesized that a coordinated network of multi-RTK activation is important for the tumorigenesis of ovarian cancers. RESULTS: Herein, we demonstrate co-activation of multiple RTKs (EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB4, MET and/or AXL) in individual ovarian cancer cell lines and primary tumors. We also show that coordinate inhibition of this multi-kinase signaling has substantially greater effect on ovarian cancer proliferation and survival, compared to inhibition of individual activated kinases. The inhibition of this multi-RTK signaling by HSP90 suppression results in profound pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects, and is associated with the inactivation of RTK downstream PI3-K/AKT/mTOR and RAF/MAPK signaling. CONCLUSION: These studies suggest that anti-multiple RTK strategy could be useful in the treatment of ovarian cancer.
Project description:AbstractBackgroundTargeted approaches for inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and other receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in glioblastoma (GBM) have led to therapeutic resistance and little clinical benefit, raising the need for the development of alternative strategies. Endogenous LRIG1 (Leucine-rich Repeats and ImmunoGlobulin-like domains protein 1) is an RTK inhibitory protein required for stem cell maintenance, and we previously demonstrated the soluble ectodomain of LRIG1 (sLRIG1) to potently inhibit GBM growth in vitro and in vivo.MethodsHere, we generated a recombinant protein of the ectodomain of LRIG1 (sLRIG1) and determined its activity in various cellular GBM models including patient-derived stem-like cells and patient organoids. We used proliferation, adhesion, and invasion assays, and performed gene and protein expression studies. Proximity ligation assay and NanoBiT complementation technology were applied to assess protein–protein interactions.ResultsWe show that recombinant sLRIG1 downregulates EGFRvIII but not EGFR, and reduces proliferation in GBM cells, irrespective of their EGFR expression status. We find that sLRIG1 targets and downregulates a wide range of RTKs, including AXL, and alters GBM cell adhesion. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that LRIG1 interferes with AXL but not with EGFR dimerization.ConclusionsThese results identify AXL as a novel sLRIG1 target and show that LRIG1-mediated RTK downregulation depends on direct protein interaction. The pan-RTK inhibitory activity of sLRIG1 warrants further investigation for new GBM treatment approaches.
Project description:Glioblastoma is dependent on a specific signaling pathway to maintain its tumor phenotype. The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family mediates the multiple oncogenic growth factor receptor signaling and contributes to the pathogenesis of glioblastoma. Recently, many studies have shown that the expression of stem cell marker in glioblastoma tissue has prognostic significance, which indicates that the quantification of stem cell markers and RTK genes yields biological information about glioblastoma. In this study, we quantified RNA expression levels of stem cell markers [CD133, Nestin, BMI-1, maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK), and Notch1-4] as well as RTKs (EGFR, ErbB4, VEGFR1-3, FGFR1, -2, PDGFR?, and PDGFR?) in 42 clinical samples of glioblastoma by the real-time RT-PCR method. We demonstrated that the expression of MELK is exclusively upregulated in glioblastoma tissue. Notch receptor expression is moderately upregulated and is correlated with that of VEGFR2, VEGFR3, and PDGFR?. Unsupervised clustering identified one unique sample group that showed high expression of most of the genes analyzed. Our results suggest that quantification of these stem cell markers and RTK genes can stratify patients based on the expression profile, which might provide insight into the glioma biology in each cluster.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play critical roles in the development of cancers. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) accounts for 75% of the RCC. The previous studies on the RTKs in ccRCCs mainly focused on their gene expressions. The activation and function of the RTKs in ccRCC have not been fully investigated. METHODS:In the present study, we analyzed the phosphorylation patterns of RTKs in human ccRCC patient samples, human ccRCC and papillary RCC cell lines, and other kidney tumor samples using human phospho-RTK arrays. We further established ccRCC patient-derived xenograft models in nude mice and assessed the effects of RTKIs (RTK Inhibitors) on the growth of these cancer cells. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the localization of keratin, vimentin and PDGFR? in ccRCCs. RESULTS:We found that the RTK phosphorylation patterns of the ccRCC samples were all very similar, but different from that of the cell lines, other kidney tumor samples, as well as the adjacent normal tissues. 9 RTKs, EGFR1-3, Insulin R, PDGFR?, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, HGFR and M-CSFR were found to be phosphorylated in the ccRCC samples. The adjacent normal tissues, on the other hand, had predominantly only two of the 4 EGFR family members, EGFR and ErbB4, phosphorylated. What's more, the RTK phosphorylation pattern of the xenograft, however, was different from that of the primary tissue samples. Treatment of the xenograft nude mice with corresponding RTK inhibitors effectively inhibited the Erk1/2 signaling pathway as well as the growth of the tumors. In addition, histological staining of the cancer samples revealed that most of the PDGFR? expressing cells were localized in the vimentin-positive periepithelial stroma. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, we have identified a set of RTKs that are characteristically phosphorylated in ccRCCs. The phosphorylation of RTKs in ccRCCs were determined by the growing environments. These phosphorylated/activated RTKs will guide targeting drugs development of more effective therapies in ccRCCs. The synergistical inhibition of RTKIs combination on the ccRCC suggest a novel strategy to use a combination of RTKIs to treat ccRCCs.
Project description:Dysregulation of tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK) signaling pathways play important roles in glioblastoma (GBM). However, therapies targeting these signaling pathways have not been successful, partially because of drug resistance. Increasing evidence suggests that tumor heterogeneity, more specifically, GBM-associated stem and endothelial cell heterogeneity, may contribute to drug resistance. In this perspective article, we introduce a high-throughput, quantitative approach to profile plasma membrane RTKs on single cells. First, we review the roles of RTKs in cancer. Then, we discuss the sources of cell heterogeneity in GBM, providing context to the key cells directing resistance to drugs. Finally, we present our provisionally patented qFlow cytometry approach, and report results of a "proof of concept" patient-derived xenograft GBM study.
Project description:Since the advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors as targeted therapies in cancer, several receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) have been identified as operationally important for disease progression. Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a malignancy in need of new treatment options; therefore, better understanding of the heterogeneity of RTKs would advance this goal. Here, alveolar RMS (aRMS) tumor cells derived from a transgenic mouse model expressing two such RTKs, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFR)? and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1R, were investigated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Sorted subpopulations that were positive or negative for PDGFR? and IGF-1R dynamically altered their cell surface RTK expression profiles as early as the first cell division. Interestingly, a difference in total PDGFR? expression and nuclear IGF-1R expression was conserved in populations. Nuclear IGF-1R expression was greater than cytoplasmic IGF-1R in cells with initially high cell surface IGF-1R, and cells with high nuclear IGF-1R established tumors more efficiently in vivo. RNA interference-mediated silencing of IGF-1R in the subpopulation of cells initially harboring higher cell surface and total IGF-1R resulted in significantly reduced anchorage-independent colony formation as compared with cells with initially lower cell surface and total IGF-1R expression. Finally, in accordance with the findings observed in murine aRMS, human aRMS also had robust expression of nuclear IGF-1R.RTK expression status and subcellular localization dynamics are important considerations for personalized medicine.